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1.
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2.
  • Agerström, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of temporal distance on justice and care morality.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1467-9450. ; 51, s. 46-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.
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3.
  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973- (författare)
  • Developing Theoretical and Empirical Definitions of Safety Problems in Driving Suitable for Active Safety Function Evaluation
  • 2009
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In passive safety, the requirement specifications used for evaluation of protective functions are both standardised and specified at a high level of detail regarding evaluation scenario definition, performance metrics and pass/fail criteria. For active safety, while several propositions for evaluation scenarios have been made, neither these, nor performance metrics and pass/fail criteria have yet reached a similar level of detail and standardisation. The objective of this thesis is to address two underlying reasons for this difference. One is theoretical in nature. On a general level, a set of principles and concepts which capture the fundamental ideas of a field of science can be called a conceptual framework. For active safety function evaluation, such a framework is currently lacking. To address this issue, a conceptual framework called Situational control was developed. The framework integrates fundamental ideas relevant for active safety function evaluation into a holistic and practically applicable picture. Its applicability was demonstrated by applying it in the context of writing and implementing requirement specifications for active safety function evaluation.The second reason is of empirical character. To evaluate the extent to which active safety functions prevent and/or mitigate crashes, it is essential to characterize the sequence of events which leads to collisions in a way which includes information on causal factors. To do this, data from official databases (macroscopic data), and in-depth case studies is often used. Macroscopic data is usually statistically representative but has limited information on why crashes happen, while the opposite is true of case studies. Using the two in combination would therefore seem ideal. However, the principles for connecting them are far from clear and current approaches suffer inherent weaknesses. To address this issue, a generalization methodology which links information in case studies to macroscopic crash types, in a way which covers not only context but also causation similarity, was developed. The feasibility of the methodology was tested through application on three sets of intersection crash data. Results indicate that the methodology was sufficiently successful to warrant further exploration with larger data sets.
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4.
  • Sarwar, Farhan, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of communication with non-witnesses on eyewitnesses' recall correctness and meta-cognitive realism
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology. - Chichester : John Wiley & Sons. - 0888-4080. ; 25:5, s. 782-791
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In forensic contexts it is common that witnesses retell and discuss the experienced event many times. It is of forensic importance to understand how this influences memory and meta-memory. Eighty-nine participants viewed a short film and were assigned to one of four conditions: (1) Laboratory discussion (five discussions of the event with a confederate), (2) Family discussion (five discussions of the event with a family member), (3) Retell (five retellings of the event) and (4) Control. Three weeks later participants gave an open free recall, and then 3 days later confidence judged the recalled information. The results showed significant differences between the four conditions on number of correct items, incorrect items, accuracy, confidence and calibration. The results suggest that discussion of an experienced event may reduce some of the beneficial memory and meta-memory effects caused by mere retelling, but may have no great negative effects compared to a control condition.
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5.
  • Lilja, Josefine L., et al. (författare)
  • Observing as an Essential Facet of Mindfulness A Comparison of FFMQ Patterns in Meditating and Non-Meditating Individuals
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Mindfulness. - Springer. - 1868-8527. ; 4:3, s. 203-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most comprehensive measures of mindfulness is the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) with five factors-Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness, Non-judging, and Non-reactivity. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses, however, have suggested that only four of the FFMQ factors (i.e. all except Observing) were components of "an overall mindfulness construct"-which is puzzling because Observing represents a core aspect of all definitions of mindfulness. The purpose of the present study was to approach this problem by a person-oriented approach, focusing on patterns on the FFMQ scales, rather than linear associations between them. Data on the FFMQ were collected on 817 individuals. Cluster analysis according to the LICUR procedure was used to group these participants in 13 clusters, according to their profiles of scores on the five FFMQ scales. Of the participants, 325 were categorized as meditators and 317 as non-meditators. To test hypotheses about the relation between Observing and mindfulness (which we assumed should be higher among meditators), the meditators/non-meditators categorization was cross-tabulated with the FFMQ clusters. The results showed that all clusters in which meditators were over-represented had high scores on Observing, and all clusters in which meditators were under-represented had low scores on Observing-which supports the hypothesis that mindfulness is related to high levels of Observing. The relationship between Observing and Non-judging, however, was found to be more complex than expected. The results are discussed in terms of mindfulness seen as a multidimensional skill, which may develop differently in various subgroups of individuals.
6.
  • Martins Silva Ramos, Érika, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • An empirical investigation of attitudes towards daily commuting transportation: the impacts of travel satisfaction, driving habits and social desirability.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The 29th International Congress of Applied Psychology, June 26-30, Montréal, Canada.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background/Rational Every day people decide how to travel to their out-of-home activities. What is important for them when choosing the mode of transportation? Are those things predictors of attitudes towards modes of transportation along with driving habits and satisfaction with daily travel? Does being more or less satisfied affect people’s attitudes? Method A survey was mailed to a sample of 3,000 Swedish residents in rural, semi-rural and urban areas. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: driving habits, satisfaction, important aspects when choosing mode of daily commuting and socio-demographics measurements. Results Factor analysis was conducted regarding “satisfaction with daily commuting”, “important aspects for mode choice of commuting” and “driving habits” (KMO = .74; .76; 79, respectively). The retained factors were used in multiple regressions analyses as predictors of attitudes towards car, public transport and bike (R2 = .32; .11; .16, respectively). Conclusions “Driving habits” was the main predictor for attitudes towards car while “socially desirable aspects” was the most important factor to predict attitudes towards public transport and bike. Living in big cities negatively affected attitudes toward car and satisfaction with daily commuting was a minor predictor for all modes of transportation. Action/Impact Attitudes towards modes of commuting are predicted by people’s habits and what they value as important when commuting. Knowing what they value when choosing modes of transportation gives support to implement accurate and effective interventions, policies and new services that promote sustainability in transportation.
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7.
  • Hagerall, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences. - Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. - 1090-0578. ; 19:1, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.
8.
  • Czarniawska, Barbara, 1948- (författare)
  • Nowe techniki badan terenowych: shadowing.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: I: Jemielniak, Dariusz (red.) Badania jakosciowe: Metody i narzedzia. - Warszawa : PWN. - 978-83-01-16946-6 ; s. 69-90
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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9.
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10.
  • Andersson, Linus, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - 0379-864X. ; 43:2, s. 129-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.
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