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  • Liwång, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • An examination of the implementation of risk based approaches in military operations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Military Studies. - Helsinki : National Defense University, Finland and Finnish Society of Military Sciences. - 1799-3350. ; 5:2, s. 1-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Today several nations utilise risk based approaches in military planning. However, the discussion on limitations with the approaches in regard to aspects such as uncertainties, the nature of the threat and risk to civilians is limited.The aim of this work is to identify important challenges when applying risk based approaches to military activity. This article discusses risk based approaches in general and their military applications. Five generic quality requirements on risk analysis are presented from research in risk philosophy. Two military application areas for risk analysis: military intelligence, and risk management in legal assessments are analysed in relation to the presented quality requirements on risk analysis.From the analysis it is clear that risk analysis is an integral part of the decision-making analysis and cannot be separated in time, space or organisationally from the decision-making process in general. Defining the scenario to analyse, including the time span, is a central task in risk analysis and will affect every aspect of the risk estimation. Therefore, the principles for scenario definition must be communicated and continuously updated throughout the organisation. Handling the uncertainties throughout the process is also important, especially if the aim is a resilient military system.
  • Aaboen, Lise, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Technology Transfer Offices, Incubators, and Intellectual Property Management
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: 76th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we present a systematic literature review of the intersection between intellectual property (IP) management, technology transfer offices (TTOs) and incubators (and to some degree also science parks) in order to find out how incubators and/or TTOs support and work with patenting and IP management in startups. IP management is an important issue for the competitiveness of technology based startups and a difficult issue due to the resources needed to obtain, monitor and enforce IP rights. Understanding how the support organizations facilitate this work is therefore of importance for the startups as well as for universities and policy actors seeking to support technology transfer. The identified publications were systematized according to the actor in focus and whether the paper discussed IP as an output or as a strategic focus. The literature review showed that this literature tends to adopt a simplistic view of IP management, not taking all strategies into account. The literature typically narrows the focus down to a simplistic view of trying to increase the patent output of TTOs and incubators, and the related firms and/or universities.
  • Holgersson, Marcus J, et al. (författare)
  • Patenting motives, technology strategies, and open innovation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Management Decision. - 0025-1747. ; 55:6, s. 1265-1284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate firms’ motives to patent in general, and more specifically how some of these motives depend upon firms’ technology strategies and especially their level of open innovation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a questionnaire survey sent to CTOs (or equivalent) of the largest R&D spenders among Swedish large firms (e.g., ABB, AstraZeneca, Ericsson, and Volvo) and among Swedish small and medium-sized enterprises. Principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to check the impact from open innovation upon the importance of 21 different motives to patent, with a specific focus on protection and bargaining related motives.FindingsThe most important motive to patent is to protect product technologies, but protecting freedom to operate is almost as important, followed by a number of other motives. Increasing importance of open innovation in firms is related to stronger bargaining motives to patent, and even stronger protection motives. In fact, when comparing with closed innovation the results show that open innovation is more strongly positively related with all different motives to patent except for one (to attract customers). This indicates that firms find it more important to patent when engaged in open innovation than when engaged in closed innovation. Originality/value: The paper reports results from the first study that links patenting motives to technology strategies. It contributes to an emerging stream of empirical studies investigating the role of patents in external technology strategies and open innovation, showing that the motives to patent are strengthened within open innovation settings.
  • Holgersson, Marcus J, et al. (författare)
  • The evolution of intellectual property strategy in innovation ecosystems: Uncovering complementary and substitute appropriability regimes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Longe Range Planning. - 0024-6301. ; 51:2, s. 303-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article, we attempt to extend and nuance the debate on intellectual property (IP) strategy, appropriation, and open innovation in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. We present the case of four generations of mobile telecommunications systems (covering the period 1980-2015), and describe and analyze the co-evolution of strategic IP management and innovation ecosystems. Throughout this development, technologies and technological relationships were governed with different and shifting degrees of formality. Simultaneously, firms differentiated technology accessibility across actors and technologies to benefit from openness and appropriation of innovation. Our analysis shows that the discussion of competitiveness and appropriability needs to be expanded from the focal appropriability regime and complementary assets to the larger context of the innovation ecosystem and its cooperative and competitive actor relations, with dispersed complementary and substitute assets and technologies. Consequently, the shaping of complementary and substitute appropriability regimes is central when strategizing in dynamic and systemic innovation contexts. This holds important implications for the management of open innovation, innovation ecosystems, platforms, and coopetition.
  • Holgersson, Marcus J, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • The importance of patents for innovation appropriation and open financing – a new view
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: R&D Management Conference. From Science to Society: Innovation and Value Creation. 3-6 July, Cambridge University..
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of patents for capturing (appropriating) value from innovation investments has since long been of major interest to both practitioners and academics. Previous studies have implicitly assumed that firms appropriate value through in-house creation and marketing of innovative products and services. We question this assumption in light of the variety of business models and strategies now being available, including open innovation. We develop a basic typology of appropriation strategies, and investigate the role patents play for different strategies among 172 Swedish technology based firms. The results show that the importance of patents has a skew distribution with many firms rating patents as very important and with a fat tail of firms rating patents less important. This partly explains the limited importance of patents that previous studies have communicated. The results also show that the protection of sales and sales margins of innovative products and services is only one function of patents, and that patents are also important for the sales of technologies and stocks. Thus, patenting widens the range of appropriation strategies as well as financing strategies available to R&D management, which is especially important for cash strung technology based start-ups and SMEs, as well as for large firms with long R&D times.
  • Holgersson, Marcus, 1983- (författare)
  • Management av immateriella rättigheter i öppen innovation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Öppen innovation – i teori och praktik. - 978-91-44-11242-8 ; s. 113-126
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En vanlig föreställning är att patent och andra immateriella rättigheter står i kontrast till öppen innovation. Visserligen innebär ett patent att utöver innehavaren får ingen annan ”använda uppfinningen genom att tillverka, sälja eller importera den utan att den som har patentet gett tillstånd”, men samtidigt kan denna typ av rättigheter användas som en bas för att möjliggöra och styra öppen innovation. Med utgångspunkt i svensk och internationell forskning diskuterar kapitlet spänningar och möjligheter med immateriella rättigheter i öppen innovation.
  • Holgersson, Marcus, 1983- (författare)
  • Management av immateriella tillgångar: En litteraturstudie och inriktning för framtida forskning
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • [English abstract follows below.]Svensk sammanfattning:Immateriella tillgångar står idag för en betydande del av företags tillgångar, och hanteringen av dem är en viktig del i företags och andra organisationers arbete med att stärka sin konkurrenskraft. Vinnova och PRV har fått ett regeringsuppdrag att bidra till en förstärkt kunskapsutveckling (forskning) om sambandet mellan immateriella tillgångar, innovation och ekonomisk tillväxt samt nyttjandet av patentinformation som strategiskt verktyg. Denna förstudie syftar till att göra en översikt av befintlig forskning kring hur management av immateriella tillgångar bidrar till olika aktörers konkurrenskraft i en innovationskontext. Målet är att förmedla en övergripande bild av det nuvarande kunskapsläget samt att föreslå områden inom vilka ytterligare forskning behövs. Förstudien behandlar mikro-/organisationsnivån. Fokus ligger på management av immateriella rättigheter och andra sätt att stärka konkurrenskraften relaterad till immateriella tillgångar.Förstudien innehåller tre relaterade delstudier. Den första delstudien innehåller en studie av tidigare litteraturgenomgångar. Den andra delstudien innehåller en genomgång av specialutgåvor (’special issues’) med fokus på management av immateriella tillgångar. Den tredje och sista delstudien gör en strukturerad litteratursökning av en stor mängd artiklar som innehåller relevanta koncept.Resultaten från de olika delstudierna sammanfattas i denna rapport. En relativt enhetlig bild framträder, vilket ligger till grund för förslag till framtida forskning. English abstract:Intellectual resources and properties are of increasing importance for firms and other organizations striving for competitive advantage. Vinnova and PRV have by the Swedish government been commissioned to contribute to improved knowledge development (research) about the link between intellectual properties, innovation, and economic growth, as well as the use of patent information as a strategic tool.The purpose of this pre-study is to make an overview of extant research on how management of intellectual property (IP) contributes to the competitive advantage of various actors within an innovation context. The goal is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge and to suggest areas for further research. The pre-study covers the micro/organizational level. The focus is on management of IP rights (IPRs) and other means to strengthen the competitiveness related to intellectual property.The pre-study consists of three related sub-studies. The first sub-study includes a review of previous literature studies. The second sub-study consists of a review of special issues focusing on IP management. The third and final sub-study consists of a systematic literature search comprising a large amount of articles focusing on a set of relevant concepts.The results from the different sub-studies are summarized in this report. A relatively uniform view of the current state of knowledge emerges. This leads to a number of suggestions for future research.
  • Holgersson, Marcus, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Sharing innovative and best-practice approaches for teaching Intellectual Property Management: A workshop report
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: World Patent Information. - 0172-2190. ; 49, s. 75-76
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Intellectual property (IP) assets and intellectual property rights (IPRs) are central for many firms’ competitiveness, especially in technology-based businesses but also in other types of businesses. It is therefore of key importance to equip future technology and business leaders (i.e., the students of today) with knowledge about how to manage IP and IPRs, which has been acknowledged in an increasing number of courses and programs on IP management worldwide (including at Queen Mary University of London and at Chalmers University of Technology). However, IP management is a challenging subject to teach, especially due to its interdisciplinary character. IP management teaching often needs to combine knowledge from different areas on studies, including management, economics, law, and technology. The fact that it is a fairly new subject in its own right also makes it challenging since there is a lack of well-developed course materials and course designs.
  • Holgersson, Marcus, 1983- (författare)
  • Technology-based coopetition and intellectual property management: The case of post-divestiture coopetition
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Routledge companion to coopetition strategies.
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This chapter introduces intellectual property (IP) management in technology-based coopetition. It includes a general description of the role for IP management in competition and collaboration, as well as a framework for classifying IP relevant to coopetition. Based on this framework, IP agreements are shaped to combine the logics of competition and collaboration in coopetition. A key point is that knowledge, technology, and IP can be protected to enable controlled sharing through licensing in coopetition. The chapter also introduces the concept of post-divestiture coopetition, in which IP management is critical, and exemplifies it with two cases from the automotive industry.
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