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1.
  • Hene, Birgitta, 1948- (författare)
  • "Den dyrkade Lasse och stackars lilla Lotta" en syntaktisk-semantisk studie av personbeskrivande adjektiv och adverb i populära ungdomsböcker
  • 1984
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main aim of this study is to examine how characterizations of persons in books for children and adolescents relate to traditional sex role patterns and to determine if there is any difference in this respect between books for girls and books for boys as well as between popular books and quality books.Eight books for girls, eight books for boys, and four books for both girls and boys are examined. From these books 8,268 adjectives, adverbs, and participles which characterize persons or aspects of persons were excerpted. These excerpts have been categorized with regard to syntactic function into attributive adjectives, predicative adjectives, and adverbials, and with regard to meaning as to membership in semantic fields on different levels.The most frequent syntactic category in the material is "predicative" (42.8%), followed by "attributive" (33.4%). Female characters are more often described by predicative adjectives than are male characters, while the opposite is true of attributive adjectives. The choice of syntactic category seems to be determined more by what property or state the lexical item refers to, however, than by the sex of the character described.The semantic fields with the largest number of excerpts are MENTAL PROPERTIES AND STATES (32.9%), SOCIABILITY (15.0%), DRESS AND APPEARANCE (14.7%), and PACE AND MOVEMENTS (11.4%). These fields also dominate within the different categories of books and the descriptions of female and male characters respectively.Traditional sex role patterns are most obvious in characterizations of role characters with respect to their role in society and their relation to other people. Female characters are, e.g., almost exclusively described with respect to their private lives, while male characters are described in terms of their position in society. In the books for boys male characters are attributed a negative or rejecting attitude to their environment, while female characters are attributed a more positive or accepting attitude.The most traditional impression of the opposite sex is conveyed by the books for boys-to the extent that any such impression is conveyed at all by these books. The books for boys have very few female characters and very few descriptions of them. In general, male characters dominate in the books and it is clearly shown that to be a boy or man is more highly regarded than to be a girl or woman.No general differences between popular books and quality literature emerged from the analyses performed. Traditional sex role patterns are equally pronounced in the two types of books, even if there are differences between individual books.
2.
  • Jönsson, Linda, 1950- (författare)
  • Polisförhöret som kommunikationssituation
  • 1988
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inom ramen för projektet "Framgång och motgång i dialoger" (jfr Aronsson & Linell, 1985) har studier gjorts av kommunikationen mellan professionella och lekmän i bl a rättegångar, närmare bestämt handläggningen av vissa typer av brottmål. Första ledet i undersökningen har behandlat huvudförhandlingar vid domstol (tingsrätt) (se Aronsson m fl, 1987, Adelswärd m fl, 1987 och Adelswärd m fl, 1988) 1. Den föreliggande studien behandlar ett annat led i samma ärendegång, nämligen polisens förhör med den misstänkte som en del av förundersökningen inför ett eventuellt åtal.Arbetets syfte har varit att studera och beskriva kommunikationssituationer från kommunikationsteoretiska, samtalsanalytiska och sociolingvistiska utgångspunkter. Några primärt juridiska, kriminologiska eller rättssociologiska perspektiv har inte anlagts (även om arbetet kan ha relevans för rättssociologin, och vice versa).De olika delprojektens övergripande syfte har varit att studera dialoger med utgångspunkt i situationer där den ena parten i samtalet har en dominerande roll i kraft av högre utbildning och/eller större erfarenhet av situationen, dvs situationer där representanter för t ex en myndighet för en dialog med en lekman eller en representant"för allmänheten. Både rättegångsförhandlingama och polisförhören tillhör den nämnda typen av situationer och de har många gemensamma drag. De är båda led i brottmålsprocessen och styrs av de allmänna processprinciperna (jfr tex .Klette, 1976: 31-38). Dialogerna utgörs i båda fallen av en form av samtal där representanter för de rättskipande myndigheterna, genom att höra en enskild människa, försöker utreda och eventuellt fastställa dennes skuld i anslutning till ett begånget brott. Trots dessa principiella likheter fmns det naturligtvis stora skillnader mellan de båda situationerna och vissa jämförelser kan hjälpa till att belysa vad som är specifika förutsättningar för kommunikationen inom respektive situation.För en mera utförlig och systematisk genomgång av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna och en översikt över tidigare forskning inom området hänvisas till Jönsson (1988). Nedan följer en kortfattad redovisning av de huvudperspektiv utifrån vilka arbetet har bedrivits.
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5.
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (författare)
  • Der Vokalismus im Ostmittelbairischen
  • 1982
  • Ingår i: Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik. - 0044-1449. ; 49:3, s. 289-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Bergström, Inger, 1934- (författare)
  • Grammatical correctness and communicative ability a performance analysis of the written and spoken English of Swedish learners
  • 1987
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Written and oral material produced by a group of low-achieving learners of English from the 2-year lines of the Swedish upper secondary school was analysed from the perspective of grammatical correctness and communicative ability. The grammatical analysis focussed on the verb phrase and tests included both free production in speech and writing and elicitation tests. Communicative ability was assessed ‘ ‘objectively* ’ by identifying such parameters as fluency, copiousness and span, and “holistically” by using non-expert evaluators.The scores thus obtained were correlated. Grammatical correctness was correlated with communicative ability both in speech and in writing and writing proficiency was correlated with speech proficiency with respect to both grammatical correctness and communicative ability.Our findings are that there is a positive correlation between grammatical correctness and communicative ability. A remarkable finding is that the percentage of correct verb phrases correlates very weakly with communicative ability in written data. In oral data, the correlation is in fact slightly negative. The learner’s competence in grammar is reflected in both his written and oral performance. On the other hand, there is no correlation between communicative ability in writing and communicative ability in speech.The study shows that a working command of a set of syntactic rules is essential for communication. Errors are, however, an integral part of the learning process. The major part of errors are accounted for by the learner’s use of compensatory strategies. Among these low-achievers, communicative ability in conversation is distinct from writing ability.
8.
  • Bolander, Maria, 1939- (författare)
  • Predikativens funktion i svenskan om adjektiv som subjektiva predikativ
  • 1980
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The presentworkis a study within a framework of functional grammar, by which is understood a grammar that aims not only at describing variations in syntactic form, but also at identifying their communicative function. The scope of the study is limited to adjectives as predicate complements to subjects. The analysis is based on excerpts from twenty Swedish novels by different authors, and also on some spoken material. Predicate complements can occur with different types of verbs and have, broadly speaking, four possible positions in the sentence: final, middle, initial and extra-posed after the sentence. The final position in the sentence is used for predicate complements that are non-omissible, i.e. are non-omissible in order for the sentence to remain in the same context. In this position, the predicate complement is most clearly rhematic, providing information important to the communicative development of the text. The middle position is used for the omissible predicate complements, i.e. if the predicate complement is deleted, the sentence can still remain in it* s context. The initial position is occupied by predicate complements that provide inferred information. These are mostly thematic. Predicate complements in the final position outside the sentence are more independent, almost of sentence status. Variations in word-order thus affect the information structure of the sentence. These functional rules governing the placement of the predicate complements in a Swedish sentence are also valid for adverbs of manner. In Swedish, these two categories are very close in certain cases where they appear to be interchangeable.The study also shows that sentences comprising copula+predicate complement and sentences comprising verbs of the type l^igga (lie)+predicate complement partly have different functions and occur in different contexts. This functional difference can be correlated with various differences in syntactic behaviour. Verbs of the type Z-i^a+predicate complement often form a semantic unit, in which both the verb and the adjective have a reduced lexical meaning. In this unit the adjective carries the greater information value. Such units are broken by the insertion of the words där/här (there/ here). In these cases, the verb and the adjective no longer constitute a semantic unit and they regain their full lexical meaning. The sentence then has another information structure in which the information value of the verb and the adjective are equally great. Such sentences summarize and/or describe states of affairs;, they do not develope the narrative further.In a study of the function of syntactic variants, analyzing predicate complements to verbs other than copula verbs as reduced sentences is found not to be useful. Paraphrasing predicate complements by full clauses is not meaning preserving: the predicate complement receives greater emphasis and the paraphrase has other presuppositions.
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10.
  • Cunningham-Andersson, Una, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Which Foreign Accents Can Swedes Identify?
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Working Papers in Linguistics. - Lund : Lund University Open Access. ; s. 29-32
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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