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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin) > (2005-2009)

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2.
  • Nilsson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Tracking the neurodegeneration of parkinsonian disorders - A pilot study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 49:2, s. 111-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the study was to explore the possibilities of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography (DTT) for the differential diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), compared with the atypical parkinsonian disorders multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A 3.0-T MR scanner was used. DTI was acquired using a single-shot EPI sequence with diffusion encoding in 32 directions and a voxel size of 2×2×2 mm3. DTI data were analysed and DTT was performed using the PRIDE fibre tracking tool supplied by the manufacturer. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) within each tract were determined. DTI and DTT images in patients with moderate to advanced MSA demonstrated degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles and pontine crossing tracts, with decreased FA and increased ADC. This accounted for most of the pontine and cerebellar atrophy characteristic of this disease. In contrast, patients with PSP showed a selective degeneration of the superior cerebellar peduncle. Three-dimensional images of whole-brain white matter tracts demonstrated a reduction of cortical projection fibres in all patients with PSP. Visualization of the selective degeneration of individual fibre tracts, using DTI and DTT, adds qualitative data facilitating the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders. Repeated measurements of FA and ADC values in a whole fibre tract might be used for monitoring disease progression and studying the effect of treatment in neuroprotective trials. The results are preliminary considering the small number of subjects in the study. © Springer-Verlag 2007.
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4.
  • Ramgren, B, et al. (författare)
  • Vertebrobasilar dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective study of 29 patients.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 47:2, s. 97-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have reviewed initial diagnostic features, treatment, and outcome in 29 patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage due to non-traumatic vertebrobasilar artery dissection diagnosed in our hospital between 1993 and 2003. The dissections occurred in the vertebral artery in 19 patients, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery ( PICA) in two patients, the basilar artery in four patients, and in the vertebral artery extending into the PICA in four patients. A pseudoaneurysm was found in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations typically included sudden onset of moderate to severe headache, nuchal rigidity, and drowsiness. Fourteen patients were treated conservatively. Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment with either parent artery occlusion ( 13 patients) or aneurysmal coil occlusion with preservation of the parent artery ( 2 patients). Re-bleeding occurred within 12 days and before treatment in nine patients. Eight of these had a pseudoaneurysm. No patient bled after endovascular treatment. Poor grade and early re-bleeding were associated with less favorable outcome. Outcome at 6 months did not differ significantly between endovascular and conservative treatment. Altogether, good recovery was achieved for 16 patients, moderate disability was seen in one, severe disability in four, and eight patients ( 27%) died. The absence of bleeding subsequent to endovascular treatment in this study suggests that endovascular treatment may be a rational approach in these patients at high risk of re-bleeding, especially those with a pseudoaneurysm.
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6.
  • Andersson, Annalena, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of axillary brachial plexus block for operations on the hand.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery. - Taylor & Francis. - 1651-2073. ; 40:4, s. 225-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An axillary brachial plexus nerve block by a transarterial approach is commonly used to achieve regional anaesthesia for hand surgery. We designed a retrospective study to evaluate efficacy and safety of the technique for acute and elective operations. Anaesthetic records of 189 of all 5520 patients (1996-2000) who had axillary brachial plexus blocks for hand surgery were reviewed, and results compared with complications recorded in the anaesthetic register and in the hand surgery records. Successful axillary block was achieved in 5128/5520 (93%) of patients, according to anaesthetic charts, and primarily in 157/189 (83%), and after supplementation in 171/189 (90%), according to anaesthetic records. Four patients had a toxic drug reaction or axillary haematoma with a transient neurological deficit. Medical complications were recorded in the anaesthetic register in less than 0.7% of axillary brachial plexus procedures. Axillary brachial plexus block by a transarterial approach is effective and safe in hand surgery.
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7.
  • Borgquist, Rasmus, et al. (författare)
  • Coronary flow velocity reserve reduction is comparable in patients with erectile dysfunction and in patients with impaired fasting glucose or well-regulated diabetes mellitus
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1741-8275. ; 14:2, s. 258-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background There is growing evidence that erectile dysfunction is a sentinel for future coronary artery disease. Recently published studies have shown signs of impaired coronary endothelial function in patients with erectile dysfunction, without clinical cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We evaluated the magnitude of coronary vasodilatory dysfunction in men with erectile dysfunction, as compared with men with impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or diabetes) and healthy controls. Methods We investigated men aged 68-73 years with erectile dysfunction (n=12), age-matched men with impaired glucose metabolism, who all proved to have erectile dysfunction (n=15), and age-matched male controls (n=12). Erectile dysfunction was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire. Coronary flow velocity reserve in the left anterior descending artery was examined using Doppler ultrasound and intravenous adenosine provocation. Results Coronary flow velocities at rest did not differ between the three groups, but maximum coronary flow velocity was significantly lower in the erectile dysfunction group (P= 0.004) and in the impaired glucose metabolism group (P= 0.019), as compared with controls. There was no difference between the erectile dysfunction and impaired glucose metabolism groups. Coronary flow velocity reserve was reduced in the erectile dysfunction group (P=0.026) compared to controls, but was similar compared to the impaired glucose metabolism group. In multivariate analysis including all groups, erectile dysfunction score was the only independent predictor of reduced coronary flow velocity reserve (P=0.020). Conclusions The magnitude of early coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in otherwise healthy men with erectile dysfunction was comparable to that of patients with impaired glucose metabolism: a well known risk factor for coronary artery disease.
8.
  • Follin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Improvement in cardiac systolic function and reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome after 2 years of GH treatment in GH deficient adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 91:5, s. 1872-1875
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Survivors of childhood- onset ( CO) acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL) treated with prophylactic cranial radiotherapy often exhibit GH deficiency ( GHD), which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac dysfunction. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of GH replacement on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac function in former CO ALL patients. Design: Eighteen former CO ALL patients ( aged 19 - 32 yr) treated with cranial radiotherapy ( 18 - 24 Gy) and chemotherapy and with confirmed GHD were studied at baseline and after 12 ( n = 18) and 24 months ( n = 13) of GH treatment ( median 0.5 mg/ d). A group of 18 age- and sex- matched subjects served as controls. Results: After 12 months of GH treatment, a significant decrease in serum leptin ( P = 0.002), leptin per kilogram fat mass ( FM) ( P = 0.01),plasma glucose ( P = 0.004), FM ( P = 0.002), and hip ( P = 0.04) and waist ( P = 0.02) circumference and increased muscle mass ( P = 0.004) were recorded in the patients. Before GH treatment six patients had a metabolic syndrome, but after 12 months only one had it and after 24 months none. After 24 months of GH treatment, an increase in left ventricular mass index ( P = 0.06) and significant improvements in cardiac systolic function, measured as fractional shortening ( P = 0.03) and ejection fraction ( P = 0.03), were recorded. Conclusions: Improvement in cardiac systolic function and reduced prevalence of metabolic syndrome were recorded after 2 yr of GH replacement in former CO ALL patients with GHD. Long- term follow-up is highly warranted.
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10.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Nonfatal stroke, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients on hormone replacement including growth hormone
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 92:9, s. 3560-3567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The impact of long-term GH replacement on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients is unknown. Objective: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2D) and cardioprotective medication were compared between cohorts of GH-deficient (GHD) patients and population controls. Design and Participants: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events was estimated retrospectively from questionnaires in 750 GHD patients and 2314 matched population controls. A prevalence of T2D and cardioprotective medication was recorded at the distribution of questionnaires. Time since first pituitary deficiency to start of GH therapy was 4 and 2 yr, and time on GH therapy was 6 yr for GHD women and men, respectively. Results: Lifelong incidence of nonfatal stroke was tripled in GHD women and doubled in GHD men, but a decline was seen in both genders during periods after first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD, during which most patients had GH therapy. The lifelong incidence of nonfatal cardiac events declined in GHD men during first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD periods. GHD women had a higher prevalence of T2D and lipid-lowering medication, whereas GHD men had a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication. Conclusions: The declined risks of nonfatal stroke in both genders and of nonfatal cardiac events in GHD men during periods on GH replacement may be caused by prescription of cardioprotective drugs and 6-yr GH replacement. GHD women had an increased prevalence of T2D, partly attributed to higher body mass index and lower physical activity.
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