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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Allmän medicin) srt2:(2000-2009)"

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1.
  • Sundvall, Pär-Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of dipstick analysis among elderly residents to detect bacteriuria: a cross-sectional study in 32 nursing homes.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC geriatrics. - 1471-2318. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer. RESULTS: 207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84-92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement. CONCLUSION: When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary.
2.
  • Granath, Aina, et al. (författare)
  • Lactose intolerance and long-standing pelvic pain after pregnancy: a case control study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica.. - 0001-6349. ; 86, s. 1273-1276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Long-standing pelvic pain during pregnancy and after delivery (PPP) is common. Its causes are not fully understood. A scientifically, undocumented, clinical observation is PPP patients often reporting unspecific abdominal pain and adverse reactions to milk. The main objective in this pilot study was to investigate if lactose intolerance, celiac disease or allergic propensity are risk factors for developing pelvic pain after delivery. Methods. A matched, case control study, where consecutive patients consulting a registered physiotherapist specialised in treating women with postpartum pelvic pain were compared to matched controls. Results. Lactose intolerance was found in 10 of 15 patients, and in 3 of 15 matched, healthy controls (p=0.05). No difference was seen between groups in the prevalence of celiac disease or allergic propensity. Conclusion. This study suggests that lactose intolerance might be a possible risk factor for pelvic pain after delivery.
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3.
  • Magnil, Maria, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors in elderly primary care patients: a descriptive study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. - 1523-5998. ; 104:6, s. 462-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common in older adults. A majority will be seen in primary care. The aim was to study the prevalence of and to explore factors associated with depressive symptoms in elderly primary care patients. METHOD: In consecutive patients aged 60 years and older attending a Swedish primary care center between February and December of 2003, depressive symptoms were identified as >/= 13 points on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated version (MADRS-S). Somatic symptoms measured according to PRIME-MD, age, socioeconomic status, gender, somatic diagnoses, and medication were analyzed in relation to presence of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Forty-six of 302 patients (15%) rated themselves in the depressed range. There were no differences between depressed and nondepressed patients concerning socioeconomic status, other illnesses, or medication except for use of sedatives/hypnotics being more common (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 5.6) in depressed patients. Patients in the group scoring >/= 13 on the MADRS-S were more likely to have become widowed during the last year (OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 1.7 to 20.8) or to have indicated significant life events (OR = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.0 to 9.0), but were less likely to report having leisure time activities (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.41) or perception of good health (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.3). Patients being treated for depression did not have increased depression scores (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.66 to 3.1). CONCLUSION: In a group of unselected primary care elderly patients, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was high. Use of sedatives/hypnotics was remarkably common in patients with depressive symptoms. Patients with ongoing treatment of depression did not have increased depression scores, indicating the good prognosis for treated depression in the elderly.
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5.
  • Westerstahl, A, et al. (författare)
  • Gender in medical curricula: course organizer views of a gender-issues perspective in medicine in Sweden.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Women & health. - 0363-0242. ; 37:4, s. 35-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While there is growing awareness of the importance of gender issues in medicine, with new knowledge and new perspectives inmedical curricula are scarce. In 1996, the Medical Faculty of Goteborg University, Sweden, determined that a gender-issues perspective be included in medical education. In 1999, course organizers from preclinical and clinical departments of the faculty were interviewed to determine whether they felt that a gender-issues perspective had contributed to their scientific field and, if so, how they implemented it in their teaching. The interviews revealed varied opinions on the relevance of this perspective in medicine. These variations followed gender division rather than that of preclinicians/clinicians. Thus, female gender was overwhelming for inspiring and introducing a gender-issues perspective both scientifically and practically. Positivism is firmly established in medicine and this must be taken into consideration when introducing a more culturally- and socially-based understanding of sex/gender issues. Female gender is important in this process, but successful implementation requires thorough faculty support and participation of male colleagues and students. (C) 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Gunnarsson, RK, et al. (författare)
  • The predictive value of microbiologic diagnostic tests if asymptomatic carriers are present
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Statistics in Medicine. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1097-0258. ; 21:12, s. 1773-1785
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • If a proper gold standard is not available, then the predictive value of a test cannot be estimated. In this paper the concept of etiologic predictive value (EPV) is introduced. It is a quantity that will yield the predictive value of a test to predict presence of a specified disease in situations for which no proper gold standard is available. This is achieved by using information obtained from a healthy control population. This quantity requires that the marker in our test is present in all individuals having the specified disease, as in the case where the marker is the aetiologic factor for the specified disease. Furthermore this quantity requires that asymptomatic carriers are present. This means that not all individuals with the marker has the specified disease. EPV is developed with special reference to the evaluation of bacterial cultures, or rapid tests to detect a bacterium, but the quantity might be used in other circumstances as well. EPV is applied to an example in which conventional throat culture is evaluated. Further information concerning EPV can be found at http://www.infovice.se/fou/epv. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
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7.
  • Persson, Mats, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk stratification by guidelines compared to tisk assessment by risk equations applied to a MONICA sample
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0263-6352. ; 21:6, s. 1089-1095
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) Hypertension Guidelines from 1999 propose a risk stratification scheme for estimating absolute risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk equations estimated by statistical methods are another way of predicting cardiovascular risk. Objective: We studied the differences between these two approaches when applied to the same set of individuals with high blood pressure. Design and methods: The two northernmost counties in Sweden (NSW) constitute one of the centres in the WHO MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Project. Three population surveys have been carried out in 1986, 1990 and 1994, and were used to estimate a risk equation for predicting the 10-year risk of fatal/non-fatal stroke and myocardial infarction. Another MONICA sample from 1999, a total of 5997 subjects, was classified according to the recent WHO/ISH risk stratification scheme. A risk assessment was also performed, by using the risk equations from the NSW MONICA sample and Framingham risk equations. Results: The agreement between the two methods was good when the values obtained from the risk equation were averaged for each risk group obtained from the risk classification by guidelines. However, if the predicted risk for each individual was considered, the agreement was poor for the medium and high-risk groups. Although the average risk for all individuals is the same, many subjects have a higher risk or a lower risk than predicted by guidelines. Conclusions: Risk classification by the 1999 WHO/ISH Hypertension Guidelines is not accurate and detailed enough for medium- and high-risk patients, which could be of clinical importance in the medium risk group.
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8.
  • Andersson, Lena, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary proteins in children with urinary tract infection
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Nephrology. - 0931-041X. ; 24:8, s. 1533-1538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the urinary excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years of age with UTI were enrolled in the study, 44 of whom were febrile. The control group consisted of 23 patients with non-UTI infection and elevated serum CRP (s-CRP) levels. Thirty-six patients had abnormal DMSA uptake, classified as mild, moderate or severe damage (DMSA class 1, 2, 3, respectively). There was a significant association between DMSA class and the excretion of urinary RBP (u-RBP) and u-CC16. There was also a significant difference in u-CRP levels between children with UTI and control children with non-UTI infections, although u-CRP excretion was not significantly correlated to DMSA class. In conclusion, the urinary excretion of the low-molecular-weight proteins RBP and CC16 showed a strong association with uptake defects on renal DMSA scans. The urinary level of CRP seems to distinguish between children with UTI and other febrile conditions. A combination of these biomarkers may be useful in the clinical assessment of children with UTI.
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9.
  • Björkelund, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors with a 36-year perspective: observations from 38- and 50-year-olds in the Population Study of women in Gothenburg
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. - 1502-7724. ; 26:3, s. 140-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To study secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors in four different cohorts of women examined in 1968-1969, 1980-1981, 1992-1993 and 2004-2005. DESIGN: Comparison of four representative cohorts of 38- and 50-year-old women over a period of 36 years. SETTING: Gothenburg, Sweden with approximately 450,000 inhabitants. SUBJECTS: Four representative samples of 38- and 50-year-old women were invited to free health examinations (participation rate 59-90%, n =1901). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), leisure time exercise, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking, levels of haemoglobin, b-glucose, s-cholesterol, s-triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in mean BMI from 1968-1969 versus 2004-2005. Mean leisure time exercise was significantly higher in later born cohorts; in 1968, around 15% were physically active compared with 40% in 2004. SBP and DBP, mean s-cholesterol and s-triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both 38- and 50-year-old cohorts in 2004-2005 versus 1968-1969. HDL-cholesterol (not measured until 1992-1993), showed a significantly higher mean level in 2004-2005. Reduction of risk factors was apparent in women with a high as well as low level of physical activity. Smoking declined most in women with high levels of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Several cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle have improved in middle-aged women from the 1960s until today. Most of the positive trends are observed in women with both low and high physical activity.
10.
  • Faresjö, Å, et al. (författare)
  • A population based case control study of work and psychosocial problems in patients with irritable bowel syndrome : women are more seriously affected than men
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0002-9270. ; 102:2, s. 371-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Everyday psychosocial functioning and quality of life are known to be reduced for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but few previous studies have analyzed associations with functioning in working life. Accordingly, we examined perceptions of working conditions, functioning in the workplace, quality of life, and psychological complaints among IBS patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls.Methods: A case–control study design was used based on 347 IBS patients from Swedish general practice who were compared with age- and sex-matched controls (N = 1,041) randomly selected from the general population. A survey was performed including validated questions concerning job strain, quality of life (SF-36 [Short Form 36]), absence because of illness, depression, anxiety, and sleeping habits.Results: The IBS patients reported considerably more often that their daily performance in working life was affected by their gastrointestinal problems (OR [odds ratio] 7.14, 95% CI 5.45–9.36). Male IBS cases only reported less authority regarding decisions on their working pace (OR 5.44, 95% CI 1.28–23.18), while female IBS patients reported less decision authority regarding planning their work (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.13–4.64), fewer learning opportunities at work (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.26–3.57), and more long-term sick leave than their controls (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.94–7.07). The female IBS cases also reported lower quality of life in all dimensions than their controls.Conclusion: In particular, female IBS patients reported lower authority over decisions at work and problems in their daily functioning in the workplace. These associations persisted after adjustments for possible confounders such as mood, sleeping problems, and perceived health.
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