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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Juridik) > Karolinska Institutet

  • Resultat 1-9 av 9
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  • Dahlin, Moa Kindstrom, et al. (författare)
  • Mentally disordered criminal offenders : Legal and criminological perspectives
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - Elsevier. - 0160-2527. ; 32:6, s. 377-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Legal research in Sweden has traditionally focused on a systematization of the legal rules and their practical application, while the task of studying the effects of the application of the laws has been handed over to other branches of the social sciences. In contrast, new legal theories focusing on proactive and therapeutic dimensions in law have gained increasing attention in the international arena. These approaches may be better suited for evaluating legislation governing compulsory psychiatric care. Theoretical discussions and studies of causal mechanisms underlying criminal behaviour, as well as the implementation and value of instruments for predicting behaviour, are relevant to contemporary criminological research. Criminal behaviour varies across different groups of perpetrators, and the causes can be sought in the interplay between the individual and social factors. Multi-disciplinary efforts, integrating research from forensic psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and criminology, would be beneficial in leading to a better understanding of the causes underlying criminal behaviour.
  • Lynoe, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Police in an intensive care unit : what can happen?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics. - 0306-6800. ; 39:12, s. 772-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During spring 2009 a Swedish senior paediatric intensivist and associate professor was detained and later prosecuted for mercy-killing a child with severe brain damage. The intensivist was accused of having used high doses of thiopental after having withdrawn life-sustaining treatment when the child was imminently dying. After more than 2.5years of investigation the physician was acquitted by the Stockholm City Court. The court additionally stated that the physician had provided good end-of-life care. Since the trial it has become evident that the accusation was based on a problematic medicolegal report. Nevertheless, the event has had severe negative consequences for the physician personally and professionally, and probably also, in general, for patients in the final stage of life. This case illustrates, together with other cases, that there is a lack of correspondence between ethical soft law/healthcare law and the Penal Code. To optimise medical practice we suggest that the criminal law be carefully examined and if possible changed. Furthermore, we suggest a peer-review system for assessing medicolegal reports in cases of suspected homicide.
  • Hansson, Mats G., et al. (författare)
  • Commentary: : Isolated Stem Cells - Patentable as Cultural Artifacts?
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Stem Cells. - 1066-5099 .- 1549-4918. ; 25:6, s. 1507-1510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article argues that an isolated embryonic stem cell basically represents a cultural artifact that has no equivalent to cells of the embryo, and that it is likely that the isolation of adult stem cells has a similar consequence. An isolated stem cell could thus be distinguished as something other than the stem cell existing as part of a human body. Since isolation of stem cells implies modification, product patents should, where the results carry enough novelty, inventive step, and potential for industrial application, as a matter of principle be a viable option for patent authorities. Questions of morality, which may affect the patentability, should also be viewed in light of the distinction between isolated result and body part. At the same time, it is essential that patent authorities do not accept broad patent claims that will be detrimental to research. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
  • Kindström Dahlin, Moa, et al. (författare)
  • Swedish Legal Scholarship Concerning Protection of Vulnerable Groups : Therapeutic and Proactive Dimensions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527. ; 33:5-6, s. 398-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a brief overview of the legal theoretical problems that arise in connection with the societal ambition of protecting vulnerable groups. One of the central difficulties in legislation with proactive and therapeutic ambitions arises from the link between law and philosophy of science, i.e., the relationship between facts and norms. It is shown that Therapeutic Jurisprudence differs in several aspects from Swedish legal scholarship that follows Scandinavian Legal Realism. It is also demonstrated that Therapeutic Jurisprudence has several similarities with the so-called Proactive Approach. This paper suggests that Therapeutic Jurisprudence may serve as a useful legal theoretical perspective in Swedish legal scholarship, especially when studying complex and vague regulations with a future focus. Two examples from Swedish legislation are examined: (a) Laws regulating compulsory care of abused or neglected children, and (b) laws related to the mentally ill. This paper illustrates the complexity in these acts, and poses the question of whether the regulations serve their purpose of providing adequate care for and protection of those in need.
  • Lainpelto, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Does Information About Neuropsychiatric Diagnoses Influence Evaluation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. - 1053-8712. ; 25:3, s. 276-292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed at investigating if attitudes toward children with neuropsychiatric disorders influence evaluations concerning allegations of child sexual abuse. Law students (n = 107) at Stockholm University, Sweden, were presented a transcript of a mock police interview with a girl, 11 years of age. This interview was based on a real case, selected as a “typical” example from these years concerning contributions from the interviewer and the alleged victim. After having read the transcript, the students responded to a questionnaire concerning degree of credibility, if the girl talked about events that had really occurred, richness of details, and if the narrations were considered truthful and age-adequate. Fifty-four of the students were also told that the girl had been given the diagnoses of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Asperger syndrome. Students who were informed about the diagnoses gave significantly lower scores concerning credibility of the interviewee. To a lesser degree they regarded her narrations as expressions of what had really occurred and considered her statements less truthful. Furthermore, they found that the narrations contained fewer details. Finally, they found the girl less competent to tell about abuse. We conclude that a neuropsychiatric disorder may infer risks of unjustified skeptical attitudes concerning trustworthiness and cognitive capacity.
  • Reichel, Jane, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • ERIC : a new governance tool for Biobanking
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 22:9, s. 1055-1057
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2009, the EU introduced a new governance tool for research, the European Research Infrastructure Consortium, commonly referred to as ERIC. On 22nd November 2013, an ERIC within biobanking research was established, the BBMRI-ERIC, with its seat in Graz, Austria. This article analyses what use the ERIC can be to researchers in biobanking, focusing on legal and ethical perspectives. Our conclusion is that the main advantages with the ERIC are its functions as a platform, creating opportunities for long-term cooperation between the Member States involved and their researchers. Within the platform, research groups can develop functional standards for technical, legal and ethical purposes, set up criteria for biobanks, and so on. The ERIC also creates a platform for the involved researchers to communicate with policymakers in the EU and the Member States. However, when it comes to addressing the diverse regulatory framework for biobanking in the EU, one of the more important hurdles today, the ERIC does not provide for any substantial tools.
  • Tillfors, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Treating university students with social phobia and public speaking fears : Internet delivered self-help with or without live group exposure sessions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Depression and anxiety (Print). - 1091-4269. ; 25:8, s. 708-717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: This study investigated the efficacy of an Internet-based self-help program with minimal therapist contact via e-mail for Swedish university students with social phobia and public speaking fears. The main objective was to test if the Internet-based self-help program would be more effective if five live group exposure sessions were added. METHODS: Thirty-eight students meeting the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition criteria for social phobia were randomized into two different treatment groups: Internet delivered cognitive behavior therapy combined with five group exposure sessions (ICBT+ exp) or the Internet program alone (ICBT). RESULTS: Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Both treatment groups showed significant improvement from pre- to post-test, and from pre-test to 1-year follow-up, on all measured dimensions (social anxiety, general anxiety, depression levels, and quality of life). For both the groups, the average within-group effect sizes for the primary social anxiety scales, expressed as Cohen's d, were comparable to those seen in traditionally administered cognitive behavioral therapy both at post-test and at 1- year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the Internet-based self-help program on its own is efficient in the treatment of university students with social phobia. Adding group exposure sessions did not improve the outcome significantly.
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