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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Allmän medicin) > (2020)

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1.
  • Pivodic, Aldina, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Risk Prediction for Sight-Threatening Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Birth Characteristics
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Ophthalmology. - 2168-6165. ; 138:1, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Question: Can a prediction model be constructed for retinopathy of prematurity needing treatment by using only birth characteristics data and applying advanced statistical methods?Findings: In this cohort study of 6947 infants born at gestational age 24 to 30 weeks, the prediction model incorporating only postnatal age, gestational age, sex, and birth weight provided a predictive ability for retinopathy of prematurity needing treatment that was comparable to current models requiring postnatal data (not always available). The risk for retinopathy of prematurity needing treatment increased up to 12 weeks' postnatal age irrespective of the infants' gestational age.Meaning: This prediction model identifying infants with a high risk for developing sight-threatening disease at an early time may improve the conditions for optimal screening. This cohort study creates and validates an easy-to-use prediction model using only birth characteristics and describes a continuous hazard function for retinopathy of prematurity treatment.Importance: To prevent blindness, repeated infant eye examinations are performed to detect severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), yet only a small fraction of those screened need treatment. Early individual risk stratification would improve screening timing and efficiency and potentially reduce the risk of blindness.Objectives: To create and validate an easy-to-use prediction model using only birth characteristics and to describe a continuous hazard function for ROP treatment.Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, Swedish National Patient Registry data from infants screened for ROP (born between January 1, 2007, and August 7, 2018) were analyzed with Poisson regression for time-varying data (postnatal age, gestational age [GA], sex, birth weight, and important interactions) to develop an individualized predictive model for ROP treatment (called DIGIROP-Birth [Digital ROP]). The model was validated internally and externally (in US and European cohorts) and compared with 4 published prediction models.Main Outcomes and Measures: The study outcome was ROP treatment. The measures were estimated momentary and cumulative risks, hazard ratios with 95% CIs, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (hereinafter referred to as AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV).Results: Among 7609 infants (54.6% boys; mean [SD] GA, 28.1 [2.1] weeks; mean [SD] birth weight, 1119 [353] g), 442 (5.8%) were treated for ROP, including 142 (40.1%) treated of 354 born at less than 24 gestational weeks. Irrespective of GA, the risk for receiving ROP treatment increased during postnatal weeks 8 through 12 and decreased thereafter. Validations of DIGIROP-Birth for 24 to 30 weeks' GA showed high predictive ability for the model overall (AUC, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.89-0.92] for internal validation, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.90-0.98] for temporal validation, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.84-0.89] for US external validation, and 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85-0.95] for European external validation) by calendar periods and by race/ethnicity. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were numerically at least as high as those obtained from CHOP-ROP (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia-ROP), OMA-ROP (Omaha-ROP), WINROP (weight, insulinlike growth factor 1, neonatal, ROP), and CO-ROP (Colorado-ROP), models requiring more complex postnatal data.Conclusions and Relevance: This study validated an individualized prediction model for infants born at 24 to 30 weeks' GA, enabling early risk prediction of ROP treatment based on birth characteristics data. Postnatal age rather than postmenstrual age was a better predictive variable for the temporal risk of ROP treatment. The model is an accessible online application that appears to be generalizable and to have at least as good test statistics as other models requiring longitudinal neonatal data not always readily available to ophthalmologists.
2.
  • Brunström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Physician Education and Feedback on Hypertension Management With Patient Blood Pressure and Hypertension Control
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Network Open. - American Medical Association. - 2574-3805. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most important risk factor for premature death worldwide. However, hypertension detection and control rates continue to be suboptimal.Objective: To assess the association of education and feedback to primary care physicians with population-level SBP and hypertension control rates.Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled series of 108 population-based cohort studies involving 283 079 patients used data from primary care centers in 2 counties (Västerbotten and Södermanland) in Sweden from 2001 to 2009. Participants were individuals aged 18 years or older who had their blood pressure (BP) measured and recorded in either county during the intervention period. All analyses were performed in February 2019.Exposures: An intervention comprising education and feedback for primary care physicians in Västerbotten County (intervention group) compared with usual care in Södermanland County (control group).Main Outcomes and Measures: Difference in mean SBP levels between counties and likelihood of hypertension control in the intervention county compared with the control county during 24 months of follow-up.Results: A total of 136 541 unique individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 64.6 [16.1] years; 57.0% female; mean inclusion BP, 142/82 mm Hg) in the intervention county were compared with 146 538 individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 65.7 [15.9] years; 58.3% female; mean inclusion BP, 144/80 mm Hg) in the control county. Mean SBP difference between counties during follow-up, adjusted for inclusion BP and other covariates, was 1.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0-1.1 mm Hg). Hypertension control improved by 8.4 percentage points, and control was achieved in 37.8% of participants in the intervention county compared with 29.4% in the control county (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.29-1.31). Differences between counties increased during the intervention period and were more pronounced in participants with higher SBP at inclusion. Results were consistent across all subgroups.Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that SBP levels and hypertension control rates in a county population may be improved by educational approaches directed at physicians and other health care workers. Similar strategies may be adopted to reinforce the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management.
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4.
  • Linton, Steven J., 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychological Subgrouping to Assess the Risk for the Development or Maintenance of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain : Is This the Way Forward?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0749-8047 .- 1536-5409. ; 36:3, s. 172-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Because musculoskeletal pain problems are so prevalent, new methods of evaluating and treating patients are needed to increase effectiveness. Subgrouping is a method wherein patients are classified into defined groups on the basis of psychosocial factors with the expectation of more specific and tailored treatments can be prescribed for them. For those seeking care for a new episode, the risk of developing chronic pain-related disability is assessed, whereas, for those with existing pain, the risk for the maintenance of the chronic pain problem is evaluated.AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to examine how patients are classified into subgroups with regard to methods of evaluation and to ascertain whether subgrouping actually facilitates treatment.RESULTS: For the development of disability, screening tools, for example, the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire, accurately stratify patients into groups (eg, high, medium, low risk) that predict future pain-related work disability. In addition, several studies show that treatments that directly key in on risk groups enjoy enhanced outcomes compared with treatment as usual. For the maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain problems, there are several instruments that classify patients into specific groups or profiles, for example, on the basis of the avoidance and endurance model or the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment. Although some evidence shows that these classifications are related to treatment outcome, we found no study that directly tested a system for providing treatment matched to the subgrouping for maintenance.CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that it is possible to reliably subgroup patients with musculoskeletal problems. Likewise, treatments that address the risk factors in the screening procedure may enhance outcomes compared with treatment as usual. More work is needed, however, to better understand the mechanism, so that assessment methods can be improved, and treatment specific to subgroups can be developed and evaluated.
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5.
  • Smith, Moira, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of exercise on high-level mobility in individuals with neurodegenerative disease: a systematic literature review
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physiotherapy. - 0031-9406 .- 1873-1465. ; 106, s. 174-193
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Objective: To investigate the effect of exercise on high-level mobility (i.e. mobility more advanced than independent level walking) in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. Data sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, SportDiscus and PEDro. Study selection: Randomised controlled trials of exercise interventions for individuals with neurodegenerative disease, with an outcome measure that contained high-level mobility items were included. High-level mobility items included running, jumping, bounding, stair climbing and backward walking. Outcome measures with high-level mobility items include the High Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT); Dynamic Gait Index; Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) or modified RMI; Functional Gait Assessment and the Functional Ambulation Category. Study appraisal: Quality was evaluated with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Results: Twenty-four studies with predominantly moderate to low risk of bias met the review criteria. High-level mobility items were included within primary outcome measures for only two studies and secondary outcome measures for 22 studies. Eight types of exercise interventions were investigated within which high-level mobility tasks were not commonly included. In the absence of outcome measures or interventions focused on high-level mobility, findings suggest some benefit from treadmill training for individuals with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease. Progressive resistance training for individuals with multiple sclerosis may also be beneficial. With few studies on other neurodegenerative diseases, further inferences cannot be made. Conclusion: Future studies need to specifically target high-level mobility in the early stages of neurodegenerative disease and determine the impact of high-level mobility interventions on community participation and maintenance of an active lifestyle. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO register for systematic reviews (registration number: CRD42016050362).
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6.
  • Vellone, Ercole, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive impairment in patients with heart failure: an international study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ESC Heart Failure. - WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Cognitive impairment (CI) in heart failure (HF) patients has mostly been studied in single countries in specific health care settings. Sociodemographic and clinical predictors of the global CI and CI dimensions are still unclear. We described CI in a diverse HF population recruited in several countries and in different health care settings and investigated sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the global and specific CI dimensions in HF patients. Methods and results A secondary analysis from the baseline data of the Wii-HF trial. Patients (n = 605) were enrolled in Sweden, Italy, Israel, The Netherlands, Germany, and the United States. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment to evaluate CI and the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) to measure exercise capacity. Patients were on average 67 years old (SD, 12), and 86% were in New York Heart Association Class II and III. The mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 24 (SD, 4), and 67% of patients had at least a mild CI. The item evaluating short-term memory had a considerable proportion of low scoring patients (28.1%). Worse CI was associated with patients older age, lower education, and lower 6MWT scores (R-2 = 0.27). CI dimension scores were differently associated with specific clinical and demographic variables, but the 6MWT scores were associated with five out of seven CI dimension scores. Conclusions CI is an important problem in HF patients, with specific challenges in regard to memory. Exercise capacity is a modifiable factor that could be improved in HF patients with the potential to improve cognition and other outcomes in this population.
7.
  • Clapham, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to risperidone versus other antipsychotics and risk of osteoporosis-related fractures a population-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - WILEY. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 141:1, s. 74-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Antipsychotics may increase serum prolactin, which has particularly been observed with risperidone. Further, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to osteoporosis-related fractures. Therefore, we investigated fracture risk in a nationwide cohort exposed to antipsychotics. Methods Swedish registers were used to identify adults with two consecutive dispensations of risperidone (n = 38 211), other atypical antipsychotics not including paliperidone (n = 60 691), or typical antipsychotics (n = 17 445) within three months between 2006 and 2013. An osteoporosis-related fracture was defined as a non-open hip/femur fracture in primary analyses. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Risperidone users were on average older (mean age of 68, 44, and 63 years for risperidone, other atypical antipsychotics, and typical antipsychotics respectively). Compared with other atypical antipsychotics, there was no association between risperidone and osteoporosis-related fractures in the overall (HR = 1.04, CI: 0.91-1.19) or age-stratified analyses. A significantly increased risk of typical antipsychotics (HR = 1.24, CI: 1.07-1.45) compared with other atypical antipsychotics remained for ages >45 years. Conclusion Risperidone does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis-related fracture compared with other atypical antipsychotic agents as a group. For typical antipsychotics, a moderately elevated risk of hip fractures was noted compared with other atypical antipsychotics, possibly because of residual confounding.
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8.
  • Gutefeldt, Kerstin, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Low health-related quality of life is strongly linked to upper extremity impairments in type 1 diabetes with a long duration
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p data-select-like-a-boss="1">Purpose: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic controls and possible links to upper extremity impairments (UEIs). Prevalence of sick-leave and causes were investigated.Materials and methods: This Swedish population-based case-control study included type 1 diabetes patients &lt;67 years old and with a diabetes duration ≥20 years. Participants completed a postal questionnaire including Short Form 36, and questions regarding UEIs, and sick-leave.Results: In total, 773 patients, aged 50 ± 10 years (diabetes duration 35 ± 10 years), and 708 non-diabetic controls, aged 54 ± 9 years, completed the study. Patients reported significantly lower HRQOL compared with controls. The difference was greatest for general health, vitality, and bodily pain. Patients with shoulder or hand but not finger impairments scored significantly lower than asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of sick leave was higher in patients vs. controls (23% vs. 9%, p &lt; 0.001), and nearly half cited impairments from back, muscles, or joints as the main reason.Conclusions: Health-related quality of life is lower in type 1 diabetes than controls and in patients with shoulder and hand impairments than in asymptomatic. Musculoskeletal impairments (back/muscle/joints) have impact on work ability. Identification of UEIs is important for initiating preventative-, therapeutic-, and rehabilitative interventions.Implications for rehabilitationUpper extremity impairments (UEIs) that are common in type 1 diabetes, and associated with reduced health-related quality of life, should preferably be screened for on a regular basis along with other known diabetes complications.Early identification of UEIs is important to improve health by initiating preventive as well as therapeutic multi-professional rehabilitative interventions.Sick leave is higher in type 1 diabetes than in controls. Musculoskeletal impairments, including the back, muscles, and joints, are a common cause for sick leave warranting further studies.
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9.
  • Hinchliffe, Robert J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines of the international writing group on the diabetic foot on diagnosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1520-7552.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) has published evidence-based guidelines on the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease since 1999. This guideline is on the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with foot ulcers and diabetes and updates the previous IWGDF Guideline. Up to 50% of patients with diabetes and foot ulceration have concurrent PAD, which confers a significantly elevated risk of adverse limb events and cardiovascular disease. We know that the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of these patients are markedly different to patients with diabetes who do not have PAD and yet there are few good quality studies addressing this important subset of patients. We followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to devise clinical questions and critically important outcomes in the patient-intervention-comparison-outcome (PICO) format, to conduct a systematic review of the medical-scientific literature, and to write recommendations and their rationale. The recommendations are based on the quality of evidence found in the systematic review, expert opinion where evidence was not available, and a weighing of the benefits and harms, patient preferences, feasibility and applicability, and costs related to the intervention. We here present the updated 2019 guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and management of PAD in patients with a foot ulcer and diabetes, and we suggest some key future topics of particular research interest.
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10.
  • Holster, Savanne, 1991- (författare)
  • Faecal Microbiota Transfer in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Collagenous Colitis : Clinical outcomes and host-microbe interactions
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) aims at restoring a disturbed gut microbiotaby introducing faecal material from a healthy donor into a patient’s intestine. This approach is known as a safe and effective treatment in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. This thesis describes the outcomes of two clinical studies in which FMT was investigated as a therapy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients andin collagenous colitis (CC) patients. Paper I showed that there were no significant differences in IBS symptom scores between patients receiving faecal material from a healthy donor (allogenic FMT) and patients receiving their own faecal material back (autologous FMT). However, unlike autologous FMT, allogenic FMT significantly decreased symptom scores compared to baseline. Additionally, allogenic FMT wasshown to alter the faecal as well as the mucosal microbiota of the IBSpatients. However, also the autologous FMT had an effect on the faecal and mucosal microbiota indicating that the bowel cleansing and/or theprocessing of the autologous faecal material affected the gut microbiota. Paper II showed that the allogenic FMT evoked a clearly different host response in IBS patients than the autologous FMT. Paper III showedthat allogenic FMT did not result in altered faecal metabolite profilesbut in disturbed interactions between the gut microbiota and its metabolites compared to autologous FMT. Paper IV describes the outcomes of the second clinical study in which repeated FMTs resulted inless diarrhoea in a subset of the treated CC patients.Although symptoms improved in both clinical studies, the introduction of a new microbiota by FMT did not seem to be the miracle curefor IBS and CC. However, a subset of patients could benefit from FMT, and a future challenge is to identify this subset. The findings of this thesis are essential for designing further studies aimed at increasing FMT efficacy.
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