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  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Health‐related Research Ethics and Social Value: Antibiotic Resistance Intervention Research and Pragmatic Risks
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Bioethics. - 0269-9702 .- 1467-8519. ; 33:3, s. 335-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider the implications for the ethical evaluation of research programs of two fundamental changes in the revised research ethical guideline of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. The first is the extension of scope that follows from exchanging "biomedical" for "health-related" research, and the second is the new evaluative basis of "social value," which implies new ethical requirements of research. We use the example of antibiotic resistance interventions to explore the need to consider the instances of what we term the pragmatic risks of such interventions to evaluate the social value of certain kinds of health-related research. These (pragmatic) risks severely threaten the social value of interventions in every area where human and social responses significantly impact on their effectiveness. Thus, the social value of health-related research needed to demonstrate its effectiveness depends on the extent and successful management of such risks. Research designed to take into account the management of pragmatic risks also gives rise to similar types of risks, and the potential for social value in light of those risks needs to be considered in ethical reviews based on the new guidelines. We argue that, to handle this new expanded task, the international system of research ethical review addressed by the guidelines needs institutional development.
  • Jarebrant, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Development of a tool for integrating Value Stream Mapping and ergonomics in healthcare - A Nordic Multicenter study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The 7th Nordic Working Life Conference. Book of Abstracts and Programme. - 978-91-981195-5-8 ; s. 123-124
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: To present the most recent draft Nordic version of the ErgoVSM tool for healthcare and some contextual factors influencing the intended impact of the tool.Material and Methods: The ErgoVSM tool is tested at 7 wards on 4 different hospitals in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. The tests include assessment of tool usability and main factors facilitating or inhibiting the intended impact of the tool. On the basis of these trials a final version of the ErgoVSM is developed. The ErgoVSM tool: According to common VSM procedure the Current State is mapped (visualized) followed by a similar procedure regarding a wanted Future State. The Ergo-module includes assessments of physical exposures (posture, forces, variation, porosity) andpsychosocial exposures (demands, control, variation, communication,porosity). It focuses task as well as values stream level. The exposuresare assessed by ratings scales with verbally defined end points. Theanalysis includes discussion of solutions and establishment of an Action Plan needed to realize the wanted Future State.Main contextual factors influencing the intended impact of the tool seem to be previous Lean experience, management style, volume of competing projects and type of value stream analysed.
  • de Fine Licht, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Testing Interventions for Drastic Public Health Threats: "Social Value”, Pragmatic Risks and the Challenge of ”Health-related Research” Ethics – The Case of drug Resistance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Matariki Research Ethics Workshop, Bader International Study Center, Herstmonceux Castle, East Sussex, UK, August 14-17, 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The recently revised CIOMS guidelines radically broaden both that scope of the guidelines from medical to all kinds of health research), and the basis on which such research may be assessed ethically, not least what is called ”social value” of research. This makes these guidelines less on a par with the WMA’s Declaration of Helsinki principles for biomedical research, e.g. with regard to what kind of benefits may justify risks to research subjects and others, and ethical requirements regarding the management of such risks. While DoH still mostly expresses an orthodox individualist research ethical perspective of a sort that has enjoys traditional support in bioethics, but has attracted some criticism from a public health ethical perspective, the new CIOMS guidelines seem to open up for more consideration of collective, institutional and public goods, and possibility of having these traded off against risks to individuals. This paper uses interventions meant to prevent or mitigate problems due to antibiotic resistance as a case in point, to discuss how a sound research ethical regulation should position itself with regard to research regarding health interventions of great importance for (global) public health. A particular focus will be the balancing of individual and collective goods/bads in face of threats of having core institutions and central public goods undermined.
  • Eriksson, Kerstin (författare)
  • Framework for crisis planning: Four required areas for developing a learning process
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Emergency Management. - 1543-5865. ; 13:6, s. 519-531
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To outline a framework for preparedness planning at the organizational level.The study is based on a content analysis of research literature as well as an analysis of interviews with six preparedness planners working in Swedish local authorities.The study setting included Swedish local authorities of different sizes.The participants are preparedness planners responsible for coordinating crisis management work in Swedish local authorities. The study includes preparedness planners with different backgrounds, education, experiences, and gender.A presentation of 19 factors of preparedness planning identified in the literature and a discussion around how preparedness planners perceive those factors.The main outcome measures are knowledge about how both researcher and practitioner understand and argue around different factors of preparedness planning.The result of this study is a framework for preparedness planning. As preparedness planning ought to be a learning process, the presented framework builds on four areas connected to learning: prerequisites for preparedness planning, who should be involved, what is to be learned, and how should the work be shaped.The analysis of factors identified in the literature and also in the interviews with preparedness planners illustrates that the four areas connected to learning are required for developing a preparedness planning process.
  • Guldåker, Nicklas, et al. (författare)
  • Preventing and Preparing for Disasters – The Role of a Swedish Local Emergent Citizen Group
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. - International Research Committee on Disasters, IRCD. - 0280-7270. ; 33:3, s. 360-387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disasters such as the storms that affected Sweden in 2005 and 2007 showed that citizens initially conducted a large part of the disaster response, such as clearing roads, giving psychosocial support to affected neighbours and repairing power lines in collaboration with power companies. As a result of these storms, an Emergent Citizen Group (ECG) was established in a village which continued to work on risk prevention, even after the event. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse this local emergent citizen group’s continuing work on the prevention of local risk and vulnerability, and particularly, their work on flood prevention. The results indicate that authorities seldom understand the ECG’s concerns about risks. Authorities also lack the experience and capacity to collaborate with, and support, the ECG’s risk and vulnerability reduction work. Bureaucratic barriers and declining motivation among volunteers within the ECGs could undermine commitment to the prevention of risks.
  • Gustavsson, Mathias, et al. (författare)
  • Stommens biogasanläggning 25 års erfarenheter från drift av biogasanläggning
  • 2004
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna rapport syftar till att sammanfatta drifterfarenheterna från Stommens biogasanläggning. Om man önskar gå djupare ned i någon av detaljerna kring anläggningen så finns originalrapporter som behandlar bland annat byggnationen inklusive tekniska specifikationer samt laborationsförsök, motorförsök och drifterfarenheter de första tio åren tillgängliga på Internet: http://www.bioquest.se/ Nils Liljerups entusiasm rörande sin biogasanläggning och hans intresse att försöka dra erfarenheter från driften har möjliggjort denna studie. Dels har han villigt delat med sig av det material som han samlat in i alla år, dels har han tagit sig tid att sitta ned och prata om hur anläggningen fungerat. I och med att åren gått har även sonen Erik deltagit i driften av anläggningen. Nils fru Kerstin skall heller inte glömmas bort, hon har levt mitt i alla experiment, problem och succéer genom åren. De är de sanna experterna på biogas – stort tack för all hjälp!
  • Habibi, Shiva, et al. (författare)
  • Success and Usage Pattern of Free-Floating Carsharing Services in Cities
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: TRB Annual meeting 2018.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered as a more flexible mobility solution than other car sharing services. FFCS users can pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area in a city.The objective of this paper is to identify similar usage patterns of FFCS in different cities as well as city characteristics that make these services a viable option. The authors have access to real booking data for 32 cities in Europe and North America. Their study shows the share of daily car trips is negatively correlated to the utilization rate of these services. Also, the higher the congestion and the harder finding a parking lot, the lower the utilization rate of these services is in the cities. Moreover, our results suggest that FFCS services do not compete with public transport but are rather used in combination to it. These services are mainly used during midday and evening peak and the trips taken by these services are mainly chained trips.The clustering analysis shows that the trips are grouped into two or three clusters in different cities. The majority of clusters are the inner city clusters which contain a significantly higher number of trips than the clusters around other points of interest such as airports. © Conference Compass and Transportation Research Board
  • Lin, Lexin (författare)
  • Integrating a national risk assessment into a disaster risk management system : Process and practice
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. - Elsevier. - 2212-4209. ; 27, s. 625-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The national risk assessment (NRA) has recently become a very important component in a country's disaster risk management (DRM) system. The NRA aims to identify threats and hazards that could affect the entire country, and assess their potential likelihood and impacts from a national perspective. Compared to other DRM activities, NRA work is comparatively new, and is often a response to an external demand. For instance, in the European Union (EU), most member states initiated their NRA process in response to a EU directive. This article investigates how the requirement to conduct a NRA has influenced an existing DRM system, taking the case of Sweden as a study case. Specifically, it examines how the NRA process has been integrated into the multi-stakeholder, multi-level, bottom-up Swedish DRM system. Empirical data were collected through 21 semi-structured interviews with representatives from 13 national authorities, supplemented by Swedish and EU documentation. The results were analyzed following the ISO 31000 risk assessment process. The findings provide an indication of how NRA work has been integrated into ongoing DRM activities, and the level of integration. The results also indicate the extent of stakeholder involvement in the NRA process, the quality of DRM information communication among stakeholders, how the NRA has been implemented in the Swedish context, and the potential to expand the NRA worldwide.
  • Lundin, Johan, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative learning in mobile work
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. ; 19:3, s. 273-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Moving towards more communication intensive organisations, where work tends to be mobile, understanding how to support learning in such work becomes increasingly important. This paper reports on a study of a customer relations team, where work is performed co-located, distributed as well as mobile. Collaborative learning within in this team is explored so as to inform the design of IT support. In the results four instances of collaborative learning important in the studied team were identified: walking into collaborative learning, travelling to meetings, articulating practice and sharing without articulating. These issues are discussed and how they affect the design of collaborative learning activities for mobile knowledge workers.
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