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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) srt2:(1990-1999);srt2:(1994)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) > (1990-1999) > (1994)

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  • Minthon, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Tacrine treatment modifies cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide levels in Alzheimer's disease
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Dementia (Switzerland). - 1013-7424. ; 5:6, s. 295-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biochemical and histochemical studies have demonstrated a widespread deficit in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT). Multiple disturbances in several transmitter systems have been found. The most consistent neurochemical changes in DAT are reductions in the cholinergic system. The major pharmacological approach today in DAT is based on the cholinergic theory assuming that acetylcholine has a major cortical impact on cognitive processes. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA, tacrine) is a centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. A large number of trials have been performed in patients with DAT. This article was to evaluate whether THA treatment induced neuropeptide alteration in DAT before and after 1 year on oral THA treatment.
  • Ahlman, Håkan, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin receptors on neuroendocrine tumors--a way to intraoperative diagnosis and localization.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: The Yale journal of biology and medicine. - 0044-0086. ; 67:3-4, s. 215-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intraoperative radionuclide detection using 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was evaluated in five patients with midgut carcinoids and in three patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma. Three different time intervals (24, 48 and 120 hr) from injection of the radiopharmaceutical to surgery were used. At surgery, suspect tumors were measured by probe in situ and ex vivo after excision. All tissue specimens and blood samples withdrawn during surgery were measured for 111In activity, and tissue/blood activity concentration ratios were calculated. In situ measurements were valuable especially in neck surgery, where the probe was helpful not only in localization of tumors but also in the control of tumor clearance. Ex vivo measurements were helpful in diagnosing tumor tissue. All five patients with midgut carcinoids were somatostatin receptor-positive, while only three out of seven patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma were receptor-positive. The tissue/blood activity concentration ratios and probe measurement ratios were in general higher in patients with midgut carcinoid than in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Of particular interest were the high tissue/blood concentration ratios in all receptor-positive patients at all time intervals studied. This fact suggests a potential role for radiolabelled octreotide in radiotherapy of these tumor types.
  • Lindgren, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Electrocardiographic changes in stroke patients without primary heart disease
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - Wiley Online Library. - 1365-2281. ; 14:2, s. 223-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consecutive electrocardiograms were recorded in 28 stroke patients without signs of primary heart disease. Individuals with subarachnoidal haemorrhage, or electrolyte disturbances were excluded. A computerized tomography of the brain was performed in each case and showed a cerebral haemorrhage (n = 4), cortical infarction (n = 6), subcortical infarction (n = 14) and normal finding (n = 4). One patient developed atrial fibrillation but no other case of serious disturbances in rate of rhythm occurred. None developed AV block, bundle branch blocks or significant changes in QRS complexes. The most common abnormalities in ECG were transient STT changes in lateral leads, which were seen in 13 cases. The typical findings were flat or slightly negative T waves, horizontal or down-sloping ST segments and sometimes a small ST depression. In no case did ECG show typical signs of acute myocardial infarction. A transient prolonged QT interval was seen in three patients and transient U waves in four. ECG did not correlate to the location of the vascular lesion seen on CT or the clinical outcome. It is concluded that STT changes of a small magnitude are seen in about half of the cases of stroke patients without primary heart disease and that they do not resemble the typical pattern of acute myocardial ischaemia.
  • Ohlin, Acke, et al. (författare)
  • Complications after transpedicular stabilization of the spine. A survivorship analysis of 163 cases
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Spine. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0362-2436. ; 19:24, s. 2774-2779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES. The authors studied complications of transpedicular stabilization methods. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. One hundred and sixty-three consecutive transpedicular stabilization procedures were performed between January 1987 and December 1991. The indications for stabilization were trauma (33 cases), metastatic spinal disorder (30 cases), spinal stenosis (33 cases), spondylolisthesis (27 cases), ankylosing spondylitis (6 cases), low back pain (22 cases), and miscellaneous (12 cases). METHODS. Patients records and the entire series of radiographs for each case were scrutinized by independent observers. All per- and postoperative complications, including implant loosening and fatigue, were recorded. Clinical and radiographic survivorship analyses of the implants were performed. RESULTS. Early complications were unusual and none were associated with permanent morbidity. The probability of not having the implant removed in the first postoperative year was 85%. There was a 40% risk of radiographic failure, defined as loosening or implant fatigue, at 6 months. The outcome was more favorable in cases in which anterior vertebral interbody fusion was also performed. CONCLUSIONS. Transpedicular fixation is a safe procedure with a low incidence of serious per- and early postoperative complications. The mechanical durability of transpedicular fixators used alone is a cause for concern.
  • Ahlman, Håkan, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical efficacy of octreotide scintigraphy in patients with midgut carcinoid tumours and evaluation of intraoperative scintillation detection.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: The British journal of surgery. - 0007-1323. ; 81:8, s. 1144-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 111In-diethylenetriamine penta-acetate-D-Phe1-octreotide scintigraphy was evaluated in a group of 27 patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumour. Additional information gained by the intraoperative use of a scintillation detector was studied in five patients with midgut carcinoid tumours and in two with endocrine pancreatic tumours. In 19 patients tumours not recognized by non-invasive radiological methods were visualized in 27 locations, most commonly in liver and para-aortic lymph nodes. Three false-negative tumour locations were noted (ovarian and peritoneal). With guidance from scintigraphic findings, nine patients underwent surgical tumour reduction, leading to complete remission in three. Clinically suspect tumour lesions were measured by the detector in situ, and ex vivo after excision. After excision the tissue:blood activity concentration ratios were calculated. In situ measurements were helpful in the localization of tumours and in the control of adequate clearance of tumour tissue. High tissue:blood activity concentration ratios at 1, 2 and 5 days in the five patients with midgut carcinoid tumour indicate a potential role for radiation therapy with radiolabelled octreotide in patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours.
  • Edvinsson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptide Y in sympathetic co-transmission: recent advances in the search for neuropeptide Y antagonists
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0773. ; 74:4-5, s. 193-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the discovery of neuropeptide Y which is co-stored and co-operate with noradrenaline (NA) in sympathetic nerve fibers, several scientific groups have searched for structures with neuropeptide Y antagonistic properties. Research has mainly focused on various peptide fragments which originate from or are related to the neuropeptide Y sequence. Some non-peptide antagonists have been proposed but they are mostly of low potency and non-selective. Our recent observations that alpha-trinositol (D-myo-inositol 1.2.6-trisphosphate) is an inhibitor of neuropeptide Y effects will hopefully lead to the development of useful non-peptide neuropeptide Y inhibitors. As a novel approach the highly selective approach of down-regulating neuropeptide Y receptors with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides is also discussed. Neuropeptide Y antagonistic agents would help us to understand the physiological role of neuropeptide Y and may serve as useful medication in circulation disorders.
  • Wadenvik, Hans, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Peripheral and intrasplenic platelet kinetics and bone marrow megakaryopoiesis in alpha-2b-interferon treated hairy cell leukemia.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Leukemia research. - 0145-2126. ; 18:8, s. 569-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In eight patients with previously untreated hairy cell leukemia (HCL), by using 111In-labelled platelets and megakaryocyte quantitation, the splenic platelet pooling and the platelet production rate (P) were evaluated before and during alpha-2b-interferon (IFN) treatment. Both before and after 8 months of IFN therapy the spleen was shown to pool a sizeable amount of the total body platelet mass. The average splenic platelet pools, prior to and after 8 months of IFN, were 58 +/- 17 and 47 +/- 11%, respectively. At the time when treatment was initiated, the patients were heterogeneous as regards the spleen size, platelet kinetics, and the bone marrow morphology. Three patients had values for P below the 95th percentile for a group of healthy control subjects; following IFN therapy they displayed a substantial increase in P. In three other HCL patients, with the largest spleens, the pre-treatment P was normal, or slightly above the values seen for the control subjects. In these patients, changes in splenic platelet pool size, blood volume, and platelet mean life-span accounted for the increase in platelet count observed in response to IFN. The mean megakaryocyte number and volume per microliter bone marrow increased during IFN therapy, while the mean P remained slightly reduced. It is concluded that splenic platelet pooling would explain the previously described difference in platelet counts between splenectomized and non-splenectomized patients treated with IFN.
  • Hellquist, Henrik B., et al. (författare)
  • Salivary duct carcinoma : a highly aggressive salivary gland tumour with overexpression of c-erbB-2
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pathology. - West Sussex, United Kingdom : John Wiley & Sons. - 0022-3417. ; 172:1, s. 35-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinicopathological and immunocytochemical features of nine cases of salivary duct carcinoma are described. This relatively rare tumour, which only recently has been widely recognized as a separate entity, is highly malignant and caused the death in eight of the patients. The tumour cells are arranged in cribriform and solid growth patterns, where the solid tumour nests frequently have comedo necrosis, and a fibrous, often sclerotic, stroma is present. The infiltrating desmoplasmic component and the diffuse invasive growth into adjacent adipose parotid tissue have similarities to ductal breast carcinoma. Immunocytochemical investigation of salivary duct carcinoma showed constant overexpression of c-erbB-2 as detected by membrane accentuation, and high proliferative activity as detected by nuclear positivity for MIB 1 (Ki-67). Changes in the expression of p53 and retinoblastoma gene product do not constitute a constant event in salivary duct carcinoma. A few of the tumours showed scattered cells with distinct nuclear positivity for both progesterone and oestrogen receptors. We emphasize that this highly malignant salivary gland tumour has a characteristic morphology, may not be as rare as previously considered, and that prompt and aggressive therapy is needed.
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