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1.
  • Shetty, Sandeep (författare)
  • Optimization of Vehicle Structures under Uncertainties
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Advancements in simulation tools and computer power have made it possible to incorporate simulation-based structural optimization in the automotive product development process. However, deterministic optimization without considering uncertainties such as variations in material properties, geometry or loading conditions might result in unreliable optimum designs. In this thesis, the capability of some established approaches to perform design optimization under uncertainties is assessed, and new improved methods are developed. In particular, vehicle structural problems which involve computationally expensive Finite Element (FE) simulations, are addressed.The first paper focuses on the evaluation of robustness, given some variation in input parameters, the capabilities of three well-known metamodels are evaluated. In the second paper, a comparative study of deterministic, reliability-based and robust design optimization approaches is performed. It is found that the overall accuracy of the single-stage (global) metamodels, which are used in the above study, is acceptable for deterministic optimization. However, the accuracy of performance variation prediction (local sensitivity) must be improved. In the third paper, a decoupled reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) approach is presented. In this approach, metamodels are employed for the deterministic optimization only while the uncertainty analysis is performed using FE simulations in order to ensure its accuracy.In the fifth paper, two new sequential sampling strategies are introduced that aim to improve the accuracy of the metamodels efficiently in critical regions. The capabilities of the methods presented are illustrated using analytical examples and a vehicle structural application.It is important to accurately represent physical variations in material properties since these might exert a major influence on the results. In previous work these variations have been treated in a simplified manner and the consequences of these simplifications have been poorly understood. In the fourth paper, the accuracy of several simple methods in representing the real material variation has been studied. It is shown that a scaling of the nominal stress-strain curve based on the Rm scatter is the best choice of the evaluated choices, when limited material data is available.In this thesis work, new pragmatic methods for non-deterministic optimization of large scale vehicle structural problems have been developed. The RBDO methods developed are shown to be flexible, more efficient and reasonably accurate, which enables their implementation in the current automotive product development process.
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2.
  • Hellman, Pasi, et al. (författare)
  • Development of Quality Management Systems : How Have Disruptive Technological Innovations in Quality Management Affected Organizations?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Quality Innovation Prosperity. - : Quality Innovation Prosperity. - 1335-1745 .- 1338-984X. ; 17:1, s. 104-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This research investigates the history of quality and development of quality management systems. History of quality is investigated from Hammurabi’s law all the way to today’s reigning quality initiatives including ISO, Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. In the last chapters the current state of quality management is being examined. The foresight method is also opened up and examined. The Innovator’s dilemma concept, originally presented by Clayton Christensen, is used to analyse how quality management systems have been evolved in the last 100 years. Special emphasis is placed on the US manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the literature, the concept of Innovator’s dilemma and the fall of US manufacturing are merged. The result is a prime example that the Innovator’s Dilemma is a universal phenomenon. The industry leader is trying to maintain its position and do everything right but still it is destined to fail. The causes and effects are being discussed in later chapters.
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3.
  • Hermans, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Quality management in the new product development : A PPAP approach
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Quality Innovation Prosperity. - : Quality Innovation Prosperity. - 1335-1745 .- 1338-984X. ; 17:2, s. 37-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to test Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) as a tool to build quality into the new product and processes and ensure that it meets the customer expectations. Research method is qualitative method using so called case-study to study the suitability of PPAP as a tool for quality management by building quality right into the new product and process. The case studies have been made with three different kinds of companies. PPAP is suitable tool for quality management in NPD processes when taking into account many requirements about personnel, processes, documentation etc. The paper has some limitations such as limited sample size. The results are encouraging managers to use PPAP as a tool for managing their company’s product development processes, quality work and supply chain partnerships. The manner in which the stakeholders could use to facilitate a sense of partnerships or co-workers aiming the same goals rather than have a traditional customer-seller relationship was valued in this study.
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4.
  • Si, Shubin, et al. (författare)
  • Benchmarking and developing the operational competitiveness of Chinese state-owned manufacturing enterprises in a global context
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Innovation and Learning. - : InderScience Publishers. - 1471-8197 .- 1741-8089. ; 7:2, s. 202-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to study the operational competitiveness of Chinese State-Owned Manufacturing Enterprises (CSOMEs) by analysing the case CSOME and comparing it with other global manufacturing companies in a Global Manufacturing Strategies (GMSS) database for developing innovation and learning. Analytical models are used to analyse the operational competitiveness of the case CSOME and its subsidiaries based on the weights of the multicriteria manufacturing strategies. The operational competitiveness development of its subsidiaries are applied to predict the future operational competitiveness of the case CSOME in a global context. The results show that quality is the most important competitive priority of the case CSOME and the case CSOME have some advantages when competing in a prospector group. The ranking and stability of the operational competitiveness of the case CSOME imply that: (1) the top CSOMEs have a strong operational competitiveness in the global context; however, they have some gaps compared to the top manufacturing enterprises in the world and (2) it will take a long time for the top CSOMEs to improve their operational competitiveness because of a huge organisational structure. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
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5.
  • Tretten, Phillip, et al. (författare)
  • An on-road study of head-up display : preferred location and acceptance levels
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the HFES 55th Annual Meeting. - Las Vegas : Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. - 9780945289395 ; , s. 1914-1918
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of driver’s perceptions of Head-Up Displays (HUD). Many HUD studies have been conducted but few have allowed drivers to test a HUD in their own vehicle, allowing them to choose the best HUD location for themselves. Forty participants drove their own vehicles using a portable HUD, testing different HUD locations and then rating it using the Technology Acceptance Model. The results showed that the HUD was rated as easy to use and the drivers intended to use it in continuation. The drivers wanted the HUD to be located outside of the traffic scene, either to the right, left or below their line of sight. These results give support for new HUD locations and for increased HUD implementation.
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6.
  • Abbasi, Maisam (författare)
  • Exploring Themes and Challenges in Developing Sustainable Supply Chains - A Complexity Theory Perspective
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To develop sustainable supply chains in a way that their negative environmental and social effects are minimized, shortand long-term targets should be set. The transformation of supply chains towards these targets calls for the development of innovative strategies and the need to continuously identify, classify, and tackle the challenges that can hinder the execution of such strategies. To develop innovative strategies, the patterns of current trends and themes need to be learned and the missing ones need to be identified. The purpose of this research was to explore themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chain activities from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Six research studies (RS) were designed and carried out. Two explored the patterns of the themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally and socially sustainable in general (RS1, RS2). One explored freight transport (RS3), one, urban freight distribution (RS4), and one, logistical services (RS5) in particular. RS6 explored a complexity theory perspective (CTP) on managing, governing, and developing sustainable supply chains activities. A CTP was chosen because of its applicability and ability to provide an understanding of the complex phenomena that sustainable development and supply chains represent. During and after the design of each research study, data were collected from a variety of sources and then analyzed by different researchers on some occasions and by different methods. Thus, the research design, data collection, and data analysis were mixed and overlapping, because they were not completely sequentially carried out. The aim of the analysis was to generate knowledge by (re)organizing and categorizing the data collected, by exploring the meaning of the data (i.e., generating information), and identifying their patterns of associations. After assessing the quality of the synthesized knowledge, the results were communicated to several target groups through several communication channels. In RS1, five major themes and challenges were identified in making supply chains environmentally sustainable. RS5 led to a deeper understanding of the insights of logistics service providers (LSPs) about the challenges identified in RS1. RS2 led to the identification of five major themes and eight major challenges in making supply chains socially sustainable. In the context of freight transport in RS3, fifteen major themes and five major challenges emerged. In the context of urban freight distribution in RS4, these numbers were eight major themes and seven major challenges. However, the results (i.e., the generated knowledge) about the themes and challenges were subjective: They were influenced by my interpretation of what had been said, observed, or scientifically written. The results were also relative (related to what had been said, observed, or scientifically written), and influenced by the different methods for collection and analysis of data. By combining the thirty-three identified themes in the research studies and classifying them based on their similarities and overlap, four central themes in making supply chains sustainable emerged out: sustainability in goods and services, sustainability in resources, sustainability in corporation, and sustainability in management and/or governance. Similarly, by combining the twenty-four identified challenges in the research studies and classifying them based on their similarities and overlap, five central challenges in making supply chains sustainable emerged out: shifting the values, difficulties of operationalization, dealing with complexity, difficulties of corporate governance, and SMEs difficulties. Taking a CTP was beneficial in understanding the complexity involved in the central themes of making supply chains sustainable. It also led to further propositions for tackling the challenges.
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7.
  • Abbasi, Maisam, et al. (författare)
  • Themes and Challenges in Making Supply Chains Socially Sustainable
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: [Host publication title missing]. - 9788799743308 ; , s. 182-200
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Purpose of this paper is to explore and classify pattern of the currently discussed themes and challenges in making supply chains socially sustainable. Design/methodology/approach The methodology was based on a systematic review of the existing literature in order to explore what major themes and challenges have been discussed as well as the significant gaps where opportunities for further research can be found. Findings In total five categories of themes were identified, namely goods/service-centric, humancentric, organization-centric, corporate-centric, and management/governance-centric. Challenges were classified into eight categories namely, inadequate and asymmetric knowledge, shifting the values, operationalization, subjectivity in evaluation, difficulties of SMEs, governance complexity,sustainability leakage, and sustainability washing. Research limitations/implications Focus of the paper is on social pillar of sustainable development in context of supply chains. A more holistic investigation of all the three pillars/ bottom lines of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social) can be an opportunity for further research. Practical implications Taking a more holistic view of the pattern of currently discussed themes and challenges may be beneficial in increasing the absorptive capacity of industrial and business practitioners when they design and operationalize innovative strategies in developing sustainable supply chains. Originality/value This paper may increase awareness about the social responsibilities of supply chains actors and stakeholders. It may also guide managers, decision makers, and practitioners to better understand the difficulties, obstacles, or dilemmas that can hinder sustainable development of supply chains. The discussion section provides suggestions for tackling the challenges and a section that elaborates on opportunities for further research.
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8.
  • Abbasi, Maisam, et al. (författare)
  • Who controls logistics emissions? Challenges in making fragmented supply chains environmentally sustainable from a logistics service provider's perspective
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: [Host publication title missing]. - 9788799743308 ; , s. 201-218
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The purpose of this article is to explore the environmental impact of Logistics Service Provider (LSP) activities in the light of increased customer attention and fragmentation of the industry. We try to answer the question, to what extent the LSPs can actually monitor the environmental impact of logistics activities in the supply chain? Design/methodology/approach The methodology of this paper is a literature review, a qualitative interview survey, and three case studies. A framework on sustainability challenges in supply chains derived from the literature is used to structure and analyze the findings. Findings Our findings reveal that despite ambitious environmental schemes communicated by several LSPs, LSPs exert very little control over the actual emissions created from their transport operations. Furthermore, it is clear from this study that any real interest in environmental solutions that impact the cost and time requirements from customers of logistics services are not yet a reality. Research limitations/implications This paper implies that LSP sustainability cannot be investigated in isolation if a company does not manage proprietary resources. Practical implications Our findings imply that environmental policies between different LSPs appear similar, but in practice differs, which stresses the importance of follow-up control by environmentally aware logistics service buyers. Originality/value This paper represents a novel approach as to how LSP environmental policies should be viewed.
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9.
  • Adamson, Göran, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Feature-based control and information framework for adaptive and distributed manufacturing in cyber physical systems
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of manufacturing systems. - : Elsevier. - 0278-6125 .- 1878-6642. ; 43, s. 305-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Modern distributed manufacturing within Industry 4.0, supported by Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), offers many promising capabilities regarding effective and flexible manufacturing, but there remain many challenges which may hinder its exploitation fully. One major issue is how to automatically control manufacturing equipment, e.g. industrial robots and CNC-machines, in an adaptive and effective manner. For collaborative sharing and use of distributed and networked manufacturing resources, a coherent, standardised approach for systemised planning and control at different manufacturing system levels and locations is a paramount prerequisite.In this paper, the concept of feature-based manufacturing for adaptive equipment control and resource-task matching in distributed and collaborative CPS manufacturing environments is presented. The concept has a product perspective and builds on the combination of product manufacturing features and event-driven Function Blocks (FB) of the IEC 61499 standard. Distributed control is realised through the use of networked and smart FB decision modules, enabling the performance of collaborative run-time manufacturing activities according to actual manufacturing conditions. A feature-based information framework supporting the matching of manufacturing resources and tasks, as well as the feature-FB control concept, and a demonstration with a cyber-physical robot application, are presented.
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10.
  • André, Samuel, 1986- (författare)
  • Towards a Platform Approach Supporting the Interface Between Technology - and Product Development
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2016 14th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, May 16-19, 2016.. - : The Design Society. ; , s. 1987-1996
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The separation of technology development (TD) and product development (PD) is adding to the challenge that suppliers face. They are to conduct long term TD and at the same time tailor products when the order arrives. This paper proposes a platform approach in order to describe some conceptual knowledge. An example from the automotive business where early simulations of concepts are performed during TD is presented. The focus is on how these simulations can support the transfer of knowledge from TD to PD and how they are to be described in order to communicate the technology’s ability to adapt.
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