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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Annan klinisk medicin) > (2020)

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1.
  • Lindow, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of the Electrocardiographic Decision Support – Myocardial Ischaemia (EDS-MI) Algorithm in Detection of Acute Coronary Occlusion
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care. - SAGE Publications. - 2048-8734. ; 9:S1, s. 13-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electrocardiographic Decision Support - Myocardial Ischaemia (EDS-MI) is a graphical decision support for detection and localization of acute transmural ischaemia. A recent study indicated that EDS-MI performs well for detection of acute transmural ischaemia. However, its performance has not been tested in patients with non-ischaemic ST-deviation. We aimed to optimize the diagnostic accuracy of EDS-MI in patients with verified acute coronary occlusion as well as patients with non-ischaemic ST deviation and compare its performance with STEMI criteria. We studied 135 patients with non-ischaemic ST deviation (perimyocarditis, left ventricular hypertrophy, takotsubo cardiomyopathy and early repolarization) and 117 patients with acute coronary occlusion. In 63 ischaemic patients, the extent and location of the ischaemic area (myocardium at risk) was assessed by both cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and EDS-MI. Sensitivity and specificity of ST elevation myocardial infarction criteria were 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77, 90) and 44% (95% CI 36, 53) respectively. Using EDS-MI, sensitivity and specificity increased to 92% (95% CI 85, 95) and 81% (95% CI 74, 87) respectively (p=0.035 and p<0.001). Agreement was strong (83%) between cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and EDS-MI in localization of ischaemia. Mean myocardium at risk was 32% (± 10) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and 33% (± 11) by EDS-MI when the estimated infarcted area according to Selvester QRS scoring was included in myocardium at risk estimation. In conclusion, EDS-MI increases diagnostic accuracy and may serve as an automatic decision support in the early management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. The added clinical benefit in a non-selected clinical chest pain population needs to be assessed.
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2.
  • Rosales, Roberto S., et al. (författare)
  • The methodological requirements for clinical examination and patient-reported outcomes, and how to test them
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume. - SAGE Publications. - 1753-1934. ; 45:1, s. 12-18
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article presents the methodological requirements for clinical examination and patient-reported outcomes measurements. The assessment of any measurement for clinical research in hand surgery is difficult. A method of measuring a criterion could be 100% reliable but 100% invalid. Bias may be present in our assessment if we do not take into account the methodological requirements related to reliability, validity, and responsiveness of our measures. Reliability refers to intra-observer agreement, inter-observer agreement, or agreement between two methods of assessment, and, for patient-reported measures, internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Validity is the capability of a clinical method to measure what it proposes to measure. Assessing validity involves comparing a measure with one or more other measures, and, if possible, with a reference standard criterion. Responsiveness is the ability to detect important clinical change. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments provides the standards required for design and recommended statistical analyses of patient-reported outcome measures.
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3.
  • Liu, Zhigang, et al. (författare)
  • Gut microbiota mediates intermittent-fasting alleviation of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1, s. 855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive decline is one of the complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intermittent fasting (IF) is a promising dietary intervention for alleviating T2D symptoms, but its protective effect on diabetes-driven cognitive dysfunction remains elusive. Here, we find that a 28-day IF regimen for diabetic mice improves behavioral impairment via a microbiota-metabolites-brain axis: IF enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism gene expression in hippocampus, re-structures the gut microbiota, and improves microbial metabolites that are related to cognitive function. Moreover, strong connections are observed between IF affected genes, microbiota and metabolites, as assessed by integrative modelling. Removing gut microbiota with antibiotics partly abolishes the neuroprotective effects of IF. Administration of 3-indolepropionic acid, serotonin, short chain fatty acids or tauroursodeoxycholic acid shows a similar effect to IF in terms of improving cognitive function. Together, our study purports the microbiota-metabolites-brain axis as a mechanism that can enable therapeutic strategies against metabolism-implicated cognitive pathophysiologies.
4.
  • Palau-Rodriguez, Magali, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a long-term lifestyle intervention on metabolically healthy women with obesity: Metabolite profiles according to weight loss response
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - 0261-5614. ; 39:1, s. 215-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background &amp; aims: The benefits of weight loss in subjects with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are still a matter of controversy. We aimed to identify metabolic fingerprints and their associated pathways that discriminate women with MHO with high or low weight loss response after a lifestyle intervention, based on a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity. Methods: A UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS metabolomics workflow was applied to plasma samples from 27 women with MHO before and after 12 months of a hypocaloric weight loss intervention with a MedDiet and increased physical activity. The subjects were stratified into two age-matched groups according to weight loss: &lt;10% (low weight loss group, LWL) and &gt;10% (high weight loss group, HWL). Random forest analysis was performed to identify metabolites discriminating between the LWL and the HWL as well as within-status effects. Modulated pathways and associations between metabolites and anthropometric and biochemical variables were also investigated. Results: Thirteen metabolites discriminated between the LWL and the HWL, including 1,5-anhydroglucitol, carotenediol, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid, N-acetylaspartate and several lipid species (steroids, a plasmalogen, sphingomyelins, a bile acid and long-chain acylcarnitines). 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid and sphingomyelins were positively associated with weight variables whereas N-acetylaspartate and the plasmalogen correlated negatively with them. Changes in very long-chain acylcarnitines and hydroxyphenyllactic levels were observed in the HWL and positively correlated with fasting glucose, and changes in levels of the plasmalogen negatively correlated with insulin resistance. Additionally, the cholesterol profile was positively associated with changes in acid hydroxyphenyllactic, sphingolipids and 1,5-AG. Conclusions: Higher weight loss after a hypocaloric MedDiet and increased physical activity for 12 months is associated with changes in the plasma metabolome in women with MHO. These findings are associated with changes in biochemical variables and may suggest an improvement of the cardiometabolic risk profile in those patients that lose greater weight. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the response of those subjects with MHO to this intervention differs from those with unhealthy obesity.
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5.
  • Casado Bedmar, Maite, et al. (författare)
  • Potential neuro-immune therapeutic targets in irritable bowel syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology. - Sage Publications. - 1756-283X .- 1756-2848. ; 13
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by recurring abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits. The aetiology of IBS is unknown but there is evidence that genetic, environmental and immunological factors together contribute to the development of the disease. Current treatment of IBS includes lifestyle and dietary interventions, laxatives or antimotility drugs, probiotics, antispasmodics and antidepressant medication. The gut-brain axis comprises the central nervous system, the hypothalamic pituitary axis, the autonomic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Within the intestinal mucosa there are close connections between immune cells and nerve fibres of the enteric nervous system, and signalling between, for example, mast cells and nerves has shown to be of great importance during GI disorders such as IBS. Communication between the gut and the brain is most importantly routed via the vagus nerve, where signals are transmitted by neuropeptides. It is evident that IBS is a disease of a gut-brain axis dysregulation, involving altered signalling between immune cells and neurotransmitters. In this review, we analyse the most novel and distinct neuro-immune interactions within the IBS mucosa in association with already existing and potential therapeutic targets.
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6.
  • Darehed, David, 1986- (författare)
  • The impact of organizational and temporal factors on acute stroke care in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Acute stroke carries a high risk of morbidity and death, but early treatment can improve outcomes. Intravenous stroke thrombolysis (IVT) is one such treatment, it is however time-sensitive and show better outcomes the sooner it is given. Most studies on time to IVT so far have looked at fixed time-intervals, and studies of short delays in clinical practice are relatively scarce. Another well-established treatment is managing acute stroke patients in stroke units (SU). Admission rates to a SU as first destination of hospital care have improved over time in Sweden. In the past decade however, the rates have leveled out at around 75-80% without further improvement. A hypothesis is that in-hospital overcrowding contributes. Previous studies have shown that outcomes after stroke differ between hospital types, and also vary depending on time of admission, with higher mortality seen for off-hours, weekend and winter admissions. The reasons behind temporal variations are not fully understood, but it has been proposed that environmental, patient-related and organizational factors contribute. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the effect of organizational factors on quality of care and outcomes after stroke, primarily focusing on the role of in-hospital overcrowding, in-hospital time to IVT and time of admission, while also studying differences between hospitals.Methods: All papers in this thesis were based on data from the Swedish stroke register (Riksstroke), a national quality register that holds data on patient related factors, acute care and outcomes. Paper I included 13,955 patient admissions from 14 hospitals in Region Norrbotten and Region Skåne from 2011-2014, enriched with data on in-hospital bed occupancy. Papers II-IV included all 72 Swedish hospitals caring for patients with acute stroke. Paper II included data from 2011-2015 (N=113,862), paper III from 2011-2016 (N=132,744) and paper IV from 2010-2017 (N=14,132). Analyses included descriptive statistics, unadjusted analyses and multivariable adjusted analyses.Results: We found that each percent increase in in-hospital bed occupancy above 85% decreased admission rates to a SU as first destination of hospital care by 1.5% (odds ratio (OR) 0.985, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.978-0.992), with significant differences between hospitals. Admission rates were also lower off-hours, compared to on-hours (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75). Over time, admission rates to a SU as first destination of hospital care decreased in university hospitals, while they increased in specialized non-university hospitals and community hospitals. Each minute delay in door-to-needle time (DNT) decreased the odds of 90-day survival by 0.6% (OR 0.994, 95% CI 0.992-0.996), increased the odds of ICH within 36 hours by 0.3% (OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.000-1.006), and led to significantly higher odds of a worsening in functional outcomes at 3 months by 0.3-0.4%. DNT within 30 minutes was most likely daytime, and varied between hospital types. 90-day survival was lowest for patients admitted in January (81.5%), and highest for those admitted in May (84.1%) (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.40).Conclusion: We found that in-hospital overcrowding decrease admission rates to a SU as first destination of hospital care, and that even short delays in DNT decreases survival, increases ICH complications and leads to a worsening in functional outcomes in routine clinical practice. We also found that quality of care varied depending on time of admission and between hospitals, indicating unequal care. Organizational differences should be accessible through quality improvement efforts aiming to implement robust local guidelines for in-hospital stroke treatment.
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7.
  • Ewerman, Lea, et al. (författare)
  • Immunomodulating Effects Depend on Prolactin Levels in Patients with Hyperprolactinemia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Hormone and Metabolic Research. - GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG. - 0018-5043 .- 1439-4286. ; 52:4, s. 228-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prolactin is known to have immune modulatory effects acting through the prolactin receptor, which is present on a variety of immune cells. Certain chemokines contribute to form the type of T helper (Th) preponderance in the immune response. The objective of this work was to assess if hyperprolactinemia not related to pregnancy is associated with changes in circulating levels of chemokines and other immunological markers. In this cross sectional study, 35 patients with hyperprolactinemia (5 men), and 102 healthy blood donors (19 men) were included. Serum levels of Th1- Th2- and Th17-associated chemokines, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulins, and the B cell attracting chemokine CXCL13 were assessed. The hyperprolactinemic group had significantly higher levels of Th2 associated CCL22 (p=0.022), Th17 associated CXCL1 (p=0.001), B cell attracting CXCL13 (p=0.003), and C-reactive protein (p&amp;lt;0.001) compared to controls, and these proteins were also positively correlated with prolactin levels. While differences in CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL13, and C-reactive protein were present in patients with low or moderate hyperprolactinemia, no differences were observed at high (&amp;gt;3600 mU/l) prolactin levels. To evaluate a possible dose-associated response to prolactin, an in vitro model was used, showing prolactin-induced increase in T-helper cell activation at moderate levels, while activation decreased at higher levels. Hyperprolactinemia seems to have several immunomodulatory effects and was associated with increased levels of chemokines associated with Th2 and Th17 responses and B cell attraction. However, patients with greatly increased prolactin had normal levels of chemokines, and in vitro, high levels of prolactin decreased T-helper cell activation.
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8.
  • Gremyr, A., et al. (författare)
  • Using Complexity Assessment to Inform the Development and Deployment of a Digital Dashboard for Schizophrenia Care: Case Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - 1438-8871. ; 22:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Health care is becoming more complex. For an increasing number of individuals, interacting with health care means addressing more than just one illness or disorder, engaging in more than one treatment, and interacting with more than one care provider. Individuals with severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia are disproportionately affected by this complexity. Characteristic symptoms can make it harder to establish and maintain relationships. Treatment failure is common even where there is access to effective treatments, increasing suicide risk. Knowledge of complex adaptive systems has been increasingly recognized as useful in understanding and developing health care. A complex adaptive system is a collection of interconnected agents with the freedom to act based on their own internalized rules, affecting each other. In a complex health care system, relevant feedback is crucial in enabling continuous learning and improvement on all levels. New technology has potential, but the failure rate of technology projects in health care is high, arguably due to complexity. The Nonadoption, Abandonment, and challenges to Scale-up, Spread, and Sustainability (NASSS) framework and complexity assessment tool (NASSS-CAT) have been developed specifically to help identify and manage complexity in technology-related development projects in health care. Objective: This study aimed to use a pilot version of the NASSS-CAT instrument to inform the development and deployment of a point-of-care dashboard supporting schizophrenia care in west Sweden. Specifically, we report on the complexity profile of the project, stakeholders' experiences with using NASSS-CAT, and practical implications. Methods: We used complexity assessment to structure data collection and feedback sessions with stakeholders, thereby informing an emergent approach to the development and deployment of the point-of-care dashboard. We also performed a thematic analysis, drawing on observations and documents related to stakeholders' use of the NASSS-CAT to describe their views on its usefulness. Results: Application of the NASSS framework revealed different types of complexity across multiple domains, including the condition, technology, value proposition, organizational tasks and pathways, and wider system. Stakeholders perceived the NASSS-CAT tool as useful in gaining perspective and new insights, covering areas that might otherwise have been neglected. Practical implications derived from feedback sessions with managers and developers are described. Conclusions: This case study shows how stakeholders can identify and plan to address complexities during the introduction of a technological solution. Our findings suggest that NASSS-CAT can bring participants a greater understanding of complexities in digitalization projects in general.
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9.
  • Horberg, U., et al. (författare)
  • Women's lived experience of well-being in everyday life when living with a stress-related illness
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - 1748-2623. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe how women with stress-related illness experience well-being in everyday life. Methods: The study was based on a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach and the methodological principles of openness, flexibility and bridling. Twelve women, aged 27-54 years, diagnosed with stress-related illness were included. Data were collected with lifeworld interviews based on photographs taken by the women relating to well-being in everyday life. The data were analysed for meaning. Results: Well-being emerged in situations where women could feel an unconditional beingness. This entails not having demands on oneself and includes some form of freedom from having to perform. The surroundings and supportive environments are important for this unconditional beingness to be present. In order to feel well-being in everyday life, the women need to balance their energy and find helpful tools that can achieve a balance in everyday life. Conclusions: Healthcare staff need to understand the importance of unconditional beingness in supportive environments for patients living with stress-related illness in order to support their health and well-being. It is also important to support patients in finding helpful tools that can aid them to achieve a balance in everyday life.
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10.
  • Johanson, S., et al. (författare)
  • Implementation of a novel return-to-work approach for persons with affective disorders in a traditional vocational rehabilitation context: a case study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Mental Health Systems. - 1752-4458. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The person-centred Individual Enabling and Support (IES) model is a novel return-to-work (RTW) intervention for people with affective disorders that was developed from evidence-based supported employment for persons with severe mental illness. Typically, supported employment is integrated into mental healthcare and provides a network around the service user and close collaboration with employment and insurance services and employers. Introducing integrated models into a highly sectored welfare system that includes traditional mental healthcare and vocational rehabilitation is challenging. Greater knowledge is needed to understand how facilitating or hindering factors influence this introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate essential components in implementation of the IES model. Methods: A case-study was conducted and included four mental healthcare services. Data collection was comprised of semi-structured interviews with 19 key informants, documentation from meetings, and reflection notes. Analyses were performed according to directed content analysis, using the components of the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR) as a guiding tool. Fidelity assessments were performed at 6 and 12 months. Results: Anticipating RTW support for the target group, and building collaborative relationships and a network with employment specialists that engaged staff in every organization were components that resulted in the greatest facilitation if IES implementation. Barriers consisted of difficulty in integrating employment specialists into the mental healthcare teams, insufficient engagement of first line managers, reorganization and differing perceptions of the IES model fit into a traditional vocational context. Delivery of the IES model had good fidelity. Conclusions: The IES model can be implemented with good fidelity, several model advantages, and context adaptation. Team integration difficulties and negative perceptions of model fit in a traditional vocational rehabilitation context can be overcome to a certain degree, but this is insufficient for sustainable implementation on a larger scale. Policy and guidelines need to promote integrative and person-centred RTW approaches rather than a segregated stepwise approach. Further implementation studies in the traditional vocational rehabilitation context are needed.
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