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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2001)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004) > (2001)

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  • Hegardt, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Different roles of spermine in glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - : Academic Press. - 1090-2422. ; 266:2, s. 333-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two experimental systems representative of the mitochondrial and death receptor apoptotic pathways are the dexamethasone-induced programmed cell death in mouse thymocytes and the antibody-mediated cross-ligation of the Fas receptor in the human leukemic T-cell line Jurkat, respectively. In both cell systems, caspase-9, -8, and -3 were activated upon induction of apoptosis and a sub-G(1) peak appeared as a sign of ongoing DNA fragmentation. Addition of 1 mM spermine together with dexamethasone inhibited caspase activation and the appearance of the sub-G(1) peak in mouse thymocytes. In contrast, Fas-induced cell death was totally unaffected by spermine addition. Spermine addition significantly elevated the spermine concentration in both thymocytes and Jurkat cells. Thus, spermine per se did not inhibit the caspases but rather their activation. The fact that spermine inhibited caspase activation only in the thymocytes implies that spermine inhibited dexamethasone-induced apoptosis upstream of caspase-9 activation.
  • Hemminki, K, et al. (författare)
  • Age-incidence relationships and time trends in cervical cancer in Sweden
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0393-2990. ; 17:4, s. 8-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age-incidence relationships are informative of carcinogenic mechanisms. These have been previously assessed for cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but not for adenocarcinoma. The aim was to assess by means of age-, period- and cohort-specific analyses and Poisson regression modelling whether the two types of cervical cancer show an age-incidence maximum at a relatively young age, as shown in cross-sectional analyses. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse age-incidence relationships in cervical SCC and adenocarcinoma diagnosed in years 1958-1996, including a total of 15,118 and 1866 cases, respectively. Area of residence and socio-economic status were included in analyses because they were risk factors of cervical cancer. The analysis of cervical SCC confirmed an incidence maximum at ages 35-39 years. The data for adenocarcinoma also suggested a similar early age maximum but the curves differed extensively by birth cohort. The incidence of adenocarcinoma increased substantially at young age groups towards the end of follow-up. Endometrial adenocarcinoma and vaginal and vulvar SCC, which share some risk factors with cervical cancer, did not show an early age incidence maximum. The results also showed that there was a decrease in the incidence of cervical SCC around year 1960, almost 10 years before the organized population screening, probably due to introduced opportunistic pap testing. The benefits of the organized screening were observed as a further decline in the incidence rates. The unique age-incidence relationships in cervical cancer call for biological explanations.
  • Hemminki, K, et al. (författare)
  • The nation-wide Swedish family-cancer database--updated structure and familial rates
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X. ; 40:6, s. 7-772
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was expanded to include all Swedes born in 1932 and later (offspring) with their parents, totaling 10.2 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from the years 1958 to 1998, including over 1 million primary cancers and in situ tumors. Some 10%, of offspring diagnosed with cancer lack any parental information. Incidence rates of cancers were similar in the database and in the Cancer Registry to age 70, but at higher ages the rates in the Database were lower, probably because of selection. The familial risk for all types of cancer in offspring was 1.73 when a parent had the same type of cancer. The familial rates were increased for all main cancer sites, except for the upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, liver, pancreas and bone marrow (leukemia). The rates were 7.47 for thyroid, 4.69 for testis, and over 2.00 for melanoma, ovary, prostate, skin, endocrine glands and endometrium.
  • Hong, Jaan (författare)
  • Investigation of Incompatibility Reactions Caused by Biomaterials in Contact with Whole Blood Using a New in vitro Model.
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis describes a new in vitro slide chamber model that makes it possible to conduct studies of molecular and cellular interactions between whole blood and biomaterials. The model proved to be a suitable tool for detection of cell and platelet binding to a biomaterial surface. It was possible to monitor activation of the blood cascade systems and cells in the fluid phase and detect surface-bound molecules.One finding was that thrombin generation is primarily triggered by FXII on a biomaterial surface since corn trypsin inhibitor, inhibited thrombin generation in blood.Another finding was that thrombin generation was dependent on variety types of blood cells, since thrombin generation was almost negligible in platelet-rich plasma. When various preparations of blood cells were used to reconstitute platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma, erythrocytes were shown to be the most efficient cell type in triggering thrombin generation. Inhibition of platelet aggregation with aspirin and Ro44-9883 was associated with a decrease in thrombin generation, confirming that platelet activation is necessary for normal coagulation activation. These findings suggest that the central events consist of an initial low-grade generation of thrombin that involves erythrocytes and possibly leukocytes which leads to activation of platelets; and a second platelet-dependent amplification loop that produces most of the thrombin.Titanium exposed to whole blood produced high amounts of thrombin. Stainless steel and PVC, generated lower amounts. This indicates that titanium might be less suitable as a biomaterial in devices that are in direct contact with blood for prolonged time. Considering the superior osteointegrating properties of titanium and titanium's response to blood, a correlation between high thrombogenicity and good osteointegration seems to exist.Compstatin, that binds to complement component C3, effectively inhibited the generation of C3a and sC5b-9 and the binding of C3/C3 fragments to the surface. Our results suggest that a biomaterial is able to activate complement through both the classical and alternative pathways and that the classical pathway alone is able to maintain a substantial bioincompatibility reaction. The results show that complement activation is a prerequisite for activation and binding of PMNs to the surface in the in vitro model.
  • Hultdin, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Replication timing of human telomeric DNA and other repetitive sequences analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - : Elsevier. - 0014-4827. ; 271, s. 223-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The replication timing of telomeres seems to differ between species. Yeast telomeres are late replicating, whereas limited data from very few human cell lines have indicated telomere replication throughout S phase. In the present study a series of permanent cell lines and patient samples was investigated using a flow cytometric approach for telomere length determination based on in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes and DNA staining. This method permits selective analysis of cells in specific phases of the cell cycle without perturbation of the cell cycle machinery. The timing of replication of telomeric C(3)TA(2) and T(2)AG(3) repeats was found to differ between individual samples and could precede or be concomitant with the replication of bulk DNA. Replication of the T(2)AG(3) strand seemed to occur somewhat later than that of the C(3)TA(2) strand in some samples. (GTG)(n) and other repetitive sequences generally showed a replication pattern similar to that of the bulk of DNA with slightly individual differences, whereas centromeric DNA repeats consistently replicated within a short time frame in late S phase. The apparent variability in replication timing seen for telomeric DNA might suggest individual differences in firing of replication origins.
  • Häggström, S, et al. (författare)
  • Castration-induced reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in benign human prostate tissue is lost in advanced prostate cancer.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - 1464-4096 .- 1464-410X. ; 88:1, s. 110-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of vascular response in the castration-induced regression of benign and malignant human prostate tissue, as recent studies show that castration rapidly decreases blood flow and induces endothelial cell death, which may be important for subsequent epithelial cell death and involution of the glandular tissue of the prostate.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors was analysed using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in benign and tumour areas of core biopsies taken before, and approximately 1 week after castration therapy. The castration-induced VEGF response was related to therapy-induced changes in tumour cell apoptotic index and subsequent response in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In another set of patients, serum VEGF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, and at 3--6 months after castration therapy.RESULTS: VEGF mRNA was down-regulated after castration in benign prostate tissue (P < or = 0.05), whereas in tumour tissue, VEGF levels were reduced in some of the patients but unchanged or increased in others. In most patients whose tumour tissue responded with VEGF reduction, there was a corresponding increase in tumour cell apoptosis. Serum VEGF levels were not significantly changed after castration. Almost all patients responded with a substantial reduction in serum PSA after castration.CONCLUSION: Castration reduces VEGF mRNA expression in benign prostate tissue and generally in those prostate tumours where castration also induces tumour cell apoptosis. This suggests that a therapy-induced down-regulation of VEGF could be important for tumour cell death.
  • Högberg, T, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in ovarian cancer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 40:2-3, s. 60-340
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A systematic review of chemotherapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for the evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2001; 40: 155-65). This overview on chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer is based on a total of 176 scientific reports. Five meta-analyses including 17,291 patients, 33 prospective randomised studies including 12,340 patients, 36 prospective studies including 3,593 patients and one retrospective study including 421 patients. The studies include approximately 33,642 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized into the following points: Radically operated patients with low-risk early ovarian cancer (stage IA or IB non-clear-cell well-differentiated carcinomas or borderline tumours) have a very good prognosis and there is no indication for adjuvant therapy. Radically operated patients with high-risk early ovarian cancer (clear cell carcinomas or FIGO stage IA or IB moderately or poorly differentiated carcinomas or stage IC) have a substantial risk for micrometastatic disease. However, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear and such therapy should, thus, only be used within clinical trials. The median overall survival for patients with advanced (FIGO stages II-IV) ovarian cancer randomised to paclitaxel/platinum-containing chemotherapy in three large studies ranged between 36-39 months. Compared with historical data, this represents a six to seven times longer median survival time than after surgery only. The probability for long-term survival for patients treated with a paclitaxel/platinum combination is too early to define. In two prospective randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin has provided a survival benefit over cyclophosphamide/cisplatin. Based on these trials, paclitaxel/cisplatin is considered to be the standard treatment. This choice of standard therapy might, however, be questioned based on the results of the hitherto largest randomised study in advanced ovarian cancer, ICON3, which is, as yet only available in abstract form. It compared paclitaxel/carboplatin with carboplatin only or a platinum combination (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/cisplatin). There were no statistically significant differences in progression-free or overall survival. The drug regimen in the control arms of the previous studies showing superiority of the paclitaxel-cisplatin combination may not have been the optimal non-paclitaxel platinum-containing regimen. Three randomised studies have compared carboplatin/paclitaxel with cisplatin/paclitaxel. All three are hitherto only published as abstracts with short follow-up precluding survival analyses. None of them shows any difference in response rates. All three show less toxicity and one also better quality of life with carboplatin. Thus, there are preliminary data supporting the substitution of cisplatin with carboplatin. Intraperitoneal therapy with cisplatin caused improved survival compared with intravenous therapy in one ramdomised study. Further studies have shown trends to better survival and longer progression-free interval with intraperitoneal therapy. The accrual to studies on intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been poor reflecting that it is a cumbersome and not easily accepted treatment. In advanced ovarian cancer, no convincing advantage has been shown from more dose-intensive chemotherapy, without cytokines or bone marrow stem cell support, compared with standard doses. High response rates are achieved with high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support in the salvage situation but response duration is short. Phase III studies evaluating high-dose chemotherapy in the first-line situation are ongoing. Until supportive controlled clinical trials are presented, high-dose chemotherapy should be confined to clinical trials. Tumour response is frequently observed on re-treatment with the same drugs as given first-line in patients sensitive to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with a long progression-free interval. Thus, in these patients treatment with a platinum/paclitaxel combination might be recommended. albeit based on limited data. In patients resistant to first-line therapy, a number of single agents induce tumour responses in the range of 10-30%. The literature does not permit general treatment recommendations in these patients, which are recommended to be included in controlled clinical trials.
  • Idvall, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Histopathological and cell biological factors of ductal carcinoma in situ before and after the introduction of mammographic screening
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X. ; 40:5, s. 653-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the introduction of mammographic screening the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased to 10-15% of all breast cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were any morphological and cell biological differences between DCIS detected during the pre-screening (n = 39) as opposed to the screening period (n = 120). We could not demonstrate any statistically significant differences between the pre-screening and the screening period with regard to nuclear grade, presence of necrosis, the Van Nuys classification system, growth pattern, or cell biological factors (estrogen and progesterone receptors, c-erbB-2, p53, DNA ploidy status, Ki67, and Auer classes). These findings suggest that DCIS tumors detected during the two time periods have a similar malignant potential. DCIS detected during the screening period was further divided into the prevalence period versus the period thereafter, and symptomatic versus screening-detected asymptomatic cases. More cases with diffuse growth patterns were seen during the prevalence period than after the prevalence period, and screening-detected asymptomatic DCISs were more often 15 mm or smaller in diameter than DCISs detected symptomatically.
  • Jerkeman, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life and its potential prognostic implications in patients with aggressive lymphoma: a Nordic Lymphoma Group Trial
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - : Humana Press. - 1559-131X. ; 18:1, s. 85-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was conducted to explore treatment and disease-related effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with aggressive lymphoma, to identify predictors for impaired long-term HRQoL, and to analyze the prognostic value of pretreatment HRQoL. Ninety-five patients with aggressive lymphoma, constituting a subset of a randomized multicenter trial comparing CHOP and MACOP-B, entered a HRQoL study, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Patient scores were compared to scores from an age- and gender-adjusted reference population sample, and evaluation of the prognostic value of pretreatment QoL scores in relation to clinical prognostic factors was performed. Before treatment, patients exhibited lower scores of global QoL, physical, role, and social functions, and more appetite loss, compared to the reference population. Role functioning improved compared to baseline, but remained depressed compared to the reference group more than 8 mo after end of treatment. By then, the patient group displayed no difference in other HRQoL variables compared to that of the reference population. No reliable predictor for impaired long-term HRQoL could be identified. In multivariate analysis, including the factors of the International Prognostic Index, pretreatment global QoL was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival. In conclusion, in this population with aggressive lymphoma and favorable prognostic features, HRQoL was not substantially affected during the first year after diagnosis. Pretreatment global QoL may constitute a significant prognostic factor, meriting further investigation in prospective studies.
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