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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(TEKNIK OCH TEKNOLOGIER) hsv:(Medicinteknik) hsv:(Medicinsk bildbehandling) "

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1.
  • Tampu, Iulian Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Deep-learning for thyroid microstructure segmentation in 2D OCT images
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XXV. - : SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide exquisite details of tissue microstructure without traditional tissue sectioning, with potential diagnostic and intraoperative applications in a variety of clinical areas. In thyroid surgery, OCT could provide information to reduce the risk of damaging normal tissue. Thyroid tissue's follicular structure alters in case of various pathologies including the non-malignant ones which can be imaged using OCT. The success of deep learning for medical image analysis encourages its application on OCT thyroid images for quantitative analysis of tissue microstructure. To investigate the potential of a deep learning approach to segment the follicular structure in OCT images, a 2D U-Net was trained on b-scan OCT images acquired from ex vivo adult human thyroid samples a effected by a range of pathologies. Results on a pool of 104 annotated images showed a mean Dice score of 0.74±0.19 and 0.92±0.09 when segmenting the follicular structure and the surrounding tissue on the test dataset (n=10 images). This study shows that a deep learning approach for tissue microstructure segmentation in OCT images is possible. The achieved performance without requiring manual intervention encourages the application of a deep-learning method for real-time analysis of OCT data.
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2.
  • Yousefi, Hossein, et al. (författare)
  • An optimised linear mechanical model for estimating brain shift caused by meningioma tumours
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering. - : Science Publishing Group. - 2376-7227 .- 2376-7235. ; 1:1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estimation of brain deformation plays an important role in computer-aided therapy and image-guided neurosurgery systems. Tumour growth can cause brain deformation and change stress distribution in the brain. Biomechanical models exist that use a finite element method to estimate brain shift caused by tumour growth. Such models can be categorised as linear and non-linear models, both of which assume finite deformation of the brain after tumour growth. Linear models are easy to implement and fast enough to for applications such as IGS where the time is a great of concern. However their accuracy highly dependent on the parameters of the models in this paper, we proposed an optimisation approach to improve a naive linear model to achieve more precise estimation of brain displacements caused by tumour growth. The optimisation process has improved the accuracy of the model by adapting the brain model parameters according to different tomour sizes.We used patient-based tetrahedron finite element mesh with proper material properties for brain tissue and appropriate boundary conditions in the tumour region. Anatomical landmarks were determined by an expert and were divided into two different sets for evaluation and optimisation. Tetrahedral finite element meshes were used and the model parameters were optimised by minimising the mean square distance between the predicted locations of the anatomical landmarks derived from Brain Atlas images and their actual locations on the tumour images. Our results demonstrate great improvement in the accuracy of an optimised linear mechanical model that achieved an accuracy rate of approximately 92%.
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3.
  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • An echo-planar imaging sequence is superior to a steady-state free precession sequence for visual as well as quantitative assessment of cardiac magnetic resonance stress perfusion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 37:1, s. 52-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background To assess myocardial perfusion, steady-state free precession cardiac magnetic resonance (SSFP, CMR) was compared with gradient-echo–echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) as reference. Methods Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion was recorded in 30 patients with SSFP and in another 30 patients with GRE-EPI. Timing and extent of inflow delay to the myocardium was visually assessed. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated. Myocardial scar was visualized with a phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence (PSIR). All scar positive segments were considered pathologic. In MPS, stress and rest images were used as in clinical reporting. The CMR contrast wash-in slope was calculated and compared with the stress score from the MPS examination. CMR scar, CMR perfusion and MPS were assessed separately by one expert for each method who was blinded to other aspects of the study. Results Visual assessment of CMR had a sensitivity for the detection of an abnormal MPS at 78% (SSFP) versus 91% (GRE-EPI) and a specificity of 58% (SSFP) versus 84% (GRE-EPI). Kappa statistics for SSFP and MPS was 0·29, for GRE-EPI and MPS 0·72. The ANOVA of CMR perfusion slopes for all segments versus MPS score (four levels based on MPS) had correlation r = 0·64 (SSFP) and r = 0·96 (GRE-EPI). SNR was for normal segments 35·63 ± 11·80 (SSFP) and 17·98 ± 8·31 (GRE-EPI), while CNR was 28·79 ± 10·43 (SSFP) and 13·06 ± 7·61 (GRE-EPI). Conclusion GRE-EPI displayed higher agreement with the MPS results than SSFP despite significantly lower signal intensity, SNR and CNR.
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4.
  • Ahlander, Britt-Marie, 1954- (författare)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart : Image quality, measurement accuracy and patient experience
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently carried out with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS). CMR is the gold standard for the evaluation of scar after myocardial infarction and MPS the clinical gold standard for ischemia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is at times difficult for patients and may induce anxiety while patient experience of MPS is largely unknown.Aims: To evaluate image quality in CMR with respect to the sequences employed, the influence of atrial fibrillation, myocardial perfusion and the impact of patient information. Further, to study patient experience in relation to MRI with the goal of improving the care of these patients.Method: Four study designs have been used. In paper I, experimental cross-over, paper (II) experimental controlled clinical trial, paper (III) psychometric crosssectional study and paper (IV) prospective intervention study. A total of 475 patients ≥ 18 years with primarily cardiac problems (I-IV) except for those referred for MRI of the spine (III) were included in the four studies.Result: In patients (n=20) with atrial fibrillation, a single shot steady state free precession (SS-SSFP) sequence showed significantly better image quality than the standard segmented inversion recovery fast gradient echo (IR-FGRE) sequence (I). In first-pass perfusion imaging the gradient echo-echo planar imaging sequence (GREEPI) (n=30) had lower signal-to-noise and contrast–to-noise ratios than the steady state free precession sequence (SSFP) (n=30) but displayed a higher correlation with the MPS results, evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively (II). The MRIAnxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ) was validated on patients, referred for MRI of either the spine (n=193) or the heart (n=54). The final instrument had 15 items divided in two factors regarding Anxiety and Relaxation. The instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties (III). Patients who prior CMR viewed an information video scored significantly (lower) better in the factor Relaxation, than those who received standard information. Patients who underwent MPS scored lower on both factors, Anxiety and Relaxation. The extra video information had no effect on CMR image quality (IV).Conclusion: Single shot imaging in atrial fibrillation produced images with less artefact than a segmented sequence. In first-pass perfusion imaging, the sequence GRE-EPI was superior to SSFP. A questionnaire depicting anxiety during MRI showed that video information prior to imaging helped patients relax but did not result in an improvement in image quality.
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5.
  • Banaem, Hossein Yousefi, et al. (författare)
  • Brain tumor modeling : glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Conference on Graphic and Image Processing (ICGIP). - : SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. ; 8285
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.
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6.
  • Bidhult, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Independent validation of metric optimized gating for fetal cardiovascular phase-contrast flow imaging
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1522-2594. ; 81:1, s. 495-503
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To validate metric optimized gating phase-contrast MR (MOG PC-MR) flow measurements for a range of fetal flow velocities in phantom experiments. 2) To investigate intra- and interobserver variability for fetal flow measurements at an imaging center other than the original site.METHODS: MOG PC-MR was compared to timer/beaker measurements in a pulsatile flow phantom using a heart rate (∼145 bpm), nozzle diameter (∼6 mm), and flow range (∼130-700 mL/min) similar to fetal imaging. Fifteen healthy fetuses were included for intra- and interobserver variability in the fetal descending aorta and umbilical vein.RESULTS: Phantom MOG PC-MR flow bias and variability was 2% ± 23%. Accuracy of MOG PC-MR was degraded for flow profiles with low velocity-to-noise ratio. Intra- and interobserver coefficients of variation were 6% and 19%, respectively, for fetal descending aorta; and 10% and 17%, respectively, for the umbilical vein.CONCLUSION: Phantom validation showed good agreement between MOG and conventionally gated PC-MR, except for cases with low velocity-to-noise ratio, which resulted in MOG misgating and underestimated peak velocities and warranted optimization of sequence parameters to individual fetal vessels. Inter- and intraobserver variability for fetal MOG PC-MR imaging were comparable to previously reported values.
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7.
  • Carnicky, J., et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of area at risk in myocardial infarction
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Computers in Cardiology 2007, CAR 2007. - 9781424425334 ; 34, s. 169-172
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study presents a new method for estimation and imaging of the area at risk (AaR) in myocardial infarction (MI). The values of the ST-segment deviations of 12-lead ECG signal were used as input parameters. Based on DECARTO model, the spherical surface was chosen as a reference surface to approximate the ventricular wall. On this surface, the spatial ST vector was projected. The center of AaR was defined as an intersection of the spatial ST vector with spherical surface; the size of the AaR was set to be proportional to the number of electrical leads with ST- segment deviations. The method was tested using data of 10 patients with acute MI. The visual comparison showed good agreement with the AaRECG estimates based originally on the Selvester QRS scoring as well as with a non- electrocardiographic imaging method (SPECT).
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8.
  • Fredriksson, Alexandru Grigorescu, et al. (författare)
  • Turbulent kinetic energy in the right ventricle : Potential MR marker for risk stratification of adults with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons. - 1053-1807 .- 1522-2586. ; 47:4, s. 1043-1053
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To assess right ventricular (RV) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) and a spectrum of pulmonary regurgitation (PR), as well as to investigate the relationship between these 4D flow markers and RV remodeling.Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with rToF and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on PR fraction: one lower PR fraction group (11%) and one higher PR fraction group (>11%). Field strength/sequences: 3D cine phase contrast (4D flow), 2D cine phase contrast (2D flow), and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 1.5T. Assessment: The RV volume was segmented in the morphologic short-axis images and TKE parameters were computed inside the segmented RV volume throughout diastole. Statistical tests: One-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc test; unpaired t-test; Pearson correlation coefficients; simple and stepwise multiple regression models; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).Results: The higher PR fraction group had more remodeled RVs (140 6 25 vs. 107 6 22 [lower PR fraction, P < 0.01] and 93 6 15 ml/m2[healthy, P < 0.001] for RV end-diastolic volume index [RVEDVI]) and higher TKE values (5.95 6 3.15 vs. 2.23 6 0.81 [lower PR fraction, P < 0.01] and 1.91 6 0.78 mJ [healthy, P < 0.001] for Peak Total RV TKE). Multiple regression analysis between RVEDVI and 4D/2D flow parameters showed that Peak Total RV TKE was the strongest predictor of RVEDVI (R25 0.47, P 5 0.002).Conclusion: The 4D flow-specific TKE markers showed a slightly stronger association with RV remodeling than conventional 2D flow PR parameters. These results suggest novel hemodynamic aspects of PR in the development of late complications after ToF repair.
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9.
  • Larsson, David, et al. (författare)
  • Multimodal validation of patient-specific intraventricular flow simulations from 4D echocardiography
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ULTRASONICS SYMPOSIUM (IUS). - : IEEE conference proceedings. - 9781467398978
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The combination of refined medical imaging techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models has enabled the study of complex flow behavior on a highly regional level. Recently, we have developed a platform for patient-specific CFD modelling of blood flow in the left ventricle (LV), with input data and required boundary conditions acquired from 4D echocardiography. The platform robustness has been evaluated with respect to input variable variations, but for any clinical implementation model flow validation is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the patient-specific CFD model against multimodal image-based flow measurements. For the validation, 4D echocardiography was acquired from two healthy subjects, from which LV velocity fields were simulated. In-vivo flows from the same two subjects were then acquired by pulsed wave (PW) Doppler imaging over both LV-valves, and by cine phase-contract magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) at eight defined anatomical planes in the LV. By fusing PC-MRI and the ultrasound acquisitions using a three-chamber alignment algorithm, simulated and measured flows were quantitatively compared. General flow pattern correspondence was observed, with a mean error of 1.4 cm/s and root mean square deviation of 5.7 cm/s for all measured PC-MRI LV-planes. For the PW-Doppler comparison, a mean error of 3.6 cm/s was reported. Overall, the following work represents a validation of the proposed patient-specific CFD platform, and the agreement with clinical data highlight the potential for future clinical use of the models.
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10.
  • Nordebo, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • A parametric model for the changes in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. - : IOP Publishing. - 0022-3727 .- 1361-6463. ; 51:20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Classical homogenization theory based on the Hashin-Shtrikman coated ellipsoids is used to model the changes in the complex valued conductivity (or admittivity) of a lung during tidal breathing. Here, the lung is modeled as a two-phase composite material where the alveolar air-filling corresponds to the inclusion phase. The theory predicts a linear relationship between the real and the imaginary parts of the change in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing, and where the loss cotangent of the change is approximately the same as of the effective background conductivity and hence easy to estimate. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples based on realistic parameter values and frequency ranges used with electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The theory may be potentially useful for imaging and clinical evaluations in connection with lung EIT for respiratory management and control.
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