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  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973- (författare)
  • Developing Theoretical and Empirical Definitions of Safety Problems in Driving Suitable for Active Safety Function Evaluation
  • 2009
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In passive safety, the requirement specifications used for evaluation of protective functions are both standardised and specified at a high level of detail regarding evaluation scenario definition, performance metrics and pass/fail criteria. For active safety, while several propositions for evaluation scenarios have been made, neither these, nor performance metrics and pass/fail criteria have yet reached a similar level of detail and standardisation. The objective of this thesis is to address two underlying reasons for this difference. One is theoretical in nature. On a general level, a set of principles and concepts which capture the fundamental ideas of a field of science can be called a conceptual framework. For active safety function evaluation, such a framework is currently lacking. To address this issue, a conceptual framework called Situational control was developed. The framework integrates fundamental ideas relevant for active safety function evaluation into a holistic and practically applicable picture. Its applicability was demonstrated by applying it in the context of writing and implementing requirement specifications for active safety function evaluation.The second reason is of empirical character. To evaluate the extent to which active safety functions prevent and/or mitigate crashes, it is essential to characterize the sequence of events which leads to collisions in a way which includes information on causal factors. To do this, data from official databases (macroscopic data), and in-depth case studies is often used. Macroscopic data is usually statistically representative but has limited information on why crashes happen, while the opposite is true of case studies. Using the two in combination would therefore seem ideal. However, the principles for connecting them are far from clear and current approaches suffer inherent weaknesses. To address this issue, a generalization methodology which links information in case studies to macroscopic crash types, in a way which covers not only context but also causation similarity, was developed. The feasibility of the methodology was tested through application on three sets of intersection crash data. Results indicate that the methodology was sufficiently successful to warrant further exploration with larger data sets.
  • Martins Silva Ramos, Érika , 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • An empirical investigation of attitudes towards daily commuting transportation: the impacts of travel satisfaction, driving habits and social desirability.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The 29th International Congress of Applied Psychology, June 26-30, Montréal, Canada.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background/Rational Every day people decide how to travel to their out-of-home activities. What is important for them when choosing the mode of transportation? Are those things predictors of attitudes towards modes of transportation along with driving habits and satisfaction with daily travel? Does being more or less satisfied affect people’s attitudes? Method A survey was mailed to a sample of 3,000 Swedish residents in rural, semi-rural and urban areas. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: driving habits, satisfaction, important aspects when choosing mode of daily commuting and socio-demographics measurements. Results Factor analysis was conducted regarding “satisfaction with daily commuting”, “important aspects for mode choice of commuting” and “driving habits” (KMO = .74; .76; 79, respectively). The retained factors were used in multiple regressions analyses as predictors of attitudes towards car, public transport and bike (R2 = .32; .11; .16, respectively). Conclusions “Driving habits” was the main predictor for attitudes towards car while “socially desirable aspects” was the most important factor to predict attitudes towards public transport and bike. Living in big cities negatively affected attitudes toward car and satisfaction with daily commuting was a minor predictor for all modes of transportation. Action/Impact Attitudes towards modes of commuting are predicted by people’s habits and what they value as important when commuting. Knowing what they value when choosing modes of transportation gives support to implement accurate and effective interventions, policies and new services that promote sustainability in transportation.
  • Czarniawska, Barbara, 1948- (författare)
  • Nowe techniki badan terenowych: shadowing.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: I: Jemielniak, Dariusz (red.) Badania jakosciowe: Metody i narzedzia. - Warszawa : PWN. - 978-83-01-16946-6 ; s. 69-90
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Ask, Karl, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of approach and avoidance states on lie-detection accuracy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 18th General Meeting of the European Association of Social Psychology, Granada, Spain, 5-8 July, 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Three experiments examined perceivers’ lie-detection performance under different self-regulatory states. Overall, participants in approach and avoidance states did not differ in their ability to discriminate between truthful and deceptive messages, but approach participants displayed impaired performance relative to controls.
  • Bergquist, Magnus, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Contest-based and norm-based interventions: (How) do they differ in attitudes, norms, and behaviors?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - 2071-1050. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Setting up a contest is a popular means to promote pro-environmental behaviors. Yet, research on contest-based interventions is scarce while norm-based interventions have gained much attention. In two field experiments, we randomly assigned 79 apartments to either a contest-based or a norm-based electricity conservation intervention and measured kWh usage for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results from both studies showed that contest-based interventions promote intensive but short-lived electricity saving. In Study 1 apartments assigned to a norm-based intervention showed more stable electricity saving (low intensity and long-lasting). Study 2 did not replicate this finding, but supported that participants in the norm-based intervention also engaged in non-targeted behaviors. These results emphasize the importance of identifying how different intervention techniques may activate different goals, framing both how people think about and act upon targeted pro-environmental behaviors.
  • Bergquist, Magnus, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Experiencing a severe weather event increases concern about climate change
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - 16641078. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change is primarily driven by human-caused greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and may therefore be mitigated by changes to human behavior (Clayton et al., 2015; IPCC, 2018). Despite efforts to raise awareness and concern about climate change, GHG emissions continue to rise (IPCC, 2018). Climate change seems to be at odds with the immediate, present threats to which humans are adapted to cope (Gifford et al., 2009; Schultz, 2014; van Vugt et al., 2014). In contrast to immediate dangers, climate change is typically abstract, large scale, slow and often unrelated to the welfare of our daily lives (e.g., Ornstein and Ehrlich, 1989; Gifford, 2011). But there are moments when the consequences of climate change are readily apparent, such as extreme weather events. In the current paper, we examine the impact of personal experience with an extreme weather event, and the impact of this experience on beliefs about climate change, and intentions to take actions that can help prepare for and mitigate the consequences of climate change.
  • Dahl, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Old and very old adults as witnesses: event memory and metamemory
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychology, Crime and Law. - Taylor & Francis. - 1477-2744. ; 21:8, s. 764-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Older people constitute an important category of eyewitnesses. Episodic memory performance in older persons is poorer than in younger adults, but little research has been made on older persons' metacognitive judgments. Since more persons of advanced age will likely be called upon as witnesses in coming years, it is critical to characterize this population's metacognitive abilities. We compared event memory metacognition in old adults (66-year-old, n = 74) to very old adults (87 or 90 years old, n = 55). Participants were tested on their memory of a film, using questions with two answer alternatives and the confidence in their answer. As expected, the very old group had a lower accuracy rate than the old group (d = 0.59). The very old group, however, monitored this impairment, since their over-/underconfidence and calibration did not differ from the old group but they displayed a poorer ability to separate correct from incorrect answers (discrimination ability). Possibly, the very old group was able to monitor the level of their over-/underconfidence because they applied general self-knowledge about their memory skills. In contrast, the discrimination of correct from incorrect answers may be more dependent on ability to attend to the features of each retrieved memory.
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