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1.
  • Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Proton MR spectroscopy and preoperative diagnostic accuracy: an evaluation of intracranial mass lesions characterized by stereotactic biopsy findings
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - American Society of Neuroradiology. - 1936-959X. ; 21:1, s. 84-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has made it easier to distinguish among the different types of intracranial mass lesions. Nevertheless, it is sometimes impossible to base a diagnosis solely on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, and, in these cases, biopsy must be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopy is able to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy in cases of intracranial tumors and may therefore obviate stereotactic biopsy. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intracranial tumors underwent MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and stereotactic biopsy. MR spectroscopic findings were evaluated for the distribution pattern of pathologic spectra (NAA/Cho ratio < 1) across the lesion and neighboring tissue, for signal ratios in different tumor types, and for their potential to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Gliomas and lymphomas showed pathologic spectra outside the area of contrast enhancement while four nonastrocytic circumscribed tumors (meningioma, pineocytoma, metastasis, and germinoma) showed no pathologic spectra outside the region of enhancement. No significant correlation was found between different tumor types and signal ratios. MR spectroscopy improved diagnostic accuracy by differentiating infiltrative from circumscribed tumors; however, diagnostic accuracy was not improved in terms of differentiating the types of infiltrative or circumscribed lesions. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy can improve diagnostic accuracy by differentiating circumscribed brain lesions from histologically infiltrating processes, which may be difficult or impossible solely on the basis of clinical or neuroradiologic findings.
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2.
  • Ohlsson, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Acute taurodeoxycholate-induced pancreatitis in the rat is associated with hyperCCKemia
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Pancreatology. - Humana Press. - 0169-4197. ; 27:3, s. 195-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been suggested to be involved in the development and course of acute pancreatitis. In the present study we measured plasma CCK concentrations in acute experimental pancreatitis (AEP) in the rat, and evaluated the role of circulating CCK levels on the initial pancreatic damage in pancreatitis. METHODS: Endogenous hyperCCKemia was induced by surgical biliodigestive shunt (BDS) and exogenous hyperCCKemia by infusion of CCK-8S. The CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide was used to antagonize the effect of CCK. Pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurodeoxycholate 4 wk after the BDS operation or 1 wk after the start of the infusions. Nonpancreatitic sham- and BDS-operated rats, respectively, were used as control animals as were groups of otherwise untreated rats with pancreatitis. The animals were sacrificed 6 h after induction of pancreatitis. Concentrations of CCK were determined in plasma as were protein and amylase levels in the pancreas and peritoneal exudates. The extent of pancreatic necroses was assessed microscopically. RESULTS: Pancreatitis caused an 11-20-fold increase of circulating CCK as measured after 6 h. In pancreatitic rats with induced hyperCCKemia, there was a further marked increase of plasma CCK. Pancreatic weight and edema, protein and amylase contents, and extent of necroses were the same regardless of the level of plasma CCK. Devazepide had no influence on the studied pancreatic parameters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that acute taurodeoxycholate-induced pancreatitis in the rat is associated with elevated plasma CCK concentrations. There seems, however, not to be any correlation between the degree of hyperCCKemia and the extent of initial pancreatic damage.
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3.
  • Jahnson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor mapping of regional immunostaining for p21, p53, and mdm2 in locally advanced bladder carcinoma
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - New York, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0008-543X. ; 89:3, s. 619-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations among immunostaining for p53, p21, and mdm2; their respective expression within each tumor; and the value of these variables for predicting treatment outcome after cystectomy for patients with locally advanced bladder carcinoma.Methods: The hospital records from all 173 patients treated with cystectomy for locally advanced urothelial bladder carcinoma between 1967 and 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. Three consecutive sections from biopsies taken before any treatment were stained using the standard immunohistochemical technique for p53, p21, and mdm2, respectively. The cutoff limit was 20% or more for positive p53 expression and 10% or more for positive p21 and mdm2 expression.Results: Positive immunostaining was observed for p53 in 98 tumors (57%), for p21 in 89 tumors (51%), and for mdm2 in only 16 tumors (9%). The only association found between immunostaining for the three antibodies was that most mdm2-positive tumors had positive p21 expression. Tumor mapping of regional immunostaining showed no association between immunostaining for p53 and p21. In a proportional hazards analysis, no association was found between the results of immunostaining for the three antibodies and treatment outcome.Conclusions: Positive or negative expression of p53, p21, or mdm2, or combinations of these, was not associated with cancer specific mortality after cystectomy for bladder carcinoma. There was no association between immunostaining for p21 and p53, whereas positive immunostaining for mdm2 was observed in a minority of the tumors. These results indicate that, in addition to p21, p53, and mdm2, there are other oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins along the p53 pathway that are involved in tumor development and progression.
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4.
  • Elomaa, I, et al. (författare)
  • Five-year results in Ewing's sarcoma. The Scandinavian Sarcoma Group experience with the SSG IX protocol
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - IFAC & Elsevier Ltd.. - 1879-0852. ; 36:7, s. 875-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first Scandinavian protocol for Ewing's sarcoma, SSG IV, resulted in a local control rate of 74% and 5-year metastasis-free survival (MFS) of 43%. The second protocol, SSG IX, was started in order to improve upon these results. It featured four chemotherapy cycles, each consisting of two courses of VAI (vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide) alternating with one course of PAI (cisplatin, doxorubicin, ifosfamide) at 3-weekly intervals. Total treatment time was 35 weeks. Local therapy was given at week 9. Inoperable or non-radically operated patients received hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy 1.5 Gy twice daily between chemotherapy courses to a total dose of 42-60 Gy, depending on surgical radicality and tumour localisation. 88 patients were included (58 male, 30 female, mean age 20 years; range 5-65 years). The tumour (73 M0 and 15 M1) was located centrally in 31 patients (35%), in the extremities in 34 (39%) and other sites in 23 (26%) of cases. The median size of tumour was 10 cm (range 2-23), soft tissue was invaded in 87%. Surgery was the local therapy for 60 (68%) patients: amputation in 8 and local excision in 52. The surgical margins were wide in 35 patients, marginal in 14 and intralesional in 3. Radiotherapy was given to 17 non-radically operated patients postoperatively and to 28 patients with inoperable tumours primarily. Histological responses were evaluated in 52 patients. 9 local recurrences were observed (10%). Distant metastases developed in 24 M0 patients (33%). The estimated 5-year MFS was 58% and overall survival (OS) 70% for M0 and 27% and 28% for M1 patients, respectively. Survival was favourable in patients with non-metastatic extremity tumours (90%) and tumours operated with wide margins (90%). Patients with a total necrosis after chemotherapy had a better OS than those with a partial or poor response (P=0.003). The toxicity (World Health Organisation) was acceptable (gastrointestinal G1-2; haematological G3-4). The SSG IX protocol gave better local control and survival rates than the SSG IV. Whether this is due to a higher therapeutic efficacy of the present protocol cannot be ascertained in this comparison with a historical control.
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5.
  • Johansson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-2 and histamine in combination inhibit tumour growth and angiogenesis in malignant glioma
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Cancer Research Campaign. - 0007-0920. ; 83:6, s. 826-832
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biotherapy including interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment seems to be more effective outside the central nervous system when compared to the effects obtained when the same tumour is located intracerebrally. Recently published studies suggest that reduced activity of NK cells in tumour tissue can be increased by histamine. The present study was designed to determine whether IL-2 and histamine, alone or in combination, can induce anti-tumour effects in an orthotopic rat glioma model. One group of rats was treated with histamine alone (4 mg kg(-1)s.c. as daily injections from day 6 after intracranial tumour implantation), another group with IL-2 alone as a continuous subcutaneous infusion and a third group with both histamine and IL-2. The animals were sacrificed at day 24 after tumour implantation. IL-2 and histamine in combination significantly reduced tumour growth. The microvessel density was significantly reduced, an effect mainly affecting the small vessels. No obvious alteration in the pattern of VEGF mRNA expression was evident and no significant changes in apoptosis were observed. Neither IL-2 nor histamine alone caused any detectable effects on tumour growth. Histamine caused an early and pronounced decline in tumour blood flow compared to normal brain. The results indicate that the novel combination of IL-2 and histamine can be of value in reducing intracerebral tumour growth and, thus, it might be of interest to re-evaluate the therapeutic potential of biotherapy in malignant glioma.
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6.
  • Mertens, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Radiation-associated sarcomas are characterized by complex karyotypes with frequent rearrangements of chromosome arm 3p
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. - Elsevier. - 0165-4608. ; 116:2, s. 89-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ionizing radiation is a well-known risk factor for sarcoma development. To investigate whether radiation-associated sarcomas are characterized by chromosome aberrations that distinguish them from de novo sarcomas, we identified those patients in our series of more than 500 cytogenetically abnormal sarcomas that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) each patient should have been irradiated for another malignancy at least 3 years prior to the sarcoma diagnosis, and (2) the sarcoma should have developed within the field of radiation. Ten patients fulfilling these criteria could be retrieved (median age at sarcoma diagnosis was 55 years, range 17-79; median latency period between primary tumor and radiation-associated sarcoma was 9 years, range 4-30). The diagnoses were typical for radiation-associated sarcomas: 2 each of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, leiomyosarcoma, and pleomorphic sarcoma, and 1 each of osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, and spindle cell sarcoma. All 10 cases had relatively complex karyotypes with multiple, mostly unbalanced, structural rearrangements, similar to what has been reported in de novo sarcomas of the corresponding histologic subtypes. The only cytogenetic features that were unusually frequent among the radiation-associated sarcomas were the finding of unrelated clones in 3 cases, and loss of material from chromosome arm 3p, in particular 3p21-3pter, in 8 cases. Loss of the same chromosome segment has been described in 4 of the 8 previously published cases of radiation-associated sarcomas that have been analyzed after short-term culturing, which makes this imbalance significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent among radiation-associated sarcomas (12 of 18 cases) than among unselected cases of the corresponding histologic subtypes (74 of 282 cases). In contrast to the cytogenetic results, no 3p deletions were detected among the 6 cases of the present series that could be analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The most frequent imbalance detected by CGH was gain of 15cen-q15 (3 cases), followed by loss of chromosome 13 and gain of 5p, and 7cen-q22, each detected in 2 cases.
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7.
  • Persson, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Severe lung lesions caused by Salmonella are prevented by inhibition of the contact system
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 192:10, s. 1415-1424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vascular damage induced by trauma, inflammation, or infection results in an alteration of the endothelium from a nonactivated to a procoagulant, vasoconstrictive, and proinflammatory state, and can lead to life-threatening complications. Here we report that activation of the contact system by Salmonella leads to massive infiltration of red blood cells and fibrin deposition in the lungs of infected rats. These pulmonary lesions were prevented when the infected animals were treated with H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-chloromethylketone, an inhibitor of coagulation factor XII and plasma kallikrein, suggesting that inhibition of contact system activation could be used therapeutically in severe infectious disease.
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8.
  • Ringberg, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Accrual rate-limiting factors in a Swedish randomised ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) trial - a demographic study
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - IFAC & Elsevier Ltd.. - 1879-0852. ; 36:4, s. 483-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the last two decades the introduction of mammographic screening in the Western world has increased the number of diagnosed ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) considerably. In situ carcinoma of the breast is considered a heterogeneous disease, the natural history of which is not well known. Thus, appropriate treatment needs to be established. For this reason, a randomised trial studying the effect of breast conserving operation with or without postoperative radiotherapy was instituted in Southern Sweden in 1987. The aim of the present study was to assess patient accrual, identify limiting factors, and evaluate possible ways to influence these factors in order to increase patient accrual. Between 1987 and 1992, 331 patients had been registered with DCIS in the Regional Tumour Registry, 96 of which had been randomised. All 331 were subjected to chart review studying clinical data, mammography reports, cytology and pathology reports to identify inclusion and exclusion criteria according to the design of the trial. It was found that 5% (18/331) had an incorrect diagnosis of DCIS. According to the trial protocol 52% were not eligible (162/313). Fifty-eight per cent (n=88) of the 151 eligible patients had been correctly randomised. The most common reason for exclusion was lesion size. In 21% (66/313) the lesion was 'too large'. Several other limiting factors were identified such as in cytological and pathological definitions and reports, lack of information/awareness in certain physicians, patient reluctance to participate, which in turn may be influenced by the previous factor. With increased information to participating hospitals and considering the above given facts it should be possible to increase accrual from the 28% noted in the present consecutive demographic study to at least one-third of the diagnosed cases of DCIS.
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9.
  • Ringberg, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Ipsilateral local recurrence in relation to therapy and morphological characteristics in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Surgical Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1532-2157. ; 26:5, s. 444-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • METHOD AND RESULTS: A standardized histopathological protocol has been designed, in which different histological characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are reported: nuclear grade (ng), growth pattern according to Andersen et al., necrosis, size of the lesion, resection margins and focality. Using this protocol a re-evaluation of a population-based consecutive series of 306 cases of DCIS has been done as well as a thorough clinical follow-up. After a median follow-up of 63 months, 13% have developed ipsilateral local recurrences, invasive and/or in situ. Ipsilateral local recurrence-free survival (IL-RFS) was significantly better for patients operated with mastectomy (ME) or breast conserving therapy (BCT) with radiotherapy (RT) than for patients operated with BCT without RT (5-year IL-RFS 96% vs 94% vs 79%, P<0.001). In the subgroup of BCT without RT there were significant differences in IL-RFS between histopathological subgroups: ng 1 + 2 (non-high grade) vs ng 3 (high grade; P=0.014), non-high-grade without comedo-type necrosis vs non-high-grade with comedo-type necrosis vs high-grade (the Van Nuys classification system; P=0.025). Growth pattern (not diffuse vs diffuse) and margins (free vs involved or not evaluated) showed a tendency (P=0.07 and 0.05, respectively) to be associated to IL-RFS. In contrast, no significant differences in IL-RFS were found in subgroups based on mode of detection, focality or size. Ninety-four per cent of the local recurrences after BCT appeared at the previous operation site. CONCLUSIONS: In the BCT without RT group, combinations of either non-high grade and not a diffuse growth pattern or non-high grade and free margins identified groups (constituting approximately 30% of the patients) were at low risk of developing ipsilateral recurrences (6-10%), compared to a 31-37% recurrence risk in the remaining groups during the observed follow-up time. The beneficial effect of post-operative RT for these low-risk groups can be questioned, and should be studied further.
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10.
  • Asp, Julia, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Changes of the p16 gene but not the p53 gene in human chondrosarcoma tissues.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 85:6, s. 782-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of two important tumour suppressor genes, p16 and p53, was evaluated in cartilaginous tumour tissues. Genomic DNA from 22 chondrosarcomas, 5 benign chondroid tumours, 1 sample of reactive proliferative cartilage and 2 samples of normal cartilage were analysed using polymerase chain reaction, single strand conformational polymorphism, DNA sequencing and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The p16 gene was found to be partly methylated in 5 high-grade chondrosarcomas and homozygously deleted in 1 chondrosarcoma. Moreover, a polymorphism was detected in 3 malignant tumours, but not in benign tumours or normal cartilage. Analysis of the p53 gene revealed an unchanged structure in all samples. These findings show a role for p16, but not p53, in chondrosarcoma.
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