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1.
  • Lilja, Josefine L., et al. (författare)
  • Observing as an Essential Facet of Mindfulness : A Comparison of FFMQ Patterns in Meditating and Non-Meditating Individuals
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Mindfulness. - : Springer. - 1868-8527 .- 1868-8535. ; 4:3, s. 203-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most comprehensive measures of mindfulness is the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) with five factors-Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness, Non-judging, and Non-reactivity. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses, however, have suggested that only four of the FFMQ factors (i.e. all except Observing) were components of "an overall mindfulness construct"-which is puzzling because Observing represents a core aspect of all definitions of mindfulness. The purpose of the present study was to approach this problem by a person-oriented approach, focusing on patterns on the FFMQ scales, rather than linear associations between them. Data on the FFMQ were collected on 817 individuals. Cluster analysis according to the LICUR procedure was used to group these participants in 13 clusters, according to their profiles of scores on the five FFMQ scales. Of the participants, 325 were categorized as meditators and 317 as non-meditators. To test hypotheses about the relation between Observing and mindfulness (which we assumed should be higher among meditators), the meditators/non-meditators categorization was cross-tabulated with the FFMQ clusters. The results showed that all clusters in which meditators were over-represented had high scores on Observing, and all clusters in which meditators were under-represented had low scores on Observing-which supports the hypothesis that mindfulness is related to high levels of Observing. The relationship between Observing and Non-judging, however, was found to be more complex than expected. The results are discussed in terms of mindfulness seen as a multidimensional skill, which may develop differently in various subgroups of individuals.
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2.
  • Allodi Westling, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Goals and values in school : A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Social climate, participation and learning, Vetenskapsrådet, Swedish Research Council, 2008-4733. - : Springer. ; 13:2, s. 207-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.
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3.
  • Westling Allodi, Mara, 1959- (författare)
  • Undervisningsmiljö och socialt klimat
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: <em>Etik i specialpedagogisk verksamhet</em>. - Lund : Studentlitteratur. - 9789144057255 ; , s. 49-71
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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4.
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5.
  • Boalt Boëthius, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • Om grupphandledning och vägen från klinisk erfarenhet till systematisk forskning.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Mellanrummet: Tidskrift om barn- och ungdomspsykoterapi. - 1404-5559. ; 19, s. 45-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I denna artikel beskrivs vad som väckte vårt intresse för att på ett mer systematiskt sätt utforska grupphandledning som en specifik form för lärande. Som kliniker får man sällan en bild av vad som ligger bakom de forskningsfrågor som ställs. I allmänhet redovisas teoretisk bakgrund, frågeställningar, metoder och resultat som mer eller mindre givna. I verkligheten är det dock sällan så, särskilt inte när det gäller kliniknära forskning, som drivs av en önskan om en fördjupad förståelse, ofta personligt förankrad, av problemområden som gett upphov till specifika frågor.
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6.
  • Johansson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Urban space for children on the move
  • 2019. - 1
  • Ingår i: Transport and Children’s Wellbeing. - : Elsevier. - 9780128146958 - 9780128146941 ; 1, s. 217-235
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urban landscapes, structures and design features are associated with travel mode choice and have implications for sustainable living environments. The particular role of the built environment for children’s independent active mobility has received increasing attention in research and practice. However, the complexity of the transactions between person and environment needs to be understood with special focus on children’s use and experiences of the outdoor spaces in a neighborhood. This chapter discusses children’s independent active mobility as an ongoing transaction with the surrounding environment, continuously shifting between transport and play. The chapter synthesizes research on children’s outdoor play and active travel from the fields of environmental psychology, urban planning and landscape architecture. Four theoretical concepts compatible with a comprehensive understanding of children’s mobility in urban open spaces are presented: place attachment, affordances, wayfinding and prospect-refuge. The concepts are elaborated from a child perspective to highlight dimensions in the planning, design and management of outdoor spaces that can support children’s independent active mobility.
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7.
  • Jägerbrand, Annika K., et al. (författare)
  • Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 86, s. 229-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal–vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.
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8.
  • Brinck, Ingar (författare)
  • Empathy, engagement, entrainment : The interaction dynamics of aesthetic experience
  • Ingår i: Cognitive Processing. - : Springer. - 1612-4782. ; 19:2, s. 201-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Empathy concerns the feeling of understanding others’ experiences from their perspective, and confronts you with the presence of a qualitative experience that you are not living through yourself. In aesthetics empathy has been conceived as bodily inner imitation. Taking a theoretical, interdisciplinary approach that merges insights from psychology, philosophy, and phenomenology within the dynamic framework, I develop an alternative account of empathy as embodied and enactive, and argue that aesthetic experience is grounded in entrainment and emerges in real time during episodes of emotional and material engagement between viewer and artwork. The interaction dynamics between viewer and artwork is organized relative to the viewer's needs and interests as articulated in response to the aesthetic affordances of the context, and has the form of a motion-emotion loop that promotes continuous evaluation and sense-making.
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9.
  • Dekhtyar, Serhiy, et al. (författare)
  • A life-course study of cognitive reserve in dementia: Dementia incidence in inpatient registers and mmse test scores in a clinical study in sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5279. ; 11:7, s. 200-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive reserve helps mitigate the impact of pathology on the clinical expression of dementia. Education and occupational complexity are considered as contributors to reserve, although it has been argued that cognitive reserve is likely formed over the life-course. A life-course model of cognitive reserve in dementia risk has not yet been tested. We apply a life-course model and examine if school grades around age 10, formal educational attainment, and lifetime occupational complexity affect dementia incidence in inpatient registers.
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10.
  • Hahn, Ulrike, et al. (författare)
  • Truth Tracking Performance of Social Networks: How Connectivity and Clustering Can Make Groups Less Competent
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Synthese. - : Springer. - 0039-7857. ; 197:4, s. 1511-1541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our beliefs and opinions are shaped by others, making our social networks crucial in determining what we believe to be true. Sometimes this is for the good because our peers help us form a more accurate opinion. Sometimes it is for the worse because we are led astray. In this context, we address via agent-based computer simulations the extent to which patterns of connectivity within our social networks affect the likelihood that initially undecided agents in a network converge on a true opinion following group deliberation. The model incorporates a fine-grained and realistic representation of belief (opinion) and trust, and it allows agents to consult outside information sources. We study a wide range of network structures and provide a detailed statistical analysis concerning the exact contribution of various network metrics to collective competence. Our results highlight and explain the collective risks involved in an overly networked or partitioned society. Specifically, we find that 96% of the variation in collective competence across networks can be attributed to differences in amount of connectivity (average degree) and clustering, which are negatively correlated with collective competence. A study of bandwagon or “group think” effects indicates that both connectivity and clustering increase the probability that the network, wholly or partly, locks into a false opinion. Our work is interestingly related to Gerhard Schurz’s work on meta-induction and can be seen as broadly addressing a practical limitation of his approach.
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