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1.
  • Antonopoulou, Io, 1989- (författare)
  • Development of biocatalytic processes for selective antioxidant production
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, EC 3.1.1.73) represent a subclass of carboxylic acid esterases that under normal conditions catalyze the hydrolysis of the ester bond between hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid) and sugar residues in plant cell walls. Based on their specificity towards monoferulates and diferulates, substitutions on the phenolic ring and on their amino acid sequence identity, they have been classified into four types (A-D) while phylogenetic analysis has resulted in classification into thirteen subfamilies (SF1-13). Under low water content, these enzymes are able to catalyze the esterification of hydroxycinnamic acids or the transesterification of their esters (donor) with alcohols or sugars (acceptor) resulting in compounds with modified lipophilicity, having a great potential for use in the tailor-made modification of natural antioxidants for cosmetic, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. The work described in this thesis focused on the selection,characterization and application of FAEs for the synthesis of bioactive esters with antioxidant activity in non-conventional media. The basis of the current classification systems was investigated in relation with the enzymes’ synthetic and hydrolytic abilities while the developed processes were evaluated for their efficiency and sustainability.Paper I was dedicated to the screening and evaluation of the synthetic abilities of 28 fungal FAEs using acceptors of different lipophilicity at fixed conditions in detergentless microemulsions. It was revealed that FAEs classified in phylogenetic subfamilies related to acetyl xylan esterases (SF5 and 6) showed increased transesterification rates and selectivity. In general, FAEs showed preference on more hydrophilic alcohol acceptors and in descending order to glycerol > 1-butanol > prenol. Homology modeling and small molecule docking simulations were employed as tools for the identification of a potential relationship between the predicted surface and active site properties of selected FAEs and the transesterification selectivity.Papers II- IV focused on the characterization of eight promising FAEs and the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of two bioactive esters (prenyl ferulate and L-arabinose ferulate) in detergentless microemulsions. The effect of the medium composition, the donor and acceptor concentration, the enzyme load, the pH, the temperature and the agitation on the transesterification yield and selectivity were investigated. It was observed that the acceptor concentration and enzyme load were crucial parameters for selectivity. Fae125 (Type A, SF5) iiexhibited highest prenyl ferulate yield (81.1%) and selectivity (4.685) converting 98.5% of VFA to products after optimization at 60 mM VFA, 1.5 M prenol, 0.04 mg FAE mL-1, 40oC, 24 h, 53.4:43.4:3.2 v/v/v n-hexane: t-butanol: 100 mM MOPS-NaOH pH 8.0. On the other hand, FaeA1 (Type A, SF5) showed highest L-arabinose ferulate yield (52.2 %) and selectivity (1.120) at 80 mM VFA, 55 mM L-arabinose, 0.02 mg FAE mL-1, 50oC, 8 h, 19.8: 74.7: 5.5 v/v/v n-hexane: t-butanol: 100 mM MOPS-NaOH pH 8.0.In paper V, the effect of reaction media on the enzyme stability and transesterification yield and selectivity was studied in different solvents for the synthesis of two bioactive esters: prenyl ferulate and L-arabinose ferulate. The best performing enzyme (Fae125) was used in the optimization of reaction conditions in the best solvent (n-hexane) via response surface methodology. Both bioconversions were best described by a two-factor interaction model while optimal conditions were determined as the ones resulting in highest yield and selectivity.Highest prenyl ferulate yield (87.5%) and selectivity (7.616) were observed at 18.56 mM prenol mM-1VFA, 0.04 mg FAE mL-1, 24.5 oC, 24.5 h, 91.8: 8.2 v/v n-hexane: 100 mM sodium acetate pH 4.7. Highest L-arabinose ferulate yield (56.2%) and selectivity (1.284) were observed at 2.96 mM L-arabinose mM-1VFA, 0.02 mg FAE mL-1, 38.9 oC, 12 h, 90.5: 5.0: 4.5 v/v/v n-hexane: dimethyl sulfoxide: 100 mM sodium acetate pH 4.7. The enzyme could be reused for six consecutive reaction cycles maintaining 66.6% of its initial synthetic activity. The developed bioconversions showed exceptional biocatalyst productivities (> 300 g product g-1FAE) and the waste production was within the range of pharmaceutical processes.Paper VI focused on the investigation of the basis of the type A classification of a well-studied FAE from Aspergillus niger(AnFaeA) by comparing its activity towards methyl and arabinose hydroxycinnamic acid esters. For this purpose, L-arabinose ferulateand caffeate were synthesized enzymatically. kcat/Kmratios revealed that AnFaeA hydrolyzed arabinose ferulate 1600 times and arabinose caffeate 6.5 times more efficiently than methyl esters. This study demonstrated that short alkyl chain hydroxycinnamate esters which are used nowadays for FAE classification can lead to activity misclassification, while L-arabinose esters could potentially substitute synthetic esters in classification describing more adequately the enzyme specificitiesin the natural environment.
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2.
  • Zerva, Anastasia, et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of Transesterification Reactions with CLEA-Immobilized Feruloyl Esterases from Thermothelomyces thermophila and Talaromyces wortmannii
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - : MDPI. - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 23:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, E.C. 3.1.1.73) are biotechnologically important enzymes with several applications in ferulic acid production from biomass, but also in synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The use of such biocatalysts in commercial processes can become feasible by their immobilization, providing the advantages of isolation and recycling. In this work, eight feruloyl esterases, immobilized in cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) were tested in regard to their transesterification performance, towards the production of prenyl ferulate (PFA) and arabinose ferulate (AFA). After solvent screening, comparison with the activity of respective soluble enzymes, and operational stability tests, FAE125 was selected as the most promising biocatalyst. A central composite design revealed the optimum conditions for each transesterification product, in terms of water content, time, and substrate ratio for both products, and temperature and enzyme load additionally for prenyl ferulate. The optimum product yields obtained were 83.7% for PFA and 58.1% for AFA. FAE125 CLEAs are stable in the optimum conditions of transesterification reactions, maintaining 70% residual activity after five consecutive reactions. Overall, FAE125 CLEAs seem to be able to perform as a robust biocatalyst, offering satisfactory yields and stability, and thus showing significant potential for industrial applications.
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3.
  • Gullfot, Fredrika, 1967- (författare)
  • Synthesis of xyloglucan oligo- and polysaccharides with glycosynthase technology
  • 2009
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Xyloglucans are polysaccharides found as storage polymers in seeds and tubers, and as cross-linking glycans in the cell wall of plants. Their structure is complex with intricate branching patterns, which contribute to the physical properties of the polysaccharide including its binding to and interaction with other glycans such as cellulose. Xyloglucan is widely used in bulk quantities in the food, textile and paper making industries. With an increasing interest in technically more advanced applications of xyloglucan, such as novel biocomposites, there is a need to understand and control the properties and interactions of xyloglucan with other compounds, to decipher the relationship between xyloglucan structure and function, and in particular the effect of different branching patterns. However, due to the structural heterogeneity of the polysaccharide as obtained from natural sources, relevant studies have not been possible to perform in practise. This fact has stimulated an interest in synthetic methods to obtain xyloglucan mimics and analogs with well-defined structure and decoration patterns. Glycosynthases are hydrolytically inactive mutant glycosidases that catalyse the formation of glycosidic linkages between glycosyl fluoride donors and glycoside acceptors. Since its first conception in 1998, the technology is emerging as a useful tool in the synthesis of large, complex polysaccharides. This thesis presents the generation and characterisation of glycosynthases based on xyloglucanase scaffolds for the synthesis of well-defined homogenous xyloglucan oligo- and polysaccharides with regular substitution patterns.
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4.
  • Shafiei, Marzieh, et al. (författare)
  • Palm Date Fibers : Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. - : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) AG.. - 1422-0067 .- 1422-0067. ; 11:11, s. 4285-4296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes.
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5.
  • van den Berg, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Improved solubility of TEV protease by directed evolution.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of biotechnology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0168-1656 .- 1873-4863. ; 121:3, s. 291-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The efficiency and high specificity of tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease has made it widely used for cleavage of recombinant fusion proteins. However, the production of TEV protease in E. coli is hampered by low solubility. We have subjected the gene encoding TEV protease to directed evolution to improve the yield of soluble protein. Libraries of mutated genes obtained by error-prone PCR and gene shuffling were introduced into the Gateway cloning system for facilitated transfer between vectors for screening, purification, or other applications. Fluorescence based in vivo solubility screening was carried out by cloning the libraries into a plasmid encoding a C-terminal GFP fusion. Mutant genes giving rise to high GFP fluorescence intensity indicating high levels of soluble TEV-GFP were subsequently transferred to a vector providing a C-terminal histidine tag for expression, purification, and activity tests of mutated TEV. We identified a mutant, TEV(SH), in which three amino acid substitutions result in a five-fold increase in the yield of purified protease with retained activity.
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6.
  • Brink, Daniel (författare)
  • Understanding and improving microbial cell factories through Large Scale Data-approaches
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Since the advent of high-throughput genome sequencing methods in the mid-2000s, molecular biology has rapidly transitioned towards data-intensive science. Recent technological developments have increased the accessibility of omics experiments by decreasing the cost, while the concurrent design of new algorithms have improved the computational work-flow needed to analyse the large datasets generated. This has enabled the long standing idea of a systems approach to the cell, where molecular phenomena are no longer observed in isolation, but as parts of a tightly regulated cell-wide system. However, large data biology is not without its challenges, many of which are directly related to how to store, handle and analyse ome-wide datasets.The present thesis examines large data microbiology from a middle ground between metabolic engineering and in silico data management. The work was performed in the context of applied microbial lignocellulose valorisation with the end goal of generating improved cell factories for the production of value-added chemicals from renewable plant biomass. Three different challenges related to this feedstock were investigated from a large data-point of view: bacterial catabolism of lignin and its derived aromatic compounds; tolerance of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate; and the non-fermentable response to xylose in S. cerevisiae engineered for growth on this pentose sugar.The bibliome of microbial lignin catabolism is vast and consists of a long-standing cohort of fundamental microbiology, and a more recent cohort of applied lignin biovalorisation. Here, an online database was created with the long-term ambition of closing the gap between the two and make new connections that can fuel the generation of new knowledge. Whole-genome sequencing was used to investigate the genetic basis for observed phenotypes in bacterial isolates capable of growing on different kinds of lignin-derived aromatics. A whole-genome approach was also used to identify key sequence variants in the genotype of an industrial S. cerevisiae strain evolved for improved tolerance to inhibitors and high temperature. Finally, assessment of the sugar signalome of S. cerevisiae was enabled by the design and validation of a panel of in vivo fluorescent biosensors for single-cell cytometric analysis. It was found that xylose triggered a signal similar to that of low glucose in yeast cells engineered with xylose utilization pathways, and that introduction of deletions previously related to improved xylose utilization altered the signal towards that of high glucose.Taken together, the present thesis illustrates how omics-approaches can aid design of laboratory experiments to increase the knowledge and understanding of microorganisms, and demonstrates the need for a combined knowledge of molecular and computational biology in large-scale data microbiology.
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7.
  • Hao, Nanjing, et al. (författare)
  • Glyconanomaterials for biosensing applications
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biosensors & bioelectronics. - : Elsevier. - 0956-5663 .- 1873-4235. ; 76:15, s. 113-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanomaterials constitute a class of structures that have unique physiochemical properties and are excellent scaffolds for presenting carbohydrates, important biomolecules that mediate a wide variety of important biological events. The fabrication of carbohydrate-presenting nanomaterials, glyconanomaterials, is of high interest and utility, combining the features of nanoscale objects with biomolecular recognition. The structures can also produce strong multivalent effects, where the nanomaterial scaffold greatly enhances the relatively weak affinities of single carbohydrate ligands to the corresponding receptors, and effectively amplifies the carbohydrate-mediated interactions. Glyconanomaterials are thus an appealing platform for biosensing applications. In this review, we discuss the chemistry for conjugation of carbohydrates to nanomaterials, summarize strategies, and tabulate examples of applying glyconanomaterials in in vitro and in vivo sensing applications of proteins, microbes, and cells. The limitations and future perspectives of these emerging glyconanomaterials sensing systems are furthermore discussed.
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8.
  • Jansson, Anette, et al. (författare)
  • Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Paper Industry Wastes at Different Solid Contents
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Fermentation - Basel. - : MDPI. - 2311-5637. ; 5:2, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is a cost-effective method for proper management. However, dry digestion of these waste streams has been restricted due to their complex structure, the presence of possible inhibitors and inappropriate operating conditions. In light of this fact, dry digestion of food waste (FW) and paper wastes (PW) was conducted at different total solid (TS) concentrations of reactor mixtures of 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% TS, corresponding to substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio of 0.5 and 1; investigating the optimum operating conditions for effective dry digestion of these complex wastes. The highest methane yields of 402 NmlCH(4)/gVS and 229 NmlCH(4)/gVS were obtained from digestion of FW and PW, respectively at 14%TS corresponding to an S/I ratio of 0.5. Increasing the S/I ratio from 0.5 to 1 and thereby having a TS content of 20% in the reactor mixtures was unfavorable to the digestion of both substrates.
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9.
  • Lage, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • Microalgae Cultivation for the Biotransformation of Birch Wood Hydrolysate and Dairy Effluent
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Catalysts. - : MDPI. - 2073-4344. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to investigate environmentally sustainable sources of organic carbon and nutrients, four Nordic green microalgal strains, Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella saccharophila, Chlorella vulgaris, and Coelastrella sp., were grown on a wood (Silver birch, Betula pendula) hydrolysate and dairy effluent mixture. The biomass and lipid production were analysed under mixotrophic, as well as two-stage mixotrophic/heterotrophic regimes. Of all of the species, Coelastrella sp. produced the most total lipids per dry weight (~40%) in the mixture of birch hydrolysate and dairy effluent without requiring nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium-NPK) supplementation. Overall, in the absence of NPK, the two-stage mixotrophic/heterotrophic cultivation enhanced the lipid concentration, but reduced the amount of biomass. Culturing microalgae in integrated waste streams under mixotrophic growth regimes is a promising approach for sustainable biofuel production, especially in regions with large seasonal variation in daylight, like northern Sweden. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a mixture of wood hydrolysate and dairy effluent for the growth and lipid production of microalgae in the literature.
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10.
  • Matsakas, Leonidas, et al. (författare)
  • A novel hybrid organosolv-steam explosion pretreatment and fractionation method delivers solids with superior thermophilic digestibility to methane
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bioresource Technology. - : Elsevier. - 0960-8524 .- 1873-2976. ; 316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rising environmental concerns and the imminent depletion of fossil resources have sparked a strong interest towards the production of renewable energy such as biomethane. Inclusion of alternative feedstock’s such as lignocellulosic biomass could further expand the production of biomethane. The present study evaluated the potential of a novel hybrid organosolv-steam explosion fractionation for delivering highly digestible pretreated solids from birch and spruce woodchips. The highest methane production yield was 176.5 mLCH4 gVS−1 for spruce and 327.2 mL CH4 gVS−1 for birch. High methane production rates of 1.0–6.3 mL min−1 (spruce) and 6.0–35.5 mL min−1 (birch) were obtained, leading to a rapid digestion, with 92% of total methane from spruce being generated in 80 h and 95% of that from birch in 120 h. These results demonstrate the elevated potential of the novel method to fractionate spruce and birch biomass and deliver cellulose-rich pretreated solids with superior digestibility.
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