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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) hsv:(Juridik) > Doktorsavhandling

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  • Eneman, Marie (författare)
  • Developing child protection strategies: a critical study of offenders’ use of information technology for the sexual exploitation of children
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis is to critically explore offenders’ use of information technology for the sexual exploitation of children, focusing upon child abusive material and grooming, in relation to the societal response, i.e. legal and technological regulation models. The following aspects are highlighted (i) How can offenders’ use of information technology for child abusive material and grooming be understood in relation to current regulation models? (i) What alternative models for regulation of child abusive material and grooming could be proposed? (iii) What are the implications of applying a critical approach? The motivation for conducting this research has been to contribute, with empirically based research, to the development of effective child protection strategies in relation to child abusive material and grooming. The empirical material used in this thesis consists of court and police records and interviews with offenders. The result shows that offenders’ use of information technology for child abusive material and grooming is more complex and multifaceted than current regulation models have managed to envisage. It has been recognized that the offenders are aware of the illegality in their activities and thus the risk of being observed by law enforcement and have therefore developed different technological and social strategies to be able to continue with their criminal activities. Therefore, this thesis suggests that existing regulation models such as law and the use of technology for filtering should be re-evaluated and that further dimensions such as norms and markets should be considered.
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  • Behrendt Jonsson, Britta, 1973- (författare)
  • The Solvency II Capital Requirement for Insurance Groups : On the Tension Between Regulatory Law and Company Law
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sedan 2016 tillämpas Solvens II reglerna på tillsyn över försäkringsföretag inom EU. Försäkringsföretag som tillhör en försäkringsgrupp behöver ha tillräckligt kapital både på bolags- och på gruppnivå. Vid beräkningen av gruppsolvenskapitalkravet betraktas gruppen som en ekonomisk enhet medan bolags- och insolvensrätten betraktar varje bolag inom en försäkringsgrupp för sig. Den bakomliggande förväntan att egna medel som inte behövs för att täcka solvenskraven på bolagsnivå kommer att användas för att stödja ett annat gruppbolag med finansiella problem har dock ingen motsvarande rättslig förpliktelse. I avhandlingen diskuteras den här konflikten mellan försäkringsrörelserätt och bolagsrätt. Författaren analyserar reglerna om beräkningen av gruppsolvenskravet och i vilket mån egna medel får medräknas för att täcka gruppsovenskravet, samt diskuterar tänkbara lösningar för att föra rörelserätt och bolagsrätt närmare varandra. I avhandlingen uppmärksammas flera skillnader i tillämpningen av Solvens II regelverket mellan Tyskland och Sverige som står i kontrast mot Solvens II direktivets fullharmoniseringssyfte.
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  • Bruncevic, Merima, 1981- (författare)
  • Fixing the Shadows – Access to Art and the Legal Concept of the Cultural Commons
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Fixing the Shadows: Access to Art and the Legal Concept of Cultural Commons studies access to art as knowledge, and the role law plays in facilitating access. The research project discusses how to advance and strengthen access to art and create legal pathways that facilitate communication, access to and sharing of art as knowledge. Thus, the study introduces the legal concept of cultural commons and discusses how such a concept may be introduced to law and given a legal platform. The study utilises the theories and methods of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995) and the French psychoanalyst Félix Guattari (1930-1992) in dealing with law and jurisprudence. It focuses particularly on the concept of the rhizome. The theoretical aim of the study is to develop a critique of dogmatic law and to study particular obstacles to access to art created by traditional approaches to legal concepts. Consequently, through a rhizomatic jurisprudence a legal concept of cultural commons is developed and presented. The study is divided in two volumes. Volume I is called “Beyond the ontological question” and it studies obstacles to access to art created by law and certain types of traditional legal reasoning, it aims to bring forth the potential of law. Volume II analyses the cultural commons as a legal concept and is called “The Performativity of the Commons”. Volume II analyses the potential of a legal concept of cultural commons.
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  • Bylander, Eric, 1973- (författare)
  • Muntlighetsprincipen En rättsvetenskaplig studie av processuella handläggningsformer i svensk rätt
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis examines the different forms of procedural communication available to the Swedish courts. The choice traditionally stood between oral and written procedure. Today the procedure in the general courts is dominated by the principle of orality, while in the administrative courts, procedure chiefly takes the written form. This being said, the types of communication procedures used in courts today are constantly changing, the reason being, in part, the advent and advancement of new communication tools such as telephone, video and the internet.The cardinal aspiration for this doctoral thesis has been to prepare a generous substructure that will allow an assessment of how the principles that constitute the foundation for the choice of a form of procedural communication stand up against the arrival of new conditions. In attaining this goal the thesis takes stock of, structure, and evaluate the current knowledge of the regulation of the forms of procedural communication and the arguments that have been put forward regarding its design and application.The chosen method is a rhetorical-topical audit of the arguments provided by the legislative community. In addition it examines the relationship between these arguments and the activities of the courts and includes a comparative analysis of the current and historic conditions of the procedural communication forms.In the thesis nine different principle topoi (argument sources) for the analysed argumentation are identified and discussed: The Purpose of the Proceedings, Security, Speed, Cost-effectiveness, the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Decision-making, the Parties, Publicity and the Rules and Regulations.
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  • Domeij, Bengt, 1967- (författare)
  • Läkemedelspatent : patent på läkemedel i Europa ur ett rättsvetenskapligt och rättsekonomiskt perspektiv
  • 1998
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The study reviews the legal issues associated with patent protection for pharmaceuticals in Europe. It is explored how manufacturers of innovative drugs can and do use the patent system to protect and defend products of their research. The situation is examined mainly by a detailed analysis of case law from the European Patent Office (EPO), the international body created in 1973 with the signing of the European Patent Convention (EPC). There are, however, aspects of patent law not primarily regulated in the EPC. For example, Supplementary Protection Certificates, which originate from the European Community. Another example is national case law dealing with infringement matters.Pharmaceuticals are chemicals having certain physiological effects. Therefore pharmaceutical patent issues are a special case of chemical patents and of patents in general. In principle the same legal regimes apply as to other inventions. Yet in practice a special, and arguably separate, area of patent law has developed around pharmaceutical and chemical patents. Some of these special considerations find their basis in public policy concerns and in the regulatory framework affecting sale of pharmaceuticals. Others are due to the nature of the chemical field and its special terminology.In separate passages it is endeavoured to show how specific patent law doctrines can be applied in a manner that draws particular attention to economic consequences. The legal situation is interpreted from the viewpoint of the overarching economic rationale for the patent system: promoting economic growth through proper use of the new and improved production opportunities that inventions can give rise to. This thesis can be characterised as a work in Patent Law as well as in the field of Law & Economics.
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8.
  • Duus-Otterström, Göran, 1978- (författare)
  • Punishment and Personal Responsibility
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • What justifies punishment? What are the features of a justified penal regime? Answers to these questions often centre on punishment’s capacity to change unwanted behaviour, either by deterring would-be rule breakers or addressing their criminal motivations through various forms of rehabilitation. This book instead defends (a version of) the retributive theory of punishment, according to which punishment should aim to give rule breakers what they deserve. Why should desert play such a role in penal justice? The book dismisses the controversial notion of intrinsic-good retributivism, and instead proceeds to identify two merits of a penal regime that aspires to give rule breakers what they deserve. On the one hand, such a regime is in better alignment of central principles of justice, such as principles against punishing the innocent and taking pre-emptive action against potentially dangerous individuals. On the other hand, retributive punishment conveys attractive symbolic messages, which serve to validate rule breakers as personally responsible agents whose choices warrant respect. Having defended the retributive theory on normative grounds, the book then discusses a formidable factual criticism that hits all desert-sensitive theories: starting by questioning the alleged difference between scientific explanations and excuses, the book challenges the factual plausibility of the notion of personal responsibility and entertains the possibility of hard determinism being true. While hard determinism is a stronger position than one may think, a pragmatic argument can be made against it: given that libertarian free will is “worth wanting”, and given the epistemic uncertainty surrounding it, it is defensible to bet that determinism is false and that people indeed can be personally responsible for their actions. Punishment and Personal Responsibility may be understood as a defence of “prescientific” morality in the age of science.
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  • Gerson, Anna, 1977- (författare)
  • Compensation of Losses in Foreign Subsidiaries within the EU : A Comparative Study of the Unilateral Loss-Compensation Mechanisms in Austria and Denmark
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study commences in the problems related to the restricted possibilities for cross-border groups to take losses incurred in foreign subsidiaries into account upon taxation. These difficulties lead to the situation where the overall tax burden of the group, seen as an economic unit, might exceed its economic capacity. Such over taxation is likely to cause the cross-border group cash-flow disadvantages, liquidity problems, reduced expansion possibilities and it might also effect the organisation and location of the group’s business activities.This study has two research aims; firstly to analyse unilateral compensation of losses in foreign subsidiaries de lege lata, and secondly to analyse the consequences of different alternatives, as well as refraining from taking specific measures, upon opening up a unilateral system to cover also foreign losses de lege ferenda. In these respects, the experiences from the Austrian and Danish unilateral loss-compensation systems, under which losses incurred in foreign subsidiaries are acknowledged, serve as valuable sources of information.The findings in the study are evaluated based on the fundamental objectives that ought to be balanced from the perspective of the group as well as the loss-granting state. These objectives are; the recognition of the ability of the cross-border group, seen as an economic unit, to pay taxes; the prevention of double dip of losses, and the prevention of arbitrary as well as permanent income shifting between MS.
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10.
  • Grylin, Hanna, 1984- (författare)
  • Passivitetsrätten vid skattetillägg
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • When a taxpayer fails to fulfill the obligation in Chapter 30 Section 1 and Chapter 31 Section 3 of the Swedish Tax Procedure Act, skatteförfarandelagen (2011:1244), the STPA, to submit information about his or her taxable income, he or she becomes liable to pay a tax surcharge. Decisions about tax surcharges can be made in both administrative and criminal proceedings. In fact, decisions on tax surcharges may be made due to a taxpayer’s passiveness during a criminal tax procedure, regardless of the intent. However, the European Court on Human Rights has established that a person’s silence is not, in itself, sufficient proof for a conviction. This causes a tension between the obligation to submit information about taxable income and the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination in the Swedish tax surcharge procedure.The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the Swedish system of tax surcharge and the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination according to the ECHR, the EU Charter, Article 3 Section 1 (e) of Directive 2012/13/EU and Article 7 of Directive 2016/343/EU. The method used to analyze these problems and discuss solutions combines a legal dogmatic method with an autonomous interpretation of the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination. The analysis shows that problems occur after the point where a taxpayer has been charged with a criminal offence according to the autonomous meaning of the concept. This point in time corresponds to the point in time when action is taken by the Swedish Tax Agency that has a substantial impact on the taxpayer. The analysis also shows that if a tax surcharge is levied only because of a taxpayer’s silence, after that point, there has been a violation of the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination according to the autonomous meaning.The conclusion of the thesis is that there is a need for an amendment to the STPA, which reinforces the autonomous meaning of the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination in the Swedish tax surcharge procedure. This includes new rules in the STPA, which define 1) a duty for the Swedish Tax Agency to inform taxpayers about the right to silence and the right against selfincrimination, 2) the scope of the taxpayer’s obligation to submit information about taxable income in relation to the right to silence and the right against selfincrimination and 3) rules on exemption from tax surcharge when it violates the right to silence and the right against self-incrimination.
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