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1.
  • André, Hampus, 1989- (författare)
  • Resource and Environmental Impacts of Resource-Efficiency Measures Applied to Electronic Products
  • 2018
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Natural resources such as ecosystems, land, water and metals underpin the functioning of economies and human well-being, and are becoming increasingly scarce due to growth in population and affluence. Metals are increasingly demanded for their specific properties as modern technology develops. The dependence on metals is of growing concern due to the environmental impacts related, for example, to energy use and local impacts from mining, as well as the scarcity risks posed by socio-economic, geological and geopolitical constraints. Thus, there is a clear need to use metals and other natural resources more efficiently. The vision of a circular economy has been proposed as a way to do this, for example by improving durability, reusing, repairing and recycling. Such so-called resource-efficiency (RE) measures are commonly assumed to be environmentally beneficial, although the evidence is not plentiful. It is plausible that focusing on recirculating products and materials could shift burdens to other environmental impacts or life cycle stages. It has therefore been argued that a life cycle-based approach, such as in life cycle assessment (LCA), is useful to critically assess the environmental implications of RE measures. LCA aims to quantify the environmental impacts of products over their entire life cycles - from cradle to grave - assessing a wide range of impacts such as toxicity, climate change and metal resource use. For metal resource use, however, there are a number of perspectives as to what constitutes the actual environmental problem. These perspectives are represented in a variety of life cycle impact assessment methods (LCIA) which have previously been shown to give diverging results. Electronic products are emblematic of metal resource use challenges since they deploy a broad spectrum of scarce metals. This thesis aims to provide knowledge on the potential for RE measures to reduce the environmental impacts of electronic products, by addressing the following research questions: (1) What resource-efficiency measures result in reduced potential environmental impacts and resource use – for what types of products and under what conditions? (2) How does extended use of electronic products through design for increased technical lifetime, reuse and repair affect environmental impacts, particularly metal resource use? (3) How does the application of different LCIA methods for metal resource use influence interpretations of resource-efficiency measures applied to electronic products? This thesis builds on three appended papers which are all based on comparative assessments of resource efficiency, studied as resource use and environmental impacts per function delivered, using LCA and material flow analysis. The results indicate that extended use of electronic products through increasing technical lifetimes, reusing and repairing, is generally resource-efficient. Exceptions may occur, however, if extended use is insufficient to motivate impacts from producing more durable products or spare parts. Use extension of electronic products leads to resource efficiency in two distinct ways: through the intended use extension and by increasingly steering material flows into recycling. Further resource efficiency could be realised by combining RE measures over the entire life cycles of products. With regards to metal resource use, the choice of LCIA method can influence the interpretation of the results of RE measures for electronic products. Therefore, it is advisable to use several complementary LCIA methods to minimise the risks of overlooking potentially important resources issues. Furthermore, better understanding and transparency of such issues is valuable in order to provide more comprehensive information to decision-makers.
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2.
  • Johansson, Viktor, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • Value of wind power – Implications from specific power
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Energy. - 0360-5442. ; 126, s. 352-360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the marginal system value of increasing the penetration level of wind power, and how this value is dependent upon the specific power (the ratio of the rated power to the swept area). The marginal system value measures the economic value of increasing the wind power capacity. Green-field power system scenarios, with minimised dispatch and investment costs, are modelled for Year 2050 for four regions in Europe that have different conditions for renewable electricity generation. The results show a high marginal system value of wind turbines at low penetration levels in all four regions and for the three specific powers investigated. The cost-optimal wind power penetration levels are up to 40% in low-wind-speed regions, and up to 80% in high-wind–speed regions. The results also show that both favourable solar conditions and access to hydropower benefit the marginal system value of wind turbines. Furthermore, the profile value, which measures how valuable a wind turbine generation profile is to the electricity system, increases in line with a reduction in the specific power for wind power penetration levels of >10%. The profile value shows that the specific power becomes more important as the wind power penetration level increases. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
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3.
  • Mani, Mahesh, et al. (författare)
  • Simulation and analysis for sustainable product development
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. - 0948-3349. ; 18:5, s. 1129-1136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation plays a critical role in the design of products, materials, and manufacturing processes. However, there are gaps in the simulation tools used by industry to provide reliable results from which effective decisions can be made about environmental impacts at different stages of product life cycle. A holistic and systems approach to predicting impacts via sustainable manufacturing planning and simulation (SMPS) is presented in an effort to incorporate sustainability aspects across a product life cycle. Methods Increasingly, simulation is replacing physical tests to ensure product reliability and quality, thereby facilitating steady reductions in design and manufacturing cycles. For SMPS, we propose to extend an earlier framework developed in the Systems Integration for Manufacturing Applications (SIMA) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. SMPS framework has four phases, viz. design product, engineer manufacturing, engineer production system, and produce products. Each phase has its inputs, outputs, phase level activities, and sustainability-related data, metrics and tools.Results and discussion An automotive manufacturing scenario that highlights the potential of utilizing SMPS framework to facilitate decision making across different phases of product life cycle is presented. Various research opportunities are discussed for the SMPS framework and corresponding information models. The SMPS framework built on the SIMA model has potential in aiding sustainable product development.
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4.
  • Nordelöf, Anders, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Less or different environmental impact?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Systems Perspectives on Electromobility 2013. ; s. 60-75
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Electric and hybrid drivetrains are currently regarded as a promising technology forvehicle propulsion. They can reduce greenhouse and other exhaust gas emissionsfrom road transport. Electric drivetrains are more efficient than conventional internalcombustion engines fuelled by petrol or diesel (Chapter 5), and fully electrifiedvehicles does not give any tailpipe emissions. In addition, electric drivetrains canalso assist in decoupling the transport sector from its heavy reliance on fossilfuels. On the other hand, electric vehicles will require that more electricity isproduced and this can be done from several different energy sources with diverseenvironmental impacts. Furthermore, electric drivetrains require new advancedcomponents (Chapter 3) that result in additional, or at least different, environmentalimpacts compared to conventional vehicles.The trade-off between the benefits when operating of the vehicle and possiblenegative impacts from the production and from energy supply can be analysedusing life cycle assessment (LCA). However, LCA studies come in many shapesand diverging arguments on the utility of technology are based on them. Someadvocate the technology (using for example the well-to-wheels approach to guidegovernment promotion policies on different types of drivetrains and alternative fuel options)1 and others claim that the prospective for electric cars to reduce theenvironmental impacts of mobility is “substantially overrated”2 or that there will be“significant increases in human toxicity“.3This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle impacts of electric vehicles,with general conclusions and examples of results. We review existing researchand sort studies found in literature into categories by asking what we can learnfrom different LCA approaches. More specifically, which answers do we get fromwell-to-wheels (WTW) studies in comparison to complete LCA studies, and whatdifference does it make if a study includes a narrow or broad set of environmentalimpacts. We conclude by summarising these learnings and discuss implicationsfor a set of stakeholders identified in the area of vehicle electrification, such aspolicy makers and various branches of industry.
5.
  • Odenberger, Mikael, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Prospects for CCS in the EU energy roadmap to 2050
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Energy Procedia. - 18766102. ; 37, s. 7573-7581
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to estimate the prospects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the European electricity supply system taking into account possible forthcoming policy based on the recent EU Energy Roadmap communication, which suggests a 93 to 99% reduction in CO2 emissions relative 1990 levels from the electricity sector by the year 2050. Furthermore, the effect of whether or not onshore storage will be accepted is investigated. The work is based on techno-economic modeling of the European electricity generation sector under different assumptions (scenarios) of the future with respect to electricity demand and fuel prices. The results indicate that the contribution from CCS on a member state level depends on local conditions, e.g., access to local fuels like lignite, and whether or not onshore storage will be allowed. Excluding on-shore storage in aquifers, the modeling results give that CCS is centralized around the North Sea. Natural gas fired conventional power plants is likely to be a serious competitor to coal CCS in the short to medium term providing large emission reduction opportunities by fuel shifting from existing coal power plants to new high efficient gas fired combined cycles. Such development can be a barrier for early deployment of CCS, and hence, result in a delay in commercialization of CCS. The scenarios presented in the Energy Roadmap prescribe power systems almost without net CO2 emissions by 2050, which implies that CCS technologies by the year 2050 must be of a zero-emission type. The modeling presented here indicates in general a large increase in technologies with low CO2 emissions, renewables as well as a significant contribution from CCS technologies, where CCS in the investigated scenarios have the potential to contribute as much as 25-35% of total electricity generation at around year 2050.
6.
  • Pizarro, Amalia, et al. (författare)
  • What is the future potential for imports of combustible municipal waste to countries with extensive district heating networks? A case study of Denmark
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Sardinia 2015 Fifteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Europe, landfilling is the most widely used method for managing municipal solid waste. By contrast, the northern European waste market is characterized by high capacities from energy recovery plants, mostly incineration in cogeneration facilities. In Denmark, there is an overcapacity of incineration plants and this study aims to analyse if import of waste is beneficial during an interim period to divert landfilling or if it might be profitable to invest in overcapacity in the long-term in those countries where heat from incineration can be recovered. The energy and waste management system are described through linking of mathematical models, taking a holistic approach. In the short-term it pays off to import waste, avoiding landfilling; however, in the longer-term, benefits from waste trading will depend on the price of heat markets.
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7.
  • Santén, Vendela, 1978- (författare)
  • Exploring logistics actions enabling environmentally sustainable freight transport
  • 2013
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To curb unsustainable freight transport trends; such as transport growth, larger dependency on road transport and generally an increased share of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector, actions needs to be taken among actors in the logistics system. The purpose of this thesis is to explore logistics actions that enable environmentally sustainable freight transport. This explorative research, based primarily on empirical data from interviews, focus groups, and a case study, adopts the perspectives of different actors in the logistics system: transport buyers, freight forwarders, transport operators, and authorities. The thesis identifies a wide range of actions in the logistics system to potentially enable environmentally sustainable freight transport. The perception from actors regarding what actions are important to adopt indicate that more knowledge among actors regarding how transport and traffic work can be reduced and how different actions affect each other are needed; especially how transport buyers acting affect the transport operations performed by freight forwarders and transport operators. By exploring what hinders environmentally sustainable freight transport in the interface between transport buyers and providers, it can be concluded that closer co-operation can provide better internal conditions for actors and new business solutions. Open dialogue, information sharing, and proactivity among both transport buyers and transport providers are essential. Furthermore, in order to increase load factor in practice, actions can be taken by transport buyers in the area of packaging, loading, and booking efficiency. More flexible time requirements will potentially increase the load factor. Gaining positive environmental effects from these changes is dependent on the freight forwarder’s actions in terms of consolidating with other transport buyers’ goods, route planning, and the positioning of vehicles. Since improvements in one actor’s system may not necessarily yield positive effects at a higher system level, it is important to also have a holistic view when aiming for environmentally sustainable freight transport. This thesis contributes with knowledge about how logistics actors can work toward environmentally sustainable freight transportation by providing insight for managers of transport buying and transport providing companies by exemplifying the interactions between actors and actions and their potential effects.
8.
  • Sotnikov, A., et al. (författare)
  • Simulations of a solar-assisted block-heating system
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Solar World Conference 2017.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Two types of simulation software TRNSYS and Polysun are studied to check their suitability for solar district heating system planning. A reference case, a part of the Vallda Heberg district heating system is modelled in both tools and results are compared with available measured data and with each other. Models are successfully calibrated. TRNSYS and Polysun models have deviations in main key figures compared to the reference case less than 2% and less than 8% respectively. A sensitivity analysis of key parameters shows that the two tools give similar results.
9.
  • Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainability Assessment of Infrastructure Elements with Integrated Energy Harvesting Technologies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Energy and Environment. ; s. 221-234
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The possibility of integrating energy harvesting devices into the bridge/tunnel structures along Coastal Highway Route E39 has been investigated in a feasibility study by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). The main advantage of integrating energy conversion devices in a structural element is the reduction of costs compared to stand-alone devices. The construction could be used as a foundation, a mooring point and provide a dry environment for electrical devices. Easy access to the production site could also reduce the cost for installation, operation and maintenance. Two important challenges related to harvesting renewable energy by infrastructure elements, without concerning about the energy source, are to store it or feed the energy to the grid. In the second case, tailoring generation to demand is of critical importance. Tasks such as supply and demand management, for instance, peak hour management, what kind of storage should be used - electrical or thermal - need be solved. Furthermore, integrating energy production devices in a structure might cause negative environmental impacts and affect the life expectancy and maintenance costs of such structures. The potential environmental impacts associated with renewable technologies are the consequences for bird life or marine fauna at the fjord crossing locations, as well as noise and visual impact. Thus, a sustainability assessment should be performed in order to quantify the ecological, economical and societal impacts of the suggested alternatives.
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10.
  • Ahlgren, Serina, et al. (författare)
  • Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. - 1932-104X. ; 9:5, s. 606-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).
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