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1.
  • Earon, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain : A Multivariate Approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ground Water. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0017-467X .- 1745-6584.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.
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2.
  • Paramonova, Svetlana, 1986- (författare)
  • Re-viewing industrial energy-efficiency improvement using a widened system boundary
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Improved energy efficiency in industry is important for reaching the targets within the EU strategy for increased sustainability. However, energy efficiency is not always prioritised within companies, and the improvement potential remains large. This paradox called an energyefficiency gap is explained by energy-efficiency barriers. The low interest in energy efficiency is also explained by the fact that it is not within companies’ core competences and not perceived as strategic. The public policies aiming at closing the gap have thus far been concentrated on the faster diffusion of energy-efficient technologies. This is not sufficient, and the gap can be extended by including energy management practices. To bridge the extended gap, there is a need to introduce an extended system perspective. The aim of this thesis is to  investigate the industrial energy-efficiency potential and possibilities for reaching this potential using an extended system boundary.In this thesis, the extended gap was quantified by means of classification of the energy data covering the most electricity-intensive Swedish industrial companies. The results show that technology-related measures represent 61% of energy savings, whereas management-related measures account for 38%. Energy efficiency due to management-related measures can be improved with lower costs. The energy-efficiency potentials for different levels of industrial motor systems were quantified, showing that the highest potential is found in the measures that include personal involvement and the optimisation of routines. This proves that the general approaches based on technological diffusion seem to not be sufficient to solve the energy paradox.The evaluation of the Swedish energy audit programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proved that there is a lack of energy-related knowledge among SMEs. The implementation rate of measures proposed in the audits is only 54%, while there is also a need to reach the SMEs not covered by the programme. The international study of energy-efficiency potentials did not indicate energy management to be considered by SMEs at all.To bridge the extended gap, the external experts’ knowledge on how to work with energy efficiency has to stay within companies. For this, there is a need for methods based on longterm orientation as well as a systematic view of complicated processes. The methods should be universal and applied in a particular context. An example of such a method for large industries is presented in this thesis, whereas applying it to SMEs is problematic due to limited resources. Participating in networks for energy efficiency can be a way to initiate energy-efficiency work within SMEs on a continuous basis. Moreover, this thesis shows that there is a need for the development of a common taxonomy for energy data as well as the development of a central portal where energy data can be reported and stored. This would simplify the monitoring of energy end-use, the control of measures implementation and the comparison between processes, companies and sectors.
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3.
  • Kasiuliene, Alfreda (författare)
  • Peat Coated with Iron Oxides : Purification of Metal(loid)-Contaminated Water and Treatment of the Spent Adsorbent
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In Sweden due to the industrial activities, such as wood impregnation, multiple point sources of arsenic (As) contamination in soil and water bodies are scattered over the country. Metals, such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) or zinc (Zn) at varying concentrations are usually present as well. Since adsorption is a common method to purify contaminated water, research and development of adsorbents have been actively carried out in the last few decades. However, seldom spent sorbent is safely handled afterwards and often end up in landfill, thus creating new problems and posing new risks to humans and environment.The aim of this study was to develop a waste-based adsorbent for simultaneous removal of As and associated metals: Cr, Cu and Zn, and to analyse sustainable ways how to manage the spent adsorbent without creating secondary pollution.In the model system two well-establish adsorbents: Fe oxides (deriving from FeCl3) and peat (waste-based), were combined and the concept of simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic contaminants was tested in a batch adsorption experiment. Due to Fe coating, removal of As and Cr increased by 80% and 30%, respectively, as compared to non-coated peat. Removal of Cu and Zn was higher (up to 15%) on non-coated peat than on Fe-coated peat. Similar results were obtained in the up-scaled column adsorption experiment, where Fe salt was substituted with a waste-based Fe hydrosol. Within the same pH environment (pH=5), Fe-coated peat effectively adsorbed all four investigated contaminants (As, Cr, Cu and Zn). Non-coated peat was effective for Cr, Cu and Zn. While, Fe oxides (coated on sand) adsorbed only As.Three management strategies for spent adsorbents, obtained after column adsorption experiment, were investigated in this study. i) Long-term deposit in a landfill was simulated by exposing spent adsorbents to a reducing environment and evaluating metal(loid) leaching. Leaching of As increased manifold (up to 60% in a 200-day experiment) as compared to the standardized batch leaching experiment under oxidizing conditions. It was determined that about one third of As(V) was reduced to As(III), which is more mobile and toxic. ii) Valorisation of the spent adsorbent was attempted through hydrothermal carbonisation. It was expected that obtained hydrochar could be used as a beneficial soil amendment. However, treatment resulted in the process liquid and the hydrochar both having high loads of As, Cu and Zn. Additional treatment of process water and hydrochar imply higher management costs for spent adsorbents. iii) Possibility of thermal destruction was investigated by combusting spent adsorbents. After the treatment volume of the waste (ash) was by 80-85% smaller as compared to spent adsorbents. Combustion at higher temperature (1100 °C vs 850 °C) resulted into a weaker metal(loid) leaching from ashes. Furthermore, co-combustion with calcium (Ca)-rich lime (waste-based) decreased leaching of all four investigated elements, Cr in particular, below the limit values for waste being accepted at landfills for hazardous waste. Therefore, combustion enabled possibility of safe and long-term deposit of As-bearing ashes. At the same time, less As would be circulating in society. For the future work, studies that could broaden the spectrum of contaminants targeted by Fe-coated peat would be beneficial. At the same time it is important not only to find alternative utilisation methods for Fe-coated peat, but also investigate other management options for the spent adsorbents.
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4.
  • Kasiuliene, Alfreda, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of metal (loid) contaminated solutions using iron-peat as sorbent : is landfilling a suitable management option for the spent sorbent?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. - : Springer. - 0944-1344 .- 1614-7499. ; 26:21, s. 21425-21436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study firstly aimed to investigate the potential of simultaneous metal (loid) removal from metal (oid) solution through adsorption on iron-peat, where the sorbent was made from peat and Fe by-products. Up-flow columns filled with the prepared sorbent were used to treat water contaminated with As, Cu, Cr, and Zn. Peat effectively adsorbed Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas approximately 50% of inlet As was detected in the eluent. Iron-sand was effective only for adsorbing As, but Cr, Cu, and Zn were poorly adsorbed. Only iron-peat showed the simultaneous removal of all tested metal (loid)s. Metal (loid) leaching from the spent sorbent at reducing conditions as means to assess the behaviour of the spent sorbent if landfilled was also evaluated. For this purpose, a standardised batch leaching test and leaching experiment at reducing conditions were conducted using the spent sorbent. It was found that oxidising conditions, which prevailed during the standardised batch leaching test, could have led to an underestimation of redox-sensitive As leaching. Substantially higher amounts of As were leached out from the spent sorbents at reducing atmosphere compared with oxidising one. Furthermore, reducing environment caused As(V) to be reduced into the more-toxic As (III).
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5.
  • Kumpiene, Jurate, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Phosphorus and cadmium availability in soil fertilized with biosolids and ashes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 151, s. 124-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recycling of hygienized municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) to soil as the source of phosphorus (P) is generally encouraged. The use of biosolids, however, has some concerns, such as the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, and the possible presence of pathogens, hormones and antibiotics. Organic substances are destroyed during combustion whereas trace elements could partly be separated from P in different ash fractions. Biomass combustion waste (ash) can instead be considered as an alternative P source. This study evaluates and compares the impact of biosolids and their combustion residues (ashes), when used as fertilizers, on P and Cd solubility in soil, plant growth and plant uptake of these elements. Biosolids were also amended with K and Ca to improve the composition and properties of P in ashes, and incinerated at either 800 °C or 950 °C. Combustion of biosolids improved the Cd/P ratio in ashes by 2–5 times, compared with the initial biosolids. The low Cd content in ashes (4–9 mg Cd (kg P)−1) makes this material a particularly attractive alternative to mineral fertilizers. Significantly higher pore water P (as well as total N) was measured in soils containing biosolids, but plants produced a higher biomass in soil fertilized with ashes. The K and Ca amendments prior to biosolids combustion generally decreased the total Cd in ash, but had little effect on P and Cd uptake and biomass growth. Similarly, the combustion temperature had negligible effect on these factors as well.
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6.
  • Laurenti, Rafael, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring the Environmental Footprint of Leather Processing Technologies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 1088-1980 .- 1530-9290. ; 21:5, s. 1180-1187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The selection of materials and manufacturing processes often determines most of the environmental impact that a product will have during its life cycle. In directing consumption toward products with the least impact on the environment, measuring and comparing material alternatives with site-specific data is a fundamental prerequisite. Within the apparel and footwear industry, some famous brands have recently been basing their advertising on the claim that vegetable-tanned leather is more environmentally friendly than chromiumtanned leather. However, there is a lack of scientific research assessing and comparing vegetable-and chromium-tanned leather in a wider context than the toxicity of chromium. To fill this gap, this study measured and compared the carbon, water, and energy footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processing technology and intermediate processing stages in 12 selected tanneries in seven different countries worldwide. Each tannery proved to be very individual, and therefore attempting to perform this type of analysis without simply producing meaningless generalities is a challenge for companies, researchers, and regulators. The variability in results demonstrates that secondary data for the tanning phase should be utilized with caution in a decision-making context. The use of primary data would be advisable for life cycle assessment studies of leather goods. No significant differences were found in the footprint of vegetable and chromium leather processes, but these are only indicative findings and need confirmation in further studies. An important area needing investigation is then how a fair comparison can be made between renewable natural materials and nonrenewable materials used in both leather-processing technologies.
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7.
  • Liu, Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Review of simulation-based life cycle assessment in manufacturing industry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Production & Manufacturing Research. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2169-3277. ; 7:1, s. 490-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The manufacturing industry has a duty to minimize its environmental impact, and an increasing body of legislation mandates environmental impact evaluations from a life cycle perspective to prevent burden shift. The manufacturing industry is increasing its use of computer-based simulations to optimize production processes. In recent years, several published studies have combined simulations with life cycle assessments (LCAs) to evaluate and minimize the environmental impact of production activities. Still, current knowledge of simulations conducted for LCAs is rather disjointed. This paper accordingly reviews the literature covering simulation-based LCAs of production processes. The results of the review and cross-comparison of papers are structured in terms of seven elements in line with the ISO standard definition of LCA and report the strengths and limitations of the reviewed studies. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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8.
  • Metson, Genevieve, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Efficiency Through Proximity : Changes in Phosphorus Cycling at the Urban–Agricultural Interface of a Rapidly Urbanizing Desert Region
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1088-1980 .- 1530-9290. ; 16:6, s. 914-927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In tightly coupled socioecological systems, such as cities, the interactions between socio-economic and biophysical characteristics of an area strongly influence ecosystem function. Very often the effects of socioeconomic activities on ecosystem function are unintended, but can impact the sustainability of a city and can have irreversible effects. The food system in its entirety, from production to treatment of human waste, is one of the most important contributors to the way phosphorus (P) cycles through cities. In this article we examined the changes in P dynamics at the urbanï¿œagricultural interface of the Phoenix, Arizona, USA, metropolitan area between 1978 and 2008. We found that the contribution of cotton to harvested P decreased while the contribution of alfalfa, which is used as feed for local dairy cows, increased over the study period. This change in cropping pattern was accompanied by growth in the dairy industry and increased internal recycling of P due to dairy cow manure application to alfalfa fields and the local recycling of biosolids and treated wastewater. The proximity of urban populations with dairies and feed production and low runoff in this arid climate have facilitated this serendipitous recycling. Currently P is not strongly regulated or intentionally managed in this system, but farmers’ behaviors, shaped largely by market forces and policies related to water recycling, unintentionally affect P cycling. This underscores the need to move from unintentional to deliberate and holistic management of P dynamics through collaborations between practitioners and researchers in order to enhance urban sustainability.
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9.
  • Yamauchi, Atsushi, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental variation does not always promote plasticity : evolutionarily realized reaction norm for costly plasticity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research. - 1522-0613 .- 1937-3791. ; 16:8, s. 631-647
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Question: How does environmental variability influence evolutionarily realized phenotypic plasticity? Mathematical method: Optimization in a spatially fluctuating environment. Key assumptions: Either the maintenance cost of plasticity results from the amount of phenotypic response, or it results from the slope of the reaction norm. And there are two alternative types of state-specific benefit functions: either the benefit is maximal at an intermediate phenotype, or it is a monotonically increasing function of phenotype. Conclusion: Organisms may not respond to rare environmental states. In this case, environmental variability suppresses two indices of phenotypic plasticity, i. e. the range of plasticity and the maximum slope of the reaction norm.
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10.
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