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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin) srt2:(1980-1984)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin) > (1980-1984)

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1.
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2.
  • Asp, N G, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fibre in type II diabetes
  • 1982
  • Ingår i: Acta medica Scandinavica. Supplementum. - Almqvist & Wiksell International. - 0365-463X. ; 210:S656, s. 47-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in digestible carbohydrates and dietary fibre might be beneficial in the regulation of type II non insulin dependent diabetes (NIDD). Addition of the gel forming type of dietary fibre such as pectin and guar gum to meals or glucose solutions reduces post-prandial glucose and insulin response. Addition of cereal fibres in the form of bran seems to have long term beneficial effect improving glucose tolerance. Little is known, however, concerning effects of dietary fibre naturally occurring in food on postprandial glucose and hormone response. In the present study we prepared two breakfast meals which were similar regarding digestible carbohydrates but differed in their dietary fibre content. One of the meals, including whole grain bread and whole apples, contained 8.4 g of dietary fibre, and the other one, containing white bread and apple juice, 3.1 g. When given to eight NIDD, the fibre rich breakfast gave significantly lower blood glucose increment during the three hours following ingestion. The results indicate that foods rich in dietary fibre might be useful in the regulation of type II diabetes.
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3.
  • Bini, G, et al. (författare)
  • Regional similarities and differences in thermoregulatory vaso- and sudomotor tone.
  • 1980
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751 .- 1469-7793. ; 306, s. 553-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Skin nerve sympathetic activity was recorded simultaneously from the following pairs of nerves: left and right median, median and peroneal, left and right peroneal, posterior cutaneous antebrachial and superficial radial, posterior cutaneous antebrachial and median. The recordings were performed on healthy subjects exposed to different ambient temperatures. Electrodermal responses and pulse plethysmograms were recorded from the neural innervation zones. 2. Vasoconstriction impulse bursts recorded simultaneously from the median and peroneal nerves during exposure to a cold environment showed a striking similarity with respect to the timing and strength of individual bursts. A similar strong correlation was observed also among sudomotor bursts recorded simultaneously from the posterior cutaneous antebrachial and superficial radial nerve during exposure to a warm environment. 3. On some occasions, such as during exposure to a moderately warm environment or emotional stress, a temporal correlation was also observed between vasoconstrictor bursts recorded from the median and sudomotor bursts recorded simultaneously from the posterior cutaneous antebrachial nerve. 4. The double nerve recordings provided evidence that in the distal glabrous skin areas reflex thermoregulatory functions are mainly executed via vasoconstrictor fibres whereas sudomotor fibres are brought into action only at relatively high temperature. On the contrary, in the hairy skin on the dorsal side of forearm and hand reflex thermoregulation is to a large extent executed via sudomotor fibres.
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4.
  • Bini, G, et al. (författare)
  • Thermoregulatory and rhythm-generating mechanisms governing the sudomotor and vasoconstrictor outflow in human cutaneous nerves.
  • 1980
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751 .- 1469-7793. ; 306, s. 537-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Recordings of multiunit sympathetic activity were made from human nerve fascicles supplying hairy and glabrous skin of the extremities in healthy subjects exposed to different ambient temperatures. Sudomotor and vasomotor events accompanying the neural activity were monitored by simultaneous recordings of electrodermal and pulse plethysmographic events (Pleth) in the neural innervation zones. 2. By exposing the subject to warm (43 degrees C) or cold (15 degrees C) environments, it was possible to obtain a selective activation of either the sudomotor or the vasoconstrictor neural system, respectively, with suppression of spontaneous activity in the other system. 3. Bursts of both vasoconstrictor and sudomotor nerve activity were found to occur at certain preferred intervals which were integer multiples of a period of about 0 . 6 sec (100 cycles/min). With high sudomotor or vasoconstrictor tone the 100 cycles/min rhythm was prominent but with decreasing tone slower subharmonic rhythms prevailed. Respiratory rhythms were also discerned as well as slower rhythms attributable to oscillatory tendencies in thermoregulatory servos. 4. Vasoconstrictor bursts had longer mean duration than sudomotor bursts, a finding attributed to a slower conduction velocity of vasoconstrictor as compared to sudomotor impulses. 5. With increasing incidence of bursts transient electrodermal or plethysmographic responses following individual bursts merged, and thus the fast neural rhythms were not discernible in either the electrodermal or Pleth traces. Given increments in firing rate of nerves produced less additional vasoconstriction at high than at low firing rates. The rhythm generating mechanisms may help to restrict rates of individual fibres to the low range which provides high gain in the neuroeffector transfer functions.
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5.
  • Emdin, Stefan O., 1948- (författare)
  • Myxine insulin amino-acid sequence, three dimensional structure, biosynthesis, release, physiological role, receptor binding affinity, and biological activity
  • 1981
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Atlantic hagfish, Myxlne. glutinosa,is the most primitive vertebrate extant, and it diverged from the main vertebrate evolutionary chain some 500 mi 11 ion years ago.The primary sequence of hagfish insulin shows that it contains the residues implemented for expression of activity and the residues stabi­lizing the insulin monomer and dimer, but not the hexamer. The primary sequence of hagfish preproinsulin, deduced from the mRNA-cDNA sequence shows little homology in sequence of the precursor parts of the molecule. However, the sequence contains the structural requirements for the tenta­tive functions, jL.z. vectorial discharge of the prohormone and a minimum over-all size of the precursor. The proinsulin converting enzyme(s) seems to have a specificity similar to that of all other vertebrates studied. The tertiary structure of hagfish insulin in the crystal is almost super­imposable on pig insulin's structure.The biological  activity of hagfish insulin is 5%   of that  of piginsulin and its receptor binding affinity   is 23% in isolated   rat fat  cells.Hagfish insulin was the first partial insulin antagonist on the rat fat cell insulin receptor. The change(s) in structure responsible for the reduction of acti­vity and binding are not known.Biosynthesis of hagfish insulin, In vXJyto, follows the pattern observed in higher vertebrates, although at a much slower rate. Unlike the situation in mammals, hagfish insulin biosynthesis is not stimulated by glucose.A radioimmunoassay for hagfish insulin was developed and the antiserum cross-reacted with       bovine insulin to only 0.01%. Theassay was used to study insulin release in vitro. Glucose  stimulates insulin release but, unlike the situation in higher vertebrates, amino acids do not.In vivo, hagfish insulin stimulated the incorporation of 14C-glucose and 14C-leucine into hagfish skeletal muscle glycogen and protein.The observed similari ties,between hagfish and higher vertebrates,with regards to insulin's structure, biosynthesis, release, receptor binding, and biological activity support the conclusion that, insulin and its processing and effector machineries were structurally and biologically well defined some 500 million years ago.
6.
  • Hansson, P, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental hyperthyroidism in man: effects on plasma lipoproteins, lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Hormone and Metabolic Research. - Georg Thieme Verlag. - 1439-4286. ; 15:9, s. 449-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have studied the effects of triiodothyronine administration (20-40 micrograms three times daily over one week) in six healthy young men, on the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase and on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Hepatic lipase activity in post-heparin plasma rose by 46 +/- 25% (p less than 0.025), whereas the activity of lipoprotein lipase did not change significantly. Plasma cholesterol concentrations decreased by about 20% (p less than 0.025), whereas there was no change in plasma triglyceride levels. The fall in plasma cholesterol could be accounted for by a reduction of HDL cholesterol (-11%, p less than 0.025) as well as LDL cholesterol (-27%, p less than 0.025). The data emphasize the role of hepatic lipase in the lipoprotein alterations associated with thyroid dysfunction.
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7.
  • May, F E, et al. (författare)
  • Mouse mammary tumour virus related sequences are present in human DNA.
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research. - 0305-1048 .- 1362-4962. ; 11:12, s. 4127-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MuMTV-related sequences have been identified in the DNA of human breast cancer cells using the Southern transfer technique and hybridisation with cloned MuMTV DNA under conditions in which partially mismatched sequences form stable hybrids. Hybridisation with cloned fragments of the MuMTV genome showed that the gag-pol region shares the most homology (estimated to be greater than 80%) with the human MuMTV-related sequences, however, DNA fragments partially homologous to the MuMTV LTR, gag ad env regions were also detected. Analysis of several human DNA samples suggests that the majority of the human MuMTV-related sequences are genetically transmitted but additional Eco R1 fragments were detected in the DNA of one out of three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7. These sequences are potential probes for the human MuMTV-related retroviral sequences and will allow their possible role in human breast cancer to be evaluated.
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8.
  • Valdemarsson, Stig, et al. (författare)
  • Relations between thyroid function, hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities, and plasma lipoprotein concentrations
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Acta Endocrinologica. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0001-5598. ; 104:1, s. 50-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lipoprotein concentrations and activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were measured in 70 subjects with thyroid function ranging from overt hypothyroidism over subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroidism to hyperthyroidism. In parallel with serum T3 (S-T3) concentrations increasing from low in hypothyroidism to high in hyperthyroidism there were gradually higher HL activities over the full spectrum of thyroid function, accompanied by decreasing levels of total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was lower (P less than 0.05) in hyperthyroidism than in euthyroidism but not significantly changed in the hypothyroid groups. HL was correlated to S-T3 (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001), LDL cholesterol to log S-T3 (r = -0.76, P less than 0.001), and LDL cholesterol to log HL (r = -0.55, P less than 0.001). The activity of LPL was decreased (P less than 0.001) in overt hypothyroidism compared to euthyroidism but, in contrast to HL, the activity of LPL was not increased in hyperthyroidism. The plasma triglyceride (P-TG) concentration was elevated (P less than 0.01) in overt hypothyroidism but not significantly changed in subclinical hypothyroidism or in hyperthyroidism. The LPL activity was correlated to log S-T3 (r = 0.45, P less than 0.001), P-TG to log S-T3 (r = -0.37, P less than 0.01) and P-TG to log LPL activity (r = -0.71, P less than 0.001). Our results demonstrate that thyroid hormones influence HL and LPL activities in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms of action. Changes in HL activity seem to be an important mechanism for the disturbance of cholesterol metabolism in thyroid dysfunction while the thyroid hormone influence on LPL seems to be of importance mainly for the disturbance in triglyceride metabolism.
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9.
  • Valdemarsson, Stig, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of hyperthyroidism: effects on hepatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, LCAT and plasma lipoproteins
  • 1984
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 44:3, s. 183-189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The activities of hepatic lipase and of lipoprotein lipase, the elimination rate of exogenous triglyceride and the cholesterol esterification rate were determined and related to plasma lipoprotein concentrations in 16 patients before and after treatment for hyperthyroidism. The activity of hepatic lipase was significantly higher (65%) before than after treatment, while the activity of lipoprotein lipase and the elimination rate of exogenous triglyceride remained unchanged. The endogenous cholesterol esterifying ability decreased after treatment, whereas no change occurred in the fractional cholesterol esterification rate measured with normal plasma as substrate. The concentrations of LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol increased significantly after treatment. The decrease in hepatic lipase activities was correlated to the decrease in S-T3 concentrations (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001) and to the increase in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.51, P less than 0.05). The activities of lipoprotein lipase were positively correlated to the concentrations of HDL-cholesterol both before (r = 0.54, P less than 0.05) and after (r = 0.59, P less than 0.05) treatment. These results support the view that hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase are both important determinants of plasma HDL concentrations and suggest that an increased hepatic lipase activity contributes to the lower HDL levels in hyperthyroid patients.
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