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1.
  • Earon, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain : A Multivariate Approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ground Water. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0017-467X .- 1745-6584.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.
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2.
  • Paramonova, Svetlana, 1986- (författare)
  • Re-viewing industrial energy-efficiency improvement using a widened system boundary
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Improved energy efficiency in industry is important for reaching the targets within the EU strategy for increased sustainability. However, energy efficiency is not always prioritised within companies, and the improvement potential remains large. This paradox called an energyefficiency gap is explained by energy-efficiency barriers. The low interest in energy efficiency is also explained by the fact that it is not within companies’ core competences and not perceived as strategic. The public policies aiming at closing the gap have thus far been concentrated on the faster diffusion of energy-efficient technologies. This is not sufficient, and the gap can be extended by including energy management practices. To bridge the extended gap, there is a need to introduce an extended system perspective. The aim of this thesis is to  investigate the industrial energy-efficiency potential and possibilities for reaching this potential using an extended system boundary.In this thesis, the extended gap was quantified by means of classification of the energy data covering the most electricity-intensive Swedish industrial companies. The results show that technology-related measures represent 61% of energy savings, whereas management-related measures account for 38%. Energy efficiency due to management-related measures can be improved with lower costs. The energy-efficiency potentials for different levels of industrial motor systems were quantified, showing that the highest potential is found in the measures that include personal involvement and the optimisation of routines. This proves that the general approaches based on technological diffusion seem to not be sufficient to solve the energy paradox.The evaluation of the Swedish energy audit programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proved that there is a lack of energy-related knowledge among SMEs. The implementation rate of measures proposed in the audits is only 54%, while there is also a need to reach the SMEs not covered by the programme. The international study of energy-efficiency potentials did not indicate energy management to be considered by SMEs at all.To bridge the extended gap, the external experts’ knowledge on how to work with energy efficiency has to stay within companies. For this, there is a need for methods based on longterm orientation as well as a systematic view of complicated processes. The methods should be universal and applied in a particular context. An example of such a method for large industries is presented in this thesis, whereas applying it to SMEs is problematic due to limited resources. Participating in networks for energy efficiency can be a way to initiate energy-efficiency work within SMEs on a continuous basis. Moreover, this thesis shows that there is a need for the development of a common taxonomy for energy data as well as the development of a central portal where energy data can be reported and stored. This would simplify the monitoring of energy end-use, the control of measures implementation and the comparison between processes, companies and sectors.
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3.
  • Ahlgren, Serina, et al. (författare)
  • Biofuels from agricultural biomass – Land use change in Swedish perspective
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Swedish parliament has decided that by 2045, Sweden will not be a net emitter of greenhouse gases. There is also a goal to have a fossil fuel free transport sector by 2030. However, the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels and many efforts are needed to lower emissions. Sweden has a relatively high share of biofuels, around 20% of the energy use in domestictransportation. However, almost 90% of these fuels are imported or produced from imported feedstock.In this study it was investigated whether and how the forecast biofuel demand for 2030 (20 TWh) can be met by biofuels produced from domestic feedstock. The scope was narrowed to biomass that does not cause land use change effects, since the European Commission has communicated that useof biofuels based on feedstock which could be used instead for food or feed will not be supported in the future. The reason for this policy decision is that increased biofuel production could stimulate direct land use change (dLUC) or indirect land use change (iLUC), leading to release ofsoil carbon and other greenhouse gases. We found that about 4-10 TWh of biofuels can be produced from iLUC-free agricultural feedstockin Sweden; the range is dependent on the assumed biofuel conversion rate. The raw material studied was (1) agricultural residues, (2) ley produced on previously unused arable land, (3) crops from arable land such as intermediate crops and (4) intensification of ley cultivation.Literature indicates that iLUC-free feedstock from other sectors (forest residues, industrial byproducts and residues, and residues from other parts of society in Sweden, marine feedstock not included) could contribute 8-11 TWh biofuel. In other words, there is good potential to reach the required 20 TWh of biofuels by 2030 based on domestic iLUC-free feedstock. Lowering domesticconsumption of meat and alcoholic beverages and lowering land use for recreational horse keeping could provide additional space for biofuel production.However, steering towards iLUC-free feedstock would mean higher production costs compared to conventional biofuel production. It is therefore of particular interest to study the potential trade-offs between greenhouse gases and economics. The production of ethanol and biogas based on wheatgrain and wheat straw was studied, where wheat grain represented the current production system and wheat straw represented an iLUC-free production system.We conclude that wheat straw-based biofuels do not compete with food production and have lower greenhouse gas emissions than those based on wheat grain, but higher production costs. The reasons for higher production costs are mainly the lower biofuel yield and more expensive pretreatment.In order to enable general conclusions on trade-offs when steering towards iLUC-free feedstock, more case studies are however needed with a larger set of studied feedstocks, biofuels and including other environmental impacts.
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4.
  • Brandin, Jan, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Poisoning of SCR Catalysts used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Topics in catalysis. - : Springer. - 1022-5528 .- 1572-9028. ; 60:17-18, s. 1306-1316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A commercial vanadia, tungsta on titania SCRcatalyst was poisoned in a side stream in a waste incinerationplant. The effect of especially alkali metal poisoningwas observed resulting in a decreased activity at long timesof exposure. The deactivation after 2311 h was 36% whilethe decrease in surface area was only 7.6%. Thus the majorcause for deactivation was a chemical blocking of acidicsites by alkali metals. The activation–deactivation modelshowed excellent agreement with experimental data. Themodel suggests that the original adsorption sites, fromthe preparation of the catalyst, are rapidly deactivated butare replaced by a new population of adsorption sites dueto activation of the catalyst surface by sulphur compounds(SO2, SO3)in the flue gas.
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5.
  • Börjesson, Pål, et al. (författare)
  • Biomass Transportation
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Renewable Energy. - : Elsevier. - 0960-1481. ; 9:1-4, s. 1033-1036, s. 1033-1036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extensive utilisation of logging residues, straw, and energy crops will lead to short transportation distances and thus low transportation costs. The average distance of transportation of biomass to a large-scale conversion plant, suitable for electricity or methanol production using 300 000 dry tonne biomass yearly, will be about 30 km in Sweden, if the conversion plant is located at the centre of the biomass production area. The estimated Swedish biomass potential of 430 PJ/yr is based on production conditions around 2015, assuming that 30% of the available arable land is used for energy crop production. With present production conditions, resulting in a biomass potential of 220 PJ/yr, the transportation distance is about 42 km. The cost of transporting biomass 30-42 km will be equivalent to 20-25% of the total biomass cost. The total energy efficiency of biomass production and transportation will be 95-97%, where the energy losses from transportation are about 20%. Biomass transportation will contribute less than 10% to the total NOx, CO, and HC emissions from biomass production, transportation, and conversion.
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6.
  • Börjesson, Pål, et al. (författare)
  • Future Production and Utilisation of Biomass in Sweden: Potentials and CO2 Mitigation
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: BIOMASS & BIOENERGY. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2909 .- 0961-9534. ; 13:6, s. 399-412
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish biomass production potential could be increased significantly if new production methods, such as optimised fertilisation, were to be used. Optimised fertilisation on 25% of Swedish forest land and the use of stem wood could almost double the biomass potential from forestry compared with no fertilisation, as both logging residues and large quantities of excess stem wood not needed for industrial purposes could be used for energy purposes. Together with energy crops and straw from agriculture, the total Swedish biomass potential would be about 230 TWh/yr or half the current Swedish energy supply if the demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes were the same as today. The new production methods are assumed not to cause any significant negative impact on the local environment. The cost of utilising stem wood produced with optimised fertilisation for energy purposes has not been analysed and needs further investigation. Besides replacing fossil fuels and, thus, reducing current Swedish CO2 emissions by about 65%, this amount of biomass is enough to produce electricity equivalent to 20% of current power production. Biomass-based electricity is produced preferably through co-generation using district heating systems in densely populated regions, and pulp industries in forest regions. Alcohols for transportation and stand-alone power production are preferably produced in less densely populated regions with excess biomass. A high intensity in biomass production would reduce biomass transportation demands. There are uncertainties regarding the future demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes, the amount of arable land available for energy crop production and future yields. These factors will influence Swedish biomass potential and earlier estimates of the potential vary from 15 to 125 TWh/yr.
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7.
  • Granström, Karin, 1974- (författare)
  • Emissions of volatile organic compounds from wood
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The central aim of this thesis is to support the efforts to counteract certain environmental problems caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. The purpose of this work was (1) to develop a method to establish the amount of emitted substances from dryers, (2) to determine the effect of drying medium temperature and end moisture content of the processed material on emissions of monoterpenes and other hydrocarbons, (3) to examine the emissions of monoterpenes during production of pellets, and (4) to examine the natural emissions from forests with an eye to implications for modelling. The measurement method (1) resolves the difficulties caused by diffuse emissions, and also solves the problems associated with high moisture content of the drying medium. The basic idea is to use water vapour to determine the exhaust flow, while a dry ice trap is used both to preconcentrate emitted volatile organic compounds and to determine the moisture content of the drying medium. The method as used in this paper has an uncertainty of 13% using a 95% confidence interval. Emissions from a spouted bed (2) in continuous operation drying Norway spruce sawdust at temperatures of 140°C, 170°C or 200°C was analysed with FID and GC-MS. When the sawdust end moisture content was reduced below 10%wb, emissions of terpenes and volatile organic compounds per oven dry weight increased rapidly. Increased temperature of the drying medium increased the amounts of emitted monoterpenes when sawdust moisture content was below the fibre saturation point. Examination of sawdust and wood pellets from different pellets producers (3) revealed that most of the terpene emissions happened during the drying step, with rotary dryers causing higher emissions than steam dryers. Almost all of the volatile terpenes remaining in wood after drying were released during pelleting. When sawdust with higher moisture content was used in the pellets press, the terpene emissions were increased. Terpenes emitted naturally from vegetation can have an adverse environmental impact. Factors affecting terpene emissions from tree species in Sweden were reviewed (4). Models for prediction of terpene fluxes should include not only temperature but also light intensity, seasonal variation, and a base level of herbivory and insect predation. Prediction of high concentrations of ambient terpenes demand sufficient resolution to capture emission peaks e.g. those caused by bud break.
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