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  • Groglopo, Adrián, 1967- (författare)
  • Hälsa, vård och strukturell diskriminering
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Antologin behandlar den strukturella diskrimineringens inverkan på hälsotillstånd samt tillgång till en adekvat hälsa- och sjukvård för personer med utländsk bakgrund. Antologins olika bidrag ger viktiga insikter om hur den strukturella diskrimineringen tar sig uttryck och om dess konsekvenser.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Public Health Ethics. - 1754-9973 .- 1754-9981. ; 8:3, s. 270-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy.
  • Nijsingh, Niels, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Managing pollution from antibiotics manufacturing: charting actors, incentives and disincentives
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - 1476-069X. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Emissions of high concentrations of antibiotics from manufacturing sites select for resistant bacteria and may contribute to the emergence of new forms of resistance in pathogens. Many scientists, industry, policy makers and other stakeholders recognize such pollution as an unnecessary and unacceptable risk to global public health. An attempt to assess and reduce such discharges, however, quickly meets with complex realities that need to be understood to identify effective ways to move forward. This paper charts relevant key actor-types, their main stakes and interests, incentives that can motivate them to act to improve the situation, as well as disincentives that may undermine such motivation. Methods The actor types and their respective interests have been identified using research literature, publicly available documents, websites, and the knowledge of the authors. Results Thirty-three different actor-types were identified, representing e.g. commercial actors, public agencies, states and international institutions. These are in complex ways connected by interests that sometimes may conflict and sometimes pull in the same direction. Some actor types can act to create incentives and disincentives for others in this area. Conclusions The analysis demonstrates and clarifies the challenges in addressing industrial emissions of antibiotics, notably the complexity of the relations between different types of actors, their international dependency and the need for transparency. The analysis however also suggests possible ways of initiating incentive-chains to eventually improve the prospects of motivating industry to reduce emissions. High-resource consumer states, especially in multinational cooperation, hold a key position to initiate such chains.
  • Nordenfelt, Lennart, 1945- (författare)
  • The concept of work ability
  • 2008
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This book contains a systematic analysis of the notion of work ability. The analysis is particularly focused on the following three contexts: medical insurance, training for a vocation or a profession and evaluation of a job seeker. The first part of the book presents and briefly analyzes some methods and instruments designed for characterizing and assessing work ability. The second part gives a theoretical foundation for the analysis of work ability. Here the author presents an original taxonomy of competencies and other qualifications for work and proposes a new definition of work ability. The third part is devoted to the issue of work ability and its relation to medical conditions. In addition to a description of certain legislations in the medico-insurance field, this part of the book contains a substantial analysis of the notion of disease and an attempt to determine whether there is a viable notion of disease that can answer the demands of objectivity raised by offices of social insurance.
  • Nilsson, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The precarious practice of forensic psychiatric risk assessments
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527. ; 32:6, s. 400-407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of forensic psychiatric risk assessments is discussed from a clinical point of view using the example of Sweden. A central task in forensic psychiatry has traditionally been to identify dangerous, mentally disordered subjects considered to be prone to commit violent acts. Over time, "dangerousness" has been reworded into "risk". Nevertheless, such assessments have generally been based on the psychiatric factors characterising the individual patient, while group interaction, situational factors, or social and cultural circumstances, such as the availability of alcohol and drugs, have been largely overlooked. That risk assessments have a focused on people with a diagnosis of "mental disorder" and been used as grounds for coercive measures and integrity violations has somehow been accepted as a matter of course in the public and political debate. Even the basic question whether offenders with a mental disorder are really more prone to criminal recidivism than other offenders seems to have been treated light-handedly and dealt with merely by epidemiological comparisons between groups of persons with broad ranges of psychosocial vulnerability and the general population. Legal texts, instructions and guidelines from the authorities in charge are often vague and general, while actors in the judicial system seem to put their trust in psychiatric opinions. The exchange of professional opinions, general public expectations, and judicial decision processes poses a huge risk for misunderstandings based on divergent expectations and uses of terminology. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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