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  • Asplund Carlsson, Maj, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • Från görande till lärande och förståelse. En studie av lärares lärande inom estetik
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nordisk Barnehageforskning. - 1890-9167. ; 1:1, s. 41-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this article is to analyze teachers’ changing ways of talking about children’s aesthetic learning in the early years as a result of a research and development project. With a point of departure in developmental and variation theory, a praxis oriented project was designed with the aim of finding out whether collaborative talk and meta-cognitive dialogues could contribute to children’s learning of music, dance and poetry. The participating teachers were offered in-service training in order to develop a new way of teaching and new ways of thinking about the curriculum and children’s learning. Interviews with the teachers were carried out at the beginning and the end of the project. The teachers’ learning was expressed in changed ways of talking about aesthetics and learning. From an emphasis on personality development and the teacher’s lack of expertise with the aesthetic subjects as an obstacle, the teachers expressed a view of having become more aware of the concept of learning objects in the aesthetics, of their own role as teachers in directing children’s attention and to listen to children. The teachers thus gained a new way of talking about themselves as teachers and about children’s learning within music, dance and poetry.
  • Asplund Carlsson, Maj, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • The Dog's Tale. Chinese, Hungarien and Swedish children's narrative conventions
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Early Years Education. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to explore children's (6-7 years) making up of their own stories in different cultures (China, Hungary and Sweden). Ninety-three children were asked individually to tell a story about a dog. They were supposed to invent the story themselves. Qualitative differences in children's life worlds, which could be related to their cultural backgrounds, stood out in the results. The characters used in the children's stories could be summarised in terms of family members, ordinary humans, unusual persons, harmless animals, dangerous creatures, and fantastic characters. The most characteristic events were: play and co-operation, conflicts and fights, death, and exchange of commodities. The Chinese children focused mainly on play and co-operation, while the Hungarian children focused on conflicts and the exchange of commodities. The Swedish children focused on play and death. The results are discussed in relation to traditions and practices of retelling and telling of stories and children's life worlds in different cultures.
  • Barns tidiga lärande : en tvärsnittsstudie om förskolan som miljö för barns lärande
  • 2009
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main aim of preschool is to promote children’s learning, implying that its quality is an important aspect to study. However, despite a long preschool tradition and a preschool system that is nearing completion, we have limited knowledge of the effect of preschool on children’s learning and knowledge formation. The overall aim of the study, Children’s early learning, is to gain knowledge of the characteristics of preschool as a learning environment by studying various preschool environments and the impact they have on children’s knowledge formation/experiences of different aspects of communication, mathematics and interplay. Questions at issue are: How does children’s knowledge formation emerge in relation to specific content areas in different preschool contexts? What quality aspects emerge as important for children’s learning in different preschool contexts according to the teachers and parents? How are these different quality aspects constituted and related to one another? A case study of bilingual children has also been conducted within the project. It is based on the question: What communicative patterns emerge in interplay among young children who have Swedish as their second language? The complexity of preschool, as a learning context, can only be grasped by adopting several research approaches, and examining it from diverse perspectives and dimensions. Therefore, the study is based on two theoretical perspectives: interactionistic theory (Ball, 2006; Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1986; Bruner, 1996) and variation theory (Marton & Booth, 2000). The study is also based on a pedagogical perspective of quality (Sheridan, 2001, 2009). The study was conducted in Gothenburg. A stratified sample of eight districts was chosen in order to represent diverse geographical areas and living conditions as well as ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. Within these districts a random sample of 38 preschools was selected. All the children aged 1 and 2 years (230) in these preschools, plus their parents and teachers (120) participated. The study has a cross-sectional design and is divided into eight different parts and content areas. The data production is both quantitative and qualitative. Given the theoretical framework of the study, there are few methods available to observe young children’s learning and development. Therefore, the development of methods to observe children’s knowledge related to mathematics, communication and interplay may be seen as important results of this study. The results highlight a variation in preschool quality and in the ways the teachers communicate with and approach the children. Three different learning environments of low, good and high quality emerged, showing that children do not have equal opportunities for learning in preschool. The learning environments are: Separating and limiting environments, Child-centred negotiating environments and Challenging learning environments. Teachers and parents see preschool mainly as a democratic and social arena, even though learning of mathematics and literacy are becoming important contents in preschool education. The individual child’s learning and development are primary concerns. Play is emphasised and learning is accepted as long as it is based on the initiative of the child and/or is a by-product of play. According to the teacher’s observations, the children seem to be involved in creative and reciprocal interactions, characterised by joy and interest. The preschool context seems to offer children various positions, which may be described as interactive observational, adaptive and driving. The results indicate that a significant change in knowing/learning occurs between the age of 1 and 3 years with regard to children’s ability to approach and handle different tasks related to mathematics and communication. The results show that this is an important time in children’s learning, and that much depends on the quality of the preschool. These findings should benefit research on early childhood education on both a national and international level.
  • Davis, J, et al. (författare)
  • Specific recommendations for Early Childhood Education
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Gothenburg Recommendations on Education for Sustainable Development, Adopted November 12. - Göteborg : Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg.
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Didaktiska studier från förskola och skola
  • 2008
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Idag ökar kraven på att förskolan ska vara en pedagogisk verksamhet. Förskollärare förväntas arbeta med att utveckla olika sorters förmågor och kunskaper hos små barn. Förskolan har också en läroplan med strävansmål som ska vägleda verksamheten. Hur kan lärare i förskolan, förskoleklassen och skolans först år arbeta målmedvetet pedagogiskt för att utveckla barns förståelse för olika aspekter av omvärlden? Hur utmanar och hjälper lärare barn att lära och hur svarar barnen på dessa utmaningar? I den här boken beskrivs en teori (variationsteori) om barns lärande, och en modell för hur man kan arbeta med att utveckla barns olika förmågor. Ett antal fallstudier beskriver hur lärare försöker utveckla barns kunnande inom en rad olika områden eller ”kunskapsämnen”: matematik, skrift, musik, fonetik, naturvetenskap och sociala förmågor. De möjligheter och svårigheter som lärare stöter på då de försöker arbeta systematisk och målinriktat med att utveckla små barns kunnande diskuteras.
  • Doverborg, Elisabet, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Apple Cutting and Creativity as a mathematical beginning
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Kindergarten Education: Theory, Research and Practice. ; 4:2, s. 87-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sweden has recently adopted a national curriculum for preschool (Utbildningsdepartementet, 1998a) and a revised curriculum for school (6-16 years of age) (Utbildningsdepartementet, 1998b). Both curricula have the same structure in form of goals, that is, what education is expected to contribute to the development of children. This means that Sweden has adopted the life-long-learning perspective, also seen in other countries' curricula (see e.g. New Zealand, Ministry of Education, 1998). In Sweden life-long-learning is a distinguished perspective focused on learning as such, but also as a means to a solid base of values and norms. In addition, the content in terms of qualities (or skills) and an understanding of different aspects of the surrounding world is a common thread woven througout the entire school system, although on different levels of complexity. This perspective on learning is based on the idea that "formation of knowledge is an internal relation between the child and the world around him/her” (Marton, 1994). This implies that every child's earlier experiences are used as a foundation for developing a broader and deeper understanding of the specific content dealt with in school-based education. The child's earlier experiences also guide how the child experiences the educational setting, the teacher's role, what is expected of him- or herself, how to accomplish specific tasks, how to interact socially, etc. Knowledge formation therefore is both content and context dependent and formed from clearly defined perspectives, values and the content of early childhood education, if it is to be benificial to the child's life-long-learning process (Pramling, 1990, 1994; Doverborg & Pramling, 1995; Doverborg & Pramling Samuelsson, 1999, manuscript). Implied in this perspective is how young children learn – by being active with their bodies and minds and through communication with peers and teachers. Children experience the world emotionally, socially and cognitively, simultaneously. Therefore the early years lay the critical foundation for the child's interests, for example in mathematics, the value of working in this area, ability to make sense of the topic, and the child's feeling of competence within this topic (Lundgren, 1979). Because of this, the system of education must learn from children and from what they seem to be most devoted to – and that is play – the child's individual realm to be scientifically explored (Pramling Samuelsson, 1999). The characteristics of play, such as joy, freedom, spontaneity, symbolism, communication, engagement and sociability, should be factors that also guide learning in early years. If these factors guide education the child's intention to create meaning from experiences result in confidence and learning opportunities. If this perspective to learning and knowledge formation is accepted, then play serves an important role both before and during school-based education. The goals specifically related to mathematics in the Swedish curriculum for 1–5-year olds states that "The preschool should try to ensure that children develop the ability to discover and use mathematics in meaningful contexts and situations, and develop their appreciation of the basic characteristics of the concept of numbers, measurement and form, as well as the ability to orient themselves in time and space" (Utbildningsdepartementet, 1998a, p. 12). The above perspective of learning and the goals described from the Swedish curriculum provide the bases for the study presented in this article, however, a more narrow description of the approach to learning adopted in the studied group follows in the next section.
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