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  • Frennert, Susanne (författare)
  • Older People Meet Robots : Three Case Studies on the Domestication of Robots in Everyday Life
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores how older people construct meaning, use and make sense of three kinds of robots in their homes. The exploration is undertaken in empirical studies of an assistive robot, an eHealth system, and robotic vacuum cleaners. The research draws on data collected through interviews and observations of older people in relation to three robots. The results show that older people’s domestication of robots cannot be condensed into one universal formula that fits all older people and all robots. The domestication of a robot is a process of constant shaping through negotiations with other people, other technologies, everyday life practice, society, and in relation to and with the robot and ourselves. For robots to be meaningfully and seamlessly integrated into older people’s everyday lives they need to be easy to use and desirable. But they also need to fit into the participants’ home practices. These include older person’s household activities, hobbies, interests, network of people, and the technology cluster in which the older person is situated. The usage of a robot needs to make sense to the older person; she needs to feel that she is in control of the robot and that the level of maintenance is reasonable. If the usage of a robot makes sense to the older person she will be willing to alter stable practices and routines. An important insight that emerged is how stereotypes of older people as weak, ill and housebound are embodied in robots intended for older people. These stereotypes are also constructed or reinforced by society, developers and older people themselves. The research presented demonstrates how this understanding of older people is situated in the home trials and shaped and maintained through them, which has powerful implications for the future development of robots. The findings further demonstrate that there is a difference between what older people say and what they do. The constructed and socially pervasive image of older people as weak, ill and housebound is apparent in how the older participants talk about robots and their potential. They incorporated robots into their everyday lives (as well as other technologies) that made sense to them, but they were unable to do so with robots that did not make sense to them. Instead the “practice of trying out a robot at home” ran parallel with the practices of everyday life during the home trials and became an end in itself. The main finding is not the serious implications of the stereotypical image of older people per se, but rather an understanding of how this stereotype is situated, shaped and maintained in the development. The thesis argues that by recognising the form older people’s participation and influence takes in current robotic developments, we can gain an understanding of the aspects that need to be scrutinised in order to find alternatives to current robotic developments.
  • Frid, Emma, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Music Creation by Example
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings CHI '20: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. - : Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). ; , s. 1-13
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Short online videos have become the dominating media on social platforms. However, finding suitable music to accompany videos can be a challenging task to some video creators, due to copyright constraints, limitations in search engines, and required audio-editing expertise. One possible solution to these problems is to use AI music generation. In this paper we present a user interface (UI) paradigm that allows users to input a song to an AI engine and then interactively regenerate and mix AI-generated music. To arrive at this design, we conducted user studies with a total of 104 video creators at several stages of our design and development process. User studies supported the effectiveness of our approach and provided valuable insights about human-AI interaction as well as the design and evaluation of mixedinitiative interfaces in creative practice.
  • Lindborg, PerMagnus, 1968- (författare)
  • A taxonomy of sound sources in restaurants
  • Ingår i: Applied Acoustics. - 0003-682X .- 1872-910X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Restaurants are complex environments where all our senses are engaged. Physical and psychoacoustic factors have been shown to be associated with perceived environmental quality in restaurants. More or less designable sound sources such as background music, voices, and kitchen noises are believed to be important in relation to the overall perception of the soundscape. Previous research publications have suggested typologies and other structured descriptions of sound sources for some environmental contexts, such as urban parks and offices, but there is no detailed account that is relevant to restaurants. While existing classification schemes might be extendable, an empirical approach was taken in the present work. We collected on-site data in 40 restaurants (n = 393), including perceptual ratings, free-form annotations of characteristic sounds and whether they were liked or not, and free-form descriptive words for the environment as a whole. The annotations were subjected to analysis using a cladistic approach and yielded a multi-level taxonomy of perceived sound sources in restaurants. Ten different classification taxa were evaluated by comparing the respondents' Liking of sound sources, by categories defined in the taxonomy, and their Pleasantness rating of the environment as a whole. Correlation analysis revealed that a four-level clade was efficient and outperformed alternatives. Internal validation of the Pleasantness construct was made through separate ratings (n = 7) of on-site free-form descriptions of the environment. External validation was made with ratings from a separate listening experiment (n = 48). The two validations demonstrated that the four-level Sound Sources in Restaurants (SSR) clade had good construct validity and external robustness. Analysis  of the data revealed two findings. Voice-related characteristic sounds including a ‘people’ specifier were more liked than those without such a specifier (d = 0.14 SD), possibly due to an emotional crossmodal association mechanism. Liking of characteristic sounds differed between the first and last annotations that the respondents had made (d = 0.21 SD), which might be due to an initially positive bias being countered by exposure to a task inducing a mode of critical listening. We believe that the SSR taxonomy will be useful for field research and simulation design. The empirical findings might inform theory, specifically research charting the perception of sound sources in multimodal environments.
  • Lindh, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Consumer Perceptions of Food Packaging: Contributing to or Counteracting Environmentally Sustainable Development?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Packaging Technology & Science. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0894-3214 .- 1099-1522. ; 29:1, s. 3-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Packaging has a fundamental role in ensuring safe delivery of goods throughout supply chains to the end consumer in good condition. It also has great potential to contribute to sustainable development. This paper explores and provides insights on Swedish consumer perceptions and knowledge of environmental aspects of food packaging and elaborates on how these can contribute to or counteract environmentally sustainable development. A study based on a consumer survey carried out in Sweden is presented. A review of recent packaging research emphasizes the protective function of packaging as its most important contribution to the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Contrary to this, consumers almost exclusively refer to the packaging material when it comes to their perceptions of the environmental impact of packaging. Paper-based packaging is strongly understood by the surveyed consumers to be environmentally advantageous, whereas plastic and metal are not. This study further indicates that a majority of the Swedish consumers surveyed are aware of their shortcomings in judging the environmental status of food packaging, indicating a need for guidance; otherwise, consumer choices can unintendedly counteract environmentally sustainable intentions.
  • Normark, Carl Jörgen, PhD, et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics. - : InderScience Publishers. - 2045-7804 .- 2045-7812. ; 6:3, s. 208-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Highly specialised personnel are dependent on others and diverse systems to perform error-free aircraft maintenance. Research has shown that the maintenance process can be improved to reduce errors and increase usability by using a mobile tool. The goal of this project was to draw on theories of user-centred design to explore what human factors issues for maintenance personnel can be addressed by a mobile tool to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up. Military aircraft maintenance personnel at an air force unit were interviewed and observed. The following six problem areas that could be improved by the use of a mobile tool were identified: several information sources must constantly be consulted; information is constantly transferred between different locations and media types; technical documentation can be inconsistent and hard to access; there are strict hierarchies and certifications of personnel; the means of recording and transferring communicative information are insufficient; and there can be a long lag time for updates, error reporting and feedback of actions. A correctly designed mobile tool could solve these problems by combining all the information sources and recording relevant maintenance information.
  • Asplund, S., et al. (författare)
  • SWAY - designing for balance and posture awareness
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: TEI 2018 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction. - New York : Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). - 9781450355681 ; , s. 470-475
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the SWAY prototype that encourages people to explore aspects around balance and posture in a playful way. The prototype senses small movements and shifts in posture using a Kinect sensor, and translates these movements to the tilting of a platform holding a set of marbles, and to haptic feedback in the form of vibrations. The prototype provides an interactive experience focusing on building body awareness with a particular focus on balance and posture. The design inquiry provided new insights with respect to reinforcement of bodily experiences and how different modalities affect the guiding of attention.
  • Bergström, Ilias, et al. (författare)
  • Sarka : Sonification and Somaesthetic Appreciation Design
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MOCO'16. - New York : ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. - 9781450343077
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We often take for granted that we have immediate access to our perception and experience of and through our bodies. But inward listening is a demanding activity and thus not easy to learn to perform or design for. With the Sarka mat we want to support the ability to direct attention by providing sound feedback linked to the weight distribution and motion intensity of different parts of the body, and to provide an exemplar for how such design may be conducted. The process of Sarka's creation is informed by Somaesthetic Appreciation Design. We discuss how a sonic feedback signal can influence listeners, followed by how we, in this design, worked to navigate the complex design space presented to us. We detail the design process involved, and the very particular set of limitations which this interactive sonification presented.
  • Haake, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Visual Stereotypes and Virtual Pedagogical Agents
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Educational Technology & Society. - Palmerston North : International Forum of Educational Technology & Society. - 1176-3647 .- 1436-4522. ; 11:4, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper deals with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual pedagogical agents and its potential impact in digital learning environments. An analysis of the concept of visual stereotypes is followed by a discussion of affordances and drawbacks as to their use in the context of traditional media. Next, the paper explores whether virtual pedagogical characters introduce anything novel with regard to the use of visual stereotypes - as compared both to real life interaction between humans and to the use of visual stereotypes in traditional non-interactive media such as magazines, film, television and video. It is proposed that novel affordances, as well as novel drawbacks, indeed are being introduced with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual characters. The conclusion of the paper is that knowledge on these matters can be useful both for developers of educational systems and for educators in enabling them to strengthen some pedagogical settings and activities.
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