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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Ekonomi och näringsliv) hsv:(Ekonomisk historia) "

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  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • Environmental crises and the metabolic rift in world-historical perspective
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Organization & environment. - 1086-0266 .- 1552-7417. ; 13:2, s. 123-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article proposes a new theoretical framework to study the dialectic of capital and nature over the longue durée of world capitalism. The author proposes that today’s global ecological crisis has its roots in the transition to capitalism during the long sixteenth century. The emergence of capitalism marked not only a decisive shift in the arenas of politics, economy, and society, but a fundamental reorganization of world ecology, characterized by a “metabolic rift,” a progressively deepening rupture in the nutrient cycling between the country and the city. Building upon the historical political economy of Marx, Foster, Arrighi, and Wallerstein, the author proposes a new research agenda organized around the concept of systemic cycles of agro-ecological transformation. This agenda aims at discerning the ways in which capitalism’s relationship to nature developed discontinuously over time as recurrent ecological crises have formed a decisive moment of world capitalist crisis, forcing successive waves of restructuring over long historical time.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • Nature and the transition from feudalism to capitalism
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Review: A Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center. - 0147-9032. ; 26:2, s. 97-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An epochal transformation of nature-society relations was inscribed in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. This article advances three central propositions. First, the origins of today’s global ecological crisis are found in the emergence of the capitalist world-economy in the “long” sixteenth century - not in industrialization, population growth, or market expansion, as the conventional wisdom would have it. Secondly, the crisis of feudalism was a general crisis not only of medieval Europe’s political economy, but in equal measure an expression of feudalism’s underlying ecological contradictions. Thirdly, the rise of capitalism effected a radical recomposition of world ecology. As early as the sixteenth century, we can see how the emergent logic of capital, which at once implies endless expansion and seeks to flatten socio-ecological diversity, undermined the possibilities for a sustainable relation between nature and society. Capitalism thus differed radically from feudalism and all other precapitalist formations. Where earlier ecological crises had been local, capitalism globalized them. From this standpoint, the origins of capitalism may shed light on today’s ecological crises.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • The end of the road? : agricultural revolutions in the capitalist World-ecology, 1450-2010
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agrarian Change. - : Wiley - Blackwell. - 1471-0358 .- 1471-0366. ; 10:3, s. 389-413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Does the present socio-ecological impasse – captured in popular discussions of the ‘end’ of cheap food and cheap oil – represent the latest in a long history of limits and crises that have been transcended by capital, or have we arrived at an epochal turning point in the relation of capital, capitalism and agricultural revolution? For the better part of six centuries, the relation between world capitalism and agriculture has been a remarkable one. Every great wave of capitalist development has been paved with ‘cheap’ food. Beginning in the long sixteenth century, capitalist agencies pioneered successive agricultural revolutions, yielding a series of extraordinary expansions of the food surplus. This paper engages the crisis of neoliberalism today, and asks: Is another agricultural revolution, comparable to those we have known in the history of capitalism, possible? Does the present conjuncture represent a developmental crisis of capitalism that can be resolved by establishing new agro-ecological conditions for another long wave of accumulation, or are we now witnessing an epochal crisis of capitalism? These divergent possibilities are explored from a perspective that views capitalism as ‘world-ecology’, joining together the accumulation of capital and the production of nature in dialectical unity.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • The Socio-Ecological Crises of Capitalism
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Capital and its Discontents. - Oakland : PM Press. - 9781552663943 ; , s. 136-152
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I think the lesson is that Malthus was wrong because he took the problem of limits outside of history, outside the history that women and men make in the modern world. So the issue is not that there is no scarcity — of course, capitalism is a system that is premised on induced scarcity. That’s why markets in the capitalist era function the way that they do. So I think the mistake of the left has been in a certain reluctance to deal with the problems of scarcity, or in some cases back into an embrace of a neo-Malthusian scarcity mentality in which there are these “natural limits” that are outside of how capitalism functions historically as an ecological regime.
  • Onufrey, Ksenia (författare)
  • Enabled by the past : understanding endogenous innovation in mature industries
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mature industries have played and still play a crucial role in national and world economies. To survive and retain competitiveness, they need to innovate, as innovation is the driver of economics growth and industrial transformation. However, existing research does not provide sufficient explanation of how innovation in mature industries can be enabled based on resources and internal development logic of those industries, i.e. endogenously. Some previous studies focused on incremental innovation patterns, which led to an underestimation of innovation potential of mature industries. Other studies acknowledged a high innovation potential of mature industries, but failed to explain how, through what mechanisms, industry-endogenous logic can bring about major innovations.Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to systematically address, explain and conceptualize endogenous industry- innovation and its driving mechanisms in mature industries. To achieve this purpose, three main issues are addressed. First, the thesis investigates and conceptualizes the notion of industry endogenous innovation mechanisms based on the path dependency theory. Second, the thesis addresses strategic choices and actions by established companies that are rooted in the industry endogenous mechanisms and result in highly innovative outcomes. Third, the thesis systematically analyses different aspects of radicalness of innovations resulting from industry endogenous mechanisms.The thesis represents a qualitative, embedded case study with two main industry cases, i.e. the global lighting industry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The lighting industry and its sub-cases in the form of specific lighting technologies have been studied via the analysis of patents of leading lighting manufacturers, archival and secondary data sources as well as interviews with different types of actors in the industry. The pulp and paper industry and its sub-cases in the form of innovation initiatives have been studied with the help of interviews with leading manufacturers and research institutes, as well the analysis of annual reports and secondary data sources. The outcomes of the study are presented in the form of the thesis cover paper and five appended papers.The results show that innovations of any magnitude can be endogenously developed in mature industries. At the industry level, endogenous innovation is driven by innovation mechanisms that can be conceptualized as reactive sequences and self-reinforcing mechanisms. At the level of individual companies, the exploitation strategy corresponds to the logic of endogenous innovation mechanisms by enabling highly innovative outcomes and building on a wide range of resources available in the industry. The endogenous character of innovation mechanisms imposes certain limitations on the radicalness of the outcomes in the form of trade-offs in terms of how many and what particular aspects can be radically new at once.With these results, the thesis contributes to a more balanced overall understanding of innovation potential of mature industries and allows shifting the focus of discussion from whether mature industries can develop radical innovation to when and under what conditions they can succeed in this process. The results of the thesis also suggest several recommendations for managers in established companies with regard to how they can they can take advantage of industry endogenous innovation mechanisms.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • 'Amsterdam is Standing on Norway', Part I : The Alchemy of Capital, Empire and Nature in the Diaspora of Silver, 1545–1648
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agrarian Change. - 1471-0358 .- 1471-0366. ; 10:1, s. 33-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the first of two essays in this Journal, I seek to unify the historicalgeography of early modern ‘European expansion’ (Iberia and Latin America)with the environmental history of the ‘transition to capitalism’ (northwestern Europe). The expansion of Europe’s overseas empires and the transitions to capitalism within Europe were differentiated moments within the geographicalexpansion of commodity production and exchange – what I call the commodityfrontier. This essay is developed in two movements. Beginning with a conceptual and methodological recasting of the historical geography of the rise of capitalism,I offer an analytical narrative that follows the early modern diaspora of silver.This account follows the political ecology of silver production and trade from the Andes to Spain in Braudel’s ‘second’ sixteenth century (c. 1545–1648). In highlighting the Ibero-American moment of this process in the present essay, Icontend that the spectacular reorganization of Andean space and the progressive dilapidation of Spain’s real economy not only signified the rise and demise of a trans-Atlantic, Iberian ecological regime, but also generated the historicallynecessary conditions for the unprecedented concentration of accumulation andcommodity production in the capitalist North Atlantic in the centuries thatfollowed.
  • Moore, Jason W., 1971- (författare)
  • Introduction : The World-Historical Imagination
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of World-Systems Research. - Riverside, Calif. : Institute for Research on World-Systems. - 1076-156X .- 1076-156X. ; 17:1, s. 1-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This article is the editor's introduction to the special issue of the Journal of World-Systems Research, entitled The World-Historical Imagination: Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century in Prospect and Retrospect.
  • Ejermo, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Swedish business research productivity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Industrial and Corporate Change. - : Oxford University Press. - 0960-6491. ; 20:4, s. 1081-1118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sweden experienced an increase in the ratio of granted patents to research and development spending (R&D) between 1989 and 1998, a period when R&D spending grew rapidly. The ratio of patents granted to R&D spending (research productivity) increased by 40% over the period, and the ratio of quality-adjusted patents to R&D exhibited an even more impressive increase of 60%. Sectors with especially high research productivity and quality-adjusted research productivity include low and medium technology manufacturing, chemicals and transportation. However, the growth in quality-adjusted research productivity was primarily generated by the high-tech pharmaceuticals and electronics industries. The service-based sectors experienced a significant increase in R&D spending over the period, but the research productivity decreased.
  • Jonnergård, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Developing a Code of Ethics for the Swedish audit profession 1923 to 1994 - Juxtaposing the internal and external role of the Code
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nordic Accounting Conference 2016,Copenhagen, Denmark,2016-11-17 - 2016-11-18.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper presents an analysis of context within which FAR, the Swedish professional association representing accountants has developed and revised the Code of Ethics from 1923 to 1995. The purpose is to enhance our understanding of the choices made as to what ethical rules were verbalized or codified and the motivations behind the codification. Building on Birkett and Evans’ (2005) model for organizing and understanding histories of the professionalizing activities of occupational associations of accountants and Abbotts view of professional codes, a theoretical framework has been constructed to analyze the circumstances and sequence of events that have had an influence on codification of ethics. The findings is based on content analysis of the Code of ethics and an extensive review of archival documents from FAR, legislation and previous studies on the development of the profession in Sweden.The findings have been analyzed in three phases depicting the development of the profession as the state shifts from an industrial to a neoliberal state. The phases are:Phase 1 A newly established Gentlemen’s club (1923-1932)Phase 2 Professionalization of auditors (1933-1976)Phase 3 Internationalization of the audit profession (1977-1995)The analysis shows how the Code of Ethics has been verbalized within the context of shifting ideologies of government and governance of both the state and profession in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world. Ethical codes are context sensitive. Differing from Anglo Saxon studies; this study is set in the Swedish context where the state and profession have co-developed over time. The code has been codified in a changing regulatory landscape where public and private actors occupy the audit regulatory arena and the ethics of the profession is regulated by a complex interplay of legislation and by laws, international, regional and FAR’s codes of ethics governing professional conduct. In 1923, when FAR was established, the rules of professional conduct were not explicitly codified. Rather, the expected conduct of a member was socialized through initiation and other meetings, social networks and education. The professionalization of auditors, growth and heterogeneity of FARs’ members, the financial scandals, the economic and regulatory developments have led to an increasing need to verbalize and publish the Code of Ethics for the profession. The power to verbalizing the ethical rules has changed over time and with time the profession gained an increasing power over determining the content of its ethical code. The Code serves not only to legitimize the activities of the audit profession to regulators and other important stakeholders but importantly, it acts at the same time as a remedy for association control, juxtaposing the internal and external role of the Code.
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