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  • Röhle, Theo, 1976- (författare)
  • Dissecting the Gatekeepers : Relational Perspectives on the Power of Search Engines
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Deep Search : The Politics of Search beyond Google. - Innsbruck, Wien, Bozen : Studienverlag. - 978-3-7065-4795-6 ; s. 117-132
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The paper engages in an in-depth discussion of the search engine Google, focusing on its relationship to webmasters and users. Attempts by webmasters to game the ranking system in order to boost the position of their websites are met by Google with a subtle combination of rewards and punishment. It is argued that this strategy involves the establishment of a disciplinary regime that enforces a certain norm for web publishing. Google’s relationship to the users, on the other hand, is characterized by less invasive forms of power. By inserting itself deeply into the users’ information environment, Google can collect and analyze unprecedented amounts of user data. It is argued that the modeling of segmented consumption behavior that these schemes are based upon involves a governmental form of power. It is a kind of power that aims at controlling differential behavior patterns by gaining an intimate statistical knowledge of a population and using this knowledge as a means of predictive risk management.
  • Asai, Ryoko (författare)
  • Social Media Supporting Democratic Dialogue
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ambiguous Technologies : Philosophical Issues, Practical Solutions, Human Nature. - Lisbon : Autónoma University. ; s. 36-43
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The term of “social media” appears in newspapers and magazines everyday and the huge number of people use social media actively in daily life. Nowadays, in the highly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developed country Japan, Japanese people enroll in social media and evolve a new way of communicating with others based on the “virtual” social distance between them. Among social media, Twitter has been focusing on its strong power as the tool for political change recent years. While Twitter has of-expressed problems as well as the “traditional” social media, it is characterized by the limited number of characters, strong propagation and optional reciprocity. Those characteristics stimulate people’s communication online and bring about opportunities for social interaction and democratic dialogue. On the other hand, in the deluge of information, we need to nurture skills to utilize critical and rational way of thinking through dialogue not only between others also between themselves internally. This study explores characteristics of social media and differences between “traditional” social media and Twitter, and how the difference affects people’s information behavior in Japan.
  • Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos, 1977- (författare)
  • From Vision to Transition Exploring the Potential for Public Information Services to Facilitate Sustainable Urban Transport
  • 2014
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Policy initiatives to promote sustainable travel through the use of Internet based public information systems have increased during the last decade. Stockholm, in being one of the first cities in Europe to implement an Internet based service for facilitating sustainable travel is believed to be a good candidate for an analysis of key issues for developing sustainable travel planning services to the public.Aim: This thesis investigates the past development of two Stockholm based public information systems and their services in order to draw lessons on how to better provide for a public information service geared towards facilitating  environmentally sustainable travel planning through information and communications technology. The overall goal of the thesis is to contribute to an understanding on how to better design and manage current and future attempts at facilitating sustainable travel planning services based on historical case studies.Approach: The thesis draws ideas from the concept of organizational responsiveness – an organization’s ability to listen, understand and respond to demands put to it by its internal and external stakeholders – in order to depict how well or not the two public information systems and their owners have adapted to established norms and values of their surroundings.Results: Overall, the findings from the historical case studies suggest that organizations attempting to provide sustainable travel planning to the public need to design and manage their systems in such a way that it responds to shifting demands on how to provide for information. Implementing and embedding new technologies involves complex processes of change both at the micro level – for users and practitioners of the service – and at the meso level for the involved public service organizations themselves. This condition requires a contextualist framework to analyze and understand organizational, contextual and cultural issues involved in the adoption of new technologies and procedures.Conclusions: The thesis concludes with a discussion on how the findings from the historical case studies may provide lessons for both current and future attempts at providing public information systems geared towards facilitating environmentally sustainable travel planning to the public. Historical examples and issues concerning collective intelligence and peer to peer based forms of designing, producing and supervising public information services identified throughout the study are looked upon and discussed in terms of their possible role in increasing the potential for public information services to facilitate sustainable urban transport.
  • Moving Data : The iPhone and the Future of Media
  • 2012
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The iPhone has revolutionized not only how people communicate but also how we consume and produce culture. Combining traditional and social media with mobile connectivity, smartphones have redefined and expanded the dimensions of everyday life, allowing individuals to personalize media as they move and process constant flows of data. Today, millions of consumers love and live by their iPhones, but what are the implications of its special technology on society, media, and culture?Featuring an eclectic mix of original essays, Moving Data explores the iPhone as technological prototype, lifestyle gadget, and platform for media creativity. Media experts, cultural critics, and scholars consider the device's newness and usability—even its "lickability"—and its "biographical" story. The book illuminates patterns of consumption; the fate of solitude against smartphone ubiquity; the economy of the App Store and its perceived "crisis of choice"; and the distance between the accessibility of digital information and the protocols governing its use. Alternating between critical and conceptual analyses, essays link the design of participatory media to the iPhone's technological features and sharing routines, and they follow the extent to which the pleasures of gesture-based interfaces are redefining media use and sensory experience. They also consider how user-led innovations, collaborative mapping, and creative empowerment are understood and reconciled through changes in mobile surveillance, personal rights, and prescriptive social software. Presenting a range of perspectives and arguments, this book reorients the practice and study of media critique.
  • Spante, Maria, 1967- (författare)
  • Connected Practice The Dynamics of Social Interaction in Shared Virtual Environment
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigates the phenomenon of social interaction in shared virtual environments (SVEs), supported by virtual reality (VR) systems over time. SVEs are computer generated 3D graphical spaces where geographically distributed people can meet and interact with each other in a graphical space. Although there have been a number of studies about social interaction in SVEs, there has been a lack of research looking into changes over time, which this thesis does. In order to gain more knowledge about social interaction over the longer term, this thesis compares and contrasts four different types of VR systems that supported various SVEs. Two of the systems were internet based SVEs on desktop computers where many users could interact at the same time. One of the SVEs had voice based communication. The other SVE had text based communication. The other two were based in laboratory settings. One setting was networked immersive projection technologies (IPT) in which two participants performed a variety of tasks together. The other was one IPT connected to a desktop VR and participants changed systems half way through the trial in which they collaboratively solved a task together. In both settings voice based communication were used. Observations and other methods of analysis were carried out, focusing on differences and similarities in peoples behaviors in the process of social interaction over time in SVEs. The six papers contained in this thesis explore social interaction over time in shared virtual environments. This thesis argues that technology becomes not only a tool for social interaction; it also becomes a key aspect in social interaction. While the technology filters out some of the social cues we are familiar with from face to face situations, it also ‘filters in’ new cues that become important for how people can connect to each other in the shared virtual environment. Over time, these social cues, that people creates among themselves while using the technology, become essential for people learn about; otherwise they find it difficult to relate to each other and do things together in the shared virtual environments. The more difficulties people have in figuring out how to use the technology while interacting with others, the less they will accept the technology as an appropriate tool for connecting people and doing things together. The reason for this is that social and technical issues can only be separated analytically in shared virtual environments; in practice, as this thesis shows, they are highly intertwined. This thesis puts forward a dynamic model identifying the importance of looking more explicitly at individuals, technology, task and time while studying social interaction in SVEs. In this way, the thesis combines a number of insights both from previous social science theories of social interaction and practices - together with observations from the studies this thesis builds on. The thesis puts forward a concept that includes these insights - connected practice, defined as the dynamics of social interaction in technical systems. This concept can guide future studies to incorporate both technical and social aspects over time since it was shown to be the key to understanding the phenomenon of this thesis. It is finally suggested in the thesis that the concept connected practice can be utilized in other technical systems apart from SVEs in future research of social interaction in technical systems.
  • Andersson Schwarz, Jonas, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Introducing the panspectric challenge : A reconfiguration of regulatory values in a multiplatform media landscape
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Central European Journal of Communication. - Wroclaw, Polen. - 1899-5101. ; 6:2, s. 219-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Taking Sweden as a case study, the role of public service broadcasting (PSB) is explored, with a focus on issues of data retention and innovation that accompany web distribution. The issue of predicting audience preferences by means of data retention is investigated, and the related problem of organizational autonomy when interacting with commercial actors in the digital sphere. We hypothesize that previous tendencies towards paternalism might be equally supplemented by tendencies towards so-called “panspectric” surveillance and tracking, given a technological environment where such practices are increasingly common. We argue that the absence of advertising partially helps keep these broadcasters from panspectric temptation. Still, practices such as Facebook integration entail a panspectric element. We ask whether the potential increase in the efficacy of targeting audiences promised by panspectric practices might be offset by its negative impact on civic accountability. Is there a possibility for a “benign,” democratically accountable panspectrocism?
  • Norén, Fredrik, 1984- (författare)
  • "Framtiden tillhör informatörerna” samhällsinformationens formering i Sverige 1965–1975
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation is about the formation of governmental information in Sweden during the period 1965 to 1975. During this period information related issues were high up on the political agenda, in Sweden and internationally. I argue that the period is of particular interest in order to understand the impact and development of governmental information in Sweden, even for our time. One overreaching research question has guided this study: What ideas and practices characterized how and why the state disseminated information to the public? The thesis uses four tensions to study the formation of governmental information in Sweden during the late 1960s and early 1970s: (1) information as a solution – information as a problem, (2) dissemination of information – control over information, (3) information through mass communication – information through interpersonal dialogue, and (4) governmental information – commercial information. These tensions draw theoretically from John Durham Peters’ notions of communication.The thesis uses strands from three research fields: PR-history, cultural histories of media, and digital humanities. The four papers use different theoretical perspectives in order to shed new light on of the formation of governmental information in Sweden. Adding to that, and to theoretically tie the papers together, the thesis presents an overarching network perspective with a special focus on conceptual history as a means to better understand how governmental information was discussed as well as practiced. Different methods are used to study the formation of governmental information. The latter is partly because of the political issue’s porous boundaries and fragmented-oriented character, and partly due to the lack of previous research with a problematizing and historical approach to governmental information in Sweden. The thesis combines qualitative and quantitative methods to study different aspects how the state communicated with the public.This dissertation presents new findings about the formation of governmental information during the period 1965 to 1975. One regards the different intersections of governmental information. It shows that the production and dissemination of information from agencies to citizens was far from “pure” governmental information, and rather entangled with various actors from industry, academy and civil society. A second finding concerns the language of governmental information. Here, the dissertation shows – through large-scale digital text methods – how the concept of “information” exploded in usages from the 1960s and onwards, and how “information” as a discursive element infiltrated a growing number of political topics from the same period and onwards. A third finding centers on the media of governmental information. One result shows how broadly academics and bureaucrats defined the concept of media in relation to the practice of governmental information. All kinds of media devices, and not only the traditional news media, were considered important for the purpose of disseminating information on large scale to the public. Lastly, this dissertation reveals governmental information as without guaranties. Overall it shows how information from state agencies to citizens was generated through various conflicting tensions that have to be addressed, but without any hope of finding a balance free from communication problems. These problems tend to reoccur in different settings through history, also visible today. This result should however not be regarded as a pessimistic standpoint, rather it calls for modesty in terms of communication in general, and governmental information in particular.
  • Röhle, Theo, 1976- (författare)
  • Desperately seeking the consumer Personalized search engines and the commercial exploitation of user data
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: First Monday. - 1396-0466. ; 12:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With reference to surveillance studies theory, this paper critically assesses the role of personalized search engines as a mediator between advertisers and users. It first sketches the economic and technical background of online marketing and personalized searches. Then, it engages in an in-depth discussion of two examples of personalized search engines with regard to the data collection process used and the way in which this data is used for advertising purposes. The discussion shows that users' information needs, as well as their personal data, are subject to a growing pressure in terms of commercial exploitation. Essentially, search engines now fulfill the task of translating information needs into consumption needs.
  • Röhle, Theo, 1976- (författare)
  • ’Think of it first as an advertising system’ : Personalisierte Online-Suche als Datenlieferant des Marketings
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Kommunikation@gesellschaft. - 1616-2617. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Suchmaschinen gehören seit langem zu den wichtigsten Werbeträgern im Netz und es wird mittlerweile offen zugestanden, dass die gezielte Vermarktung von Werbeplätzen sich zur Kernaufgabe der Suchmaschinenbetreiber entwickelt hat. Um dem Ruf nach relevanteren Suchergebnissen nachkommen zu können, binden neue Formen der personalisierten Suche immer weitere Bereiche des Nutzerverhaltens in den Suchprozess ein, gleichzeitig schaffen die gesammelten Daten aber auch die Grundlage für eine noch engere Verzahnung ökonomischer Interessen mit dem persönlichen Nutzungskontext. Mit Bezug auf aktuelle Theoriebildung aus den "Surveillance studies" diskutiert der Beitrag die Rolle der personalisierten Suche als Bindeglied zwischen Nutzer und Werbung. Sowohl die Entwicklung der Online-Werbung als auch die technischen Grundlagen der personalisierten Suche werden skizziert, um schließlich an zwei konkreten Beispielen zu erläutern, welche Daten bei der personalisierten Suche erhoben werden und wie diese zu Werbezwecken verwendet werden können. Dabei wird deutlich, dass die zunächst zur Verbesserung der Suchergebnisse erhobenen Nutzerinformationen einem immer stärkeren kommerziellen Verwertungsdruck ausgesetzt sind.
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