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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) srt2:(1990-1999);srt2:(1993)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) > (1990-1999) > (1993)

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  • Brandt, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Myelography in the late postoperative period in patients subjected to anterior cervical decompression and fusion
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica. - Springer. - 0001-6268. ; 122:1-2, s. 97-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a 13 year period, 286 patients with cervical disc herniation and/or spondylotic spurs, were subjected to anterior decompression and vertebral interbody fusion with autologous bone. Twenty patients were re-admitted in the late postoperative period due to recurrent radicular symptoms and/or signs of myelopathy. In these patients myelography was performed again. In 14 patients spinal cord compression and/or nerve root involvement at a new level was visualized. At the operated level, however, the myelograms demonstrated a smooth anterior wall in the spinal canal. The series confirms the safety, effectiveness and reliability of the Cloward procedure in achieving long term spinal cord and nerve root decompression, and a solid vertebral interbody fusion.
  • Bengtsson, H, et al. (författare)
  • Expansion pattern and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms that were not operated on
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Surgery. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1102-4151. ; 159:9, s. 461-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the outcome of selective management of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms, the expansion patterns of the aneurysms, and the factors that influenced the rate of rupture. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Malmo General Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden. SUBJECTS: 155 patients (96 men and 59 women) with abdominal aortic aneurysms who were not selected for operation for whatever reason were included in the study immediately after their first ultrasound scan. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, expansion rate (mm/year) measured on ultrasound scan, and rate of rupture of aneurysm. RESULTS: Median aneurysmal diameter was 40 mm (range 20-80), and length (n = 106) 70 (range 28-140). The patients were followed up for a median of 3.4 years (range 0-10.2). A total of 107 patients died and in 21 the aneurysms ruptured (4 were operated on and survived). Thirteen patients were re-evaluated and operated on electively. Ultrasonography was repeated in 98 patients, the median expansion rates (mm/year) were 3.1 (diameter) and 1.9 (length). There was a significant linear relationship between initial size (diameter and length) and rate of expansion of diameter. The risk of rupture was greater in larger aneurysms that were expanding more quickly. The cumulative mortality was not affected by the 21 aneurysms that ruptured. CONCLUSION: Selective management of patients with aortic aneurysms is justified.
  • Hansen, F, et al. (författare)
  • Non-invasive measurement of pulsatile vessel diameter change and elastic properties in human arteries: a methodological study
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - Wiley Online Library. - 1365-2281. ; 13:6, s. 631-643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A recently developed ultrasound phase-locked echo-tracking system makes it possible to measure non-invasive pulsatile vessel diameter changes, and, in combination with blood-pressure measurement, to calculate pressure strain elastic modulus (Ep) and stiffness (beta). The reproducibility in measurements of pulsatile diameter changes with this system was evaluated. Also the precision of indirect blood-pressure measurements, as compared to the simultaneously measured intra-arterial blood pressure was tested. The resulting reproducibility in pressure strain elastic modulus (Ep) and stiffness (beta) was evaluated. Intra-observer variabilities in measuring pulsatile diameter changes were 16% for the abdominal aorta, 10% for the common carotid artery, and 15% for the common femoral artery, respectively. Intra-observer variabilities for Ep and beta were 21% for both in the abdominal aorta, 17% for both in the common carotid artery, and 18% for both in the common femoral artery, respectively. There were only small differences in indirect and direct measurement of systolic blood pressure, whereas indirect blood pressure measurement systematically overestimated the diastolic blood pressure, on average by 20%. The variabilities in indirect blood pressure measurements were 2% for the systolic and 3% for the diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Inter-observer variability in the investigation of the common carotid artery was 10% for the pulsatile diameter changes, and 21% and 23% for Ep and beta, respectively. Thus, the echo-tracking system represents a reliable system for estimation of pressure strain elastic modulus and stiffness. However, Ep and beta are systematically underestimated by 25-30%, when used in combination with indirect blood pressure measurements.
  • Nilsson, Ola, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Growth factors and carcinoid tumours.
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 0284-186X. ; 32:2, s. 115-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The presence of growth factors and their receptors in human midgut carcinoids and in gastric carcinoids of Mastomys have been investigated. Human midgut carcinoid tumours produce IGF-I as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. IGF-I receptors were detectable in half of the tumours and stimulation of cultured tumour cells with IGF-I enhanced DNA synthesis. IGF-I may therefore act as an autocrine stimulator of carcinoid tumour growth. Expression of TGF-alpha and EGF-receptors could also be demonstrated in midgut carcinoids by immunocytochemistry and Northern analysis, suggesting that TGF-alpha participates in the autocrine modulation of carcinoid growth. Co-culture of human midgut carcinoid tumours and rat fetal cholinergic neurons demonstrated secretion of a potent neuronotrophic factor by cultured tumour cells. IGF-I and TGF-alpha may account for these neuronotrophic effects, but carcinoid tumours may also secrete an as yet unidentified growth factor. Gastric (ECL cell) carcinoids developed rapidly in Mastomys during hypergastrinemia due to histamine2-receptor blockade, suggesting that gastrin is an essential growth factor for these carcinoids.
  • Erlinge, David, et al. (författare)
  • Mitogenic effects of ATP on vascular smooth muscle cells vs. other growth factors and sympathetic cotransmitters
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. - American Physiological Society. - 0002-9513. ; 265:4, s. 1089-1097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The sympathetic nervous system has been shown to exert a trophic influence on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Therefore, we studied the growth-regulating effects of the sympathetic cotransmitters ATP, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and norepinephrine (NE). ATP in concentrations of 1-100 microM greatly increased the incorporation of [3H]thymidine in VSMC from rat aorta and vena cava. ATP also increased cell number and total protein content. The maximal effect on [3H]thymidine incorporation was greater than for epidermal growth factor (20 ng/ml) or insulin (1 microgram/ml) and approximately one-half that of 10% fetal calf serum. The potency series of other nucleotides and analogues of ATP was ATP > beta, gamma-methyleneATP (AMP-PCP) > ADP > adenosine > alpha, beta- methyleneATP (AMP-CPP) > 2-methylthioATP, indicating involvement of a P2 receptor, however, it does not meet proposed pharmacological criteria of either the P2x or P2y subclass. Several proposed P2 receptor antagonists were without effect. The effect of ATP could be mediated by a "nucleotide receptor," since UTP also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation. In our model, there was a strong correlation between the mitogenic effects of ATP, AMP-CPP, AMP-PCP, and UTP and their ability to stimulate influx of extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o). Moreover, the mitogenic effect of ATP was increased by high concentrations of Ca2+o. Taken together with data showing the lack of involvement of several other second-messenger systems, this indicates a critical role for Ca2+o in mediating the mitogenic effects of ATP. Amiloride, known to inhibit the action of several growth factors, also inhibited ATP-induced mitogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • Xu, Cang-Bao, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between cultured bovine arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells: studies on uptake and degradation of low density lipoproteins by smooth muscle cells
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0773. ; 73:5, s. 269-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was designed to investigate the effects of substances released from non-injured and injured bovine arterial endothelial cells on 125I-low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation by smooth muscle cells in culture. It was demonstrated that endothelial cell-released non-dialysable (molecular weight cut off 12-14000) substances significantly stimulated 125I-low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation by smooth muscle cells. Endothelial cell-released dialysable substances and endothelin-1 did not cause this stimulation. The increase in 125I-low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation by smooth muscle cells could be dissociated from cell proliferation. However, in endothelial cell-smooth muscle cell co-culture 125I-low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation by smooth muscle cells were not stimulated. Injury to endothelial cells by lipid-soluble smoke particles or ultraviolet light, which reduced total cellular protein by 15-25%, enhanced the endothelial cell release of the substances stimulating 125I-low density lipoprotein uptake. The results are discussed in relation to atherogenesis.
  • Ekelund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • In-vivo effects of endothelin-1 and ETA receptor blockade on arterial, venous and capillary functions in skeletal muscle
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 148:3, s. 273-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from in vitro studies have indicated that endothelin-1 is a main candidate for endothelium-derived contracting factors. The aim of this in vivo study was to describe in quantitative terms the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and of ETA receptor blockade, on vascular tone (resistance) in large-bore arterial resistance vessels (> 25 microns), small arterioles (< 25 microns) and the veins, as well as on capillary pressure and fluid exchange in cat gastrocnemius muscle. Endothelin-1 (100-1600 ng kg-1 min-1, i.a.) elicited, after an initial transient dilation, a strong dose-dependent constrictor response in all three consecutive vascular sections, yet with a preferential action on the small arterioles and the veins. The vasoconstriction developed very slowly over about 1 h and was also long-lasting after cessation of the infusion. Our main quantitative analysis refers to effects elicited by 20 min long i.a. infusions of ET-1 at a dose of 400 ng kg-1 min-1. At the end of this period, the peptide caused, on average, a three-fold increase in total regional vascular resistance, in turn explained by a 70% increase in large-bore arterial resistance, a 280% increase in arteriolar resistance and a 220% increase in venous resistance. The latter effect was also manifested as a pronounced capacitance response, and as a decrease in the pre- to post-capillary resistance ratio leading regularly to a rise in capillary pressure, net transcapillary fluid filtration and oedema formation which is unusual for a vasoconstrictor. The new specific competitive ETA receptor antagonist FR 139317 was found to be fully effective in vivo, insofar as it abolished the constrictor response to endothelin-1. ETA receptor blockade, or administration of phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of ET-1 production, did not influence the level of basal vascular tone, indicating no significant endogenous release of ET-1 under resting conditions. This contrasts to the established pronounced endogenous release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Finally, vascular myogenic regulation was found not to be mediated by ET-1. The results, taken together, suggest a possible role of ET-1 in long-term, rather than short-term, regulation of vascular tone in vivo, perhaps especially during pathophysiological conditions.
  • Torffvit, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Day and night variation in ambulatory blood pressure in type 1 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy and autonomic neuropathy
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 233:2, s. 131-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to study ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability between day and night in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus with different degrees of diabetic nephropathy, and to evaluate the influence of autonomic neuropathy and type of antihypertensive treatment. Twenty type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and antihypertensive treatment were studied with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an oscillometric method. They were compared with eight insulin-treated diabetic patients with short duration of diabetes (1-5 years) and with 10 apparently healthy subjects. The degree of autonomic neuropathy was evaluated by measuring the RR-interval during deep breathing and uprising. The 24-h blood pressure was generally higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to those other two groups. These patients also had a lower ratio between day and night in diastolic blood pressure compared to the control subjects (1.15 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.76, P < 0.05) and heart rate compared to the diabetic patients without nephropathy, as well as the control subjects (1.15 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.26 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.27 +/- 0.08, P < 0.01, respectively). All patients with diabetic nephropathy had clinical signs of autonomic neuropathy as judged by RR-interval measurements during deep breathing and uprising.
  • Torffvit, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Tubular secretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein is decreased in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Nephron. - Karger. - 0028-2766. ; 65:2, s. 227-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Signs of glomerular, proximal and distal tubular dysfunction as well as metabolic control were studied in type 1 diabetes mellitus. To that end, the urinary excretion rates of albumin, sodium, phosphate and Tamm-Horsfall protein as well as HbA1c levels were measured in 20 patients with different degrees of diabetic nephropathy (positive Albustix for several years). Eight diabetic patients with short duration of diabetes and without any diabetic complications and 10 apparently healthy subjects were studied for comparison. The HbA1c levels in the three groups were 8.6 +/- 1.2, 5.9 +/- 2.2 and 4.1 +/- 0.4%, respectively (mean +/- SD). Duration of diabetes in the two diabetic groups were 27 +/- 7 and 3 +/- 1 years, respectively. The urinary protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays. The fractional clearance of sodium (1.9 +/- 1.9%; p < 0.001) and phosphate (27 +/- 11%; p < 0.01) were increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to diabetic patients without nephropathy (0.6 +/- 0.2 and 16 +/- 4%) and healthy control subjects (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 16 +/- 4%, respectively). Tamm-Horsfall protein excretion rate was decreased in both diabetic groups (15.0x/3.1 and 37.9x/1.9 micrograms/min, geometric mean x/tolerance factor, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively) compared to the healthy subjects (63.8x/1.3 micrograms/min). Furthermore, patients with diabetic nephropathy had a lower excretion rate of Tamm-Horsfall protein (15.0x/3.1 micrograms/min) compared to patients without signs of nephropathy (37.9x/1.9 micrograms/min, p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • Håkansson, Gisela, et al. (författare)
  • Developmental sequences in L1 (normal and impaired) and L2 acquisition of Swedish
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Linguistics. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0802-6106. ; 3:2, s. 131-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This article presents data from an on-going project comparing L1 and L2 acquisition of Swedish syntax. Within the L1 group, normal as well as specifically language impaired (SLI) children are included; the L2 group consists of pre-school immigrant children. The analyses of the data are made within a second language acquisition perspective with a focus on word order. One basic issue within second language acquisition research is the question of natural developmental sequences, i.e. do all learners follow the same development? Another important issue is whether the development in L2 acquisition is the same as or different from L1 acquisition. Both issues are addressed in the study. The results show interesting similarities between the SLI group and the L2 group. The L1 group differed from the other two groups in important ways. The findings suggest that there is no fundamental difference between L1 and L2 acquisition of syntax, as has been claimed.
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