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1.
  • Lilja, Josefine L., et al. (författare)
  • Observing as an Essential Facet of Mindfulness : A Comparison of FFMQ Patterns in Meditating and Non-Meditating Individuals
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Mindfulness. - : Springer. - 1868-8527 .- 1868-8535. ; 4:3, s. 203-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most comprehensive measures of mindfulness is the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) with five factors-Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness, Non-judging, and Non-reactivity. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses, however, have suggested that only four of the FFMQ factors (i.e. all except Observing) were components of "an overall mindfulness construct"-which is puzzling because Observing represents a core aspect of all definitions of mindfulness. The purpose of the present study was to approach this problem by a person-oriented approach, focusing on patterns on the FFMQ scales, rather than linear associations between them. Data on the FFMQ were collected on 817 individuals. Cluster analysis according to the LICUR procedure was used to group these participants in 13 clusters, according to their profiles of scores on the five FFMQ scales. Of the participants, 325 were categorized as meditators and 317 as non-meditators. To test hypotheses about the relation between Observing and mindfulness (which we assumed should be higher among meditators), the meditators/non-meditators categorization was cross-tabulated with the FFMQ clusters. The results showed that all clusters in which meditators were over-represented had high scores on Observing, and all clusters in which meditators were under-represented had low scores on Observing-which supports the hypothesis that mindfulness is related to high levels of Observing. The relationship between Observing and Non-judging, however, was found to be more complex than expected. The results are discussed in terms of mindfulness seen as a multidimensional skill, which may develop differently in various subgroups of individuals.
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2.
  • Andersson, Linus, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 43:2, s. 129-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.
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3.
  • Aucouturier, Jean-Julien, et al. (författare)
  • Covert digital manipulation of vocal emotion alter speakers' emotional states in a congruent direction
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 113:4, s. 948-953
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research has shown that people often exert control over their emotions. By modulating expressions, reappraising feelings, and redirecting attention, they can regulate their emotional experience. These findings have contributed to a blurring of the traditional boundaries between cognitive and emotional processes, and it has been suggested that emotional signals are produced in a goal-directed way and monitored for errors like other intentional actions. However, this interesting possibility has never been experimentally tested. To this end, we created a digital audio platform to covertly modify the emotional tone of participants' voices while they talked in the direction of happiness, sadness, or fear. The result showed that the audio transformations were being perceived as natural examples of the intended emotions, but the great majority of the participants, nevertheless, remained unaware that their own voices were being manipulated. This finding indicates that people are not continuously monitoring their own voice to make sure that it meets a predetermined emotional target. Instead, as a consequence of listening to their altered voices, the emotional state of the participants changed in congruence with the emotion portrayed, which was measured by both self-report and skin conductance level. This change is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of peripheral feedback effects on emotional experience in the auditory domain. As such, our result reinforces the wider framework of self-perception theory: that we often use the same inferential strategies to understand ourselves as those that we use to understand others.
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4.
  • Blane, Alison, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Behavioural Neurology. - : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 0953-4180 .- 1875-8584.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.
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5.
  • Brännström, Jonas K, et al. (författare)
  • The Process of Developing an Internet-Based Support System for Audiologists and First-Time Hearing Aid Clients
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Audiology. - : American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. - 1059-0889 .- 1558-9137. ; 24:3, s. 320-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In audiologic practice, complementary information sources and access to the clinician between appointments improve information retention and facilitate adjustment behaviors. An Internet-based support system is a novel way to support information sharing and clinician access. Purpose: This research forum article describes the process of developing an Internet-based support system for audiologists and their first-time hearing aid clients. Method: The iterative development process, including revisions by 4 research audiologists and 4 clinical audiologists, is described. The final system is exemplified. Conclusion: An Internet-based support system was successfully developed for audiologic practice.
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6.
  • Bäck, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Interpersonal psychotherapy for eating disorders with co-morbid depression : A pilot study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Psychotherapy. - : Routledge. - 1364-2537 .- 1469-5901. ; 19:4, s. 378-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Patients with eating disorders (ED) often suffer from co-morbid depression, which may complicate the ED treatment. Previous studies have found that ED interventions seem to have limited capacity to reduce depressive symptoms. Several studies of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), have found that when patients have been treated for depression, co-morbid symptoms have diminished. As depression and EDs are commonly co-occurring conditions, this pilot study aimed to examine the effect of an IPT treatment for these conditions, with the focus on the depressive symptoms.Method: In this multi-centre study, 16 patients with EDs and co-occurring major depression received 16 weeks of depression-focused IPT.Results: Significant improvements with substantial effect sizes were found for both depression (d = 1.48) and ED (d =.93). Symptom reduction in the two syndromes were strongly correlated (r = .625, p = .004). Patients with a restrictive ED did not improve on either depression or ED symptoms.Conclusion: These findings point to the usefulness of IPT for concurrent depression and ED with a bingeing/purging symptomatology. Working with negative affect and problem-solving related to current interpersonal problems may alleviate general psychological distress among these patients.
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7.
  • Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting, et al. (författare)
  • Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - : Springer. - 0162-3257 .- 1573-3432. ; 47:9, s. 2658-2670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving performance. Sixteen drivers with ASD and 21 typically-developed drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ASD underperformed in vehicle manoeuvring, especially at left-turns, right-turns and pedestrian crossings. However, drivers with ASD outperformed the TD group in aspects related to rule-following such as using the indicator at roundabouts and checking for cross-traffic when approaching intersections. Drivers with ASD in the current study presented with a range of capabilities and weaknesses during driving.
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8.
  • Claeson, Anna-Sara, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 60, s. 92-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods: Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results: Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions: Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.
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9.
  • Costache, Mădălina Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : PLOS. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.
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10.
  • Danielsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.
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