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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) srt2:(2000-2004);srt2:(2001)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004) > (2001)

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61.
  • Fletcher, Christopher D.M., et al. (författare)
  • Clinicopathologic re-evaluation of 100 malignant fibrous histiocytomas: prognostic relevance of subclassification
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 19:12, s. 3045-3050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) has been regarded as the most common soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in adults. Yet its true nature and the validity of this diagnostic concept have increasingly been questioned. Available data suggest that most patients with MFH can be subclassified into specific STS types, but the clinical relevance of such categorization has been argued. In a retrospective study, we reclassified 100 tumors of the extremity and trunk wall primarily diagnosed as MFH and analyzed the outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were adults (median age, 70 years; range, 32 to 94 years). The median tumor size was 8 cm (range, 1 to 30 cm), and the thigh was the most common tumor location (n = 31). Median follow-up was 8 years (range, 3 to 16 years). The overall 5-year metastasis-free survival rate was 0.64. The tumors were reanalyzed histologically, immunohistochemically, and, where available, ultrastructurally, and were classified according to strict diagnostic criteria. Patients were staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer system, and prognoses were compared among different groups of the reclassified diagnoses, paying special attention to myogenic tumors. RESULTS: In 84 of 100 tumors, a specific line of differentiation was either proved or strongly suggested. The most common diagnoses were myxofibrosarcoma (n = 22) and leiomyosarcoma (n = 20). Overall, 30 tumors could be grouped as some form of myogenic sarcoma. These tumors had a worse prognosis, even within the same American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, and a shorter time to metastasis than nonmyogenic tumors. CONCLUSION: This retrospective study confirms that most so-called MFH can be subclassified by defined criteria; it provides evidence that such classification is clinically important. Specifically, pleomorphic STS showing myogenic differentiation are significantly more aggressive, a finding that allows planning future therapeutic trials.
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62.
  • Forinder, Ulla (författare)
  • Stödgrupp för unga vuxna - ur ett anhörigperspektiv : ett vårdutvecklingsprojekt hos Cancerfonden 1999-2000 : slutrapport
  • 2001
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rapporten beskriver ett projekt på Huddinge universitetssjukhus med syfte att skaffa kunskap om huruvida en gruppverksamhet är en lämplig stödform för unga anhöriga till cancerpatienter. Man anordnade en verksamhet med en grupp bestående av 5 ungdomar vars föräldrar var svårt och obotligt sjuka i cancer. Vid den åttonde och sista gruppträffen gjordes en utvärdering av gruppen. Samtliga inblandade var i stort sett mycket positiva. De deltagande ungdomarna tyckte att en gruppverksamhet fungerade mycket bra då det överskuggande behovet var att träffa andra som är i samma situation.
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63.
  • Fransson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and symptoms in a randomized trial of radiotherapy versus deferred treatment of localized prostate carcinoma
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - American Cancer Society. - 0008-543X. ; 92:12, s. 3111-3119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Treatment of localized prostate carcinoma (LPC) using radiotherapy (RT) can induce disturbances in a patient's quality of life (QOL) and urinary and intestinal function. Late symptoms and QOL were evaluated in a randomized trial between RT and deferred treatment (DT).METHODS: Quality of life was evaluated with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's QLQ-C30 (+3) formula. Urinary and intestinal problems were evaluated with a validated symptom specific self-assessment questionnaire, QUFW94. The questionnaires were sent to 108 randomized patients with LPC and to an age-matched control group (n = 68). Mean age was 72 years. Mean total dose was 65 grays (Gy; 62.3-70 Gy). The median follow-up time from randomization was 40.6 months for the RT group and 30.4 months for the DT group.RESULTS: Social functioning was the only QOL scale in which a significant difference was found between the two patient groups and compared with the control group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hematuria, incontinence, mucus, and planning of daily activities in response to intestinal problems caused this decrease in QOL in the RT group. A significant increase of intestinal problems was observed in the RT versus DT groups regarding mucus, stool leakage, intestinal blood, and planning of daily activity in response to intestinal problems.CONCLUSIONS: The RT patients showed increased levels of minor intestinal side effects compared with the DT patients and the controls, but the RT patients reported no decreased QOL except for decreased social functioning. This could be because this group developed coping skills or because of a low magnitude of side effects to influence the QOL.
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64.
  • Fransson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Reliability and responsiveness of a prostate cancer questionnaire for radiotherapy-induced side effects
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Supportive Care in Cancer. - Springer. - 0941-4355. ; 9:3, s. 187-198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few self-assessment cancer-specific questionnaires / modules have yet been developed for radiotherapy-induced side effects. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability and responsiveness of a prostate cancer (PC)specific questionnaire. Thirty-one patients with PC graded their urinary and intestinal symptoms and their sexual function on the questionnaire. A doctor and a nurse performed a structured interview and graded the patient's symptoms with the same questions. The procedure was performed at both the start and the end of the treatment. A high concordance regarding symptom detection was seen between the patient, nurse and the doctor. The inter-rater test shows intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.60 in all scales. The internal reliability exceeded the lower limit (Cronbach alpha > 0.70) for all scales. The test-retest gave acceptable reliability for all scales (ICC greater than or equal to 0.60). All scales indicated increased problems during radiotherapy. The questionnaire was proven to be valid for the evaluations of urinary and intestinal problems and for sexual function in PC patients.
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65.
  • Fredstorp-Lidebring, M, et al. (författare)
  • Urokinase plasminogen activator and its inhibitor, PAI-1, in association with progression-free survival in early stage endometrial cancer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 37:18, s. 2339-2348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Components of the urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system are involved in the metastatic process, and have accordingly been associated with clinical outcome in a variety of malignant tumours. We investigated the prognostic importance of u-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in endometrial cancer, analysed with luminometric immunoassay (LIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Two different cut-off levels were used: the median and the 80th percentile-the latter because of the low progression rate for patients with early stage (I-II) endometrial cancer. After a median follow-up time of 6.8 years, univariate analysis of patients with stage I-II disease (n=188) showed that high u-PA and high PAI-1 content was associated with a shorter progression-free survival (PFS), but at different cut-off levels, uPA at the median (P=0.003), and PAI-1 at the 80th percentile (P<0.001). Among the other factors, DNA ploidy status was most strongly correlated to PFS, followed by age (continuous), International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grade of differentiation, S-phase fraction and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. Bivariate analyses, including ploidy and one of the factors u-PA or PAI-1, showed that both add significant prognostic information. We conclude that u-PA and PAI-1 are promising prognostic factors in early stage endometrial cancer.
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66.
  • Frisk, Peter (författare)
  • Expressions of mercury-selenium interaction in vitro
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Interaction between mercury and selenium has previously been observed both in man and in animals. The aim of this work was to study expressions of interaction between mercury and selenium in human K-562 cells. Inorganic and organic forms of mercury and selenium were used and cells were either pre-treated with selenium or simultaneously exposed to selenium and mercury. Concentrations of selenium and mercury chosen were indicated by a study of growth inhibition in the individual compounds: a low concentration of selenium and selenomethionine induced slight cell growth inhibition, while a high concentration resulted in a notable growth inhibition. Two mercury concentrations were chosen: one with minimal toxicity and another with high cell toxicity. In addition, uptake and retention patterns of selenomethionine and selenite differed in both selenocompounds.All simultaneous treatments with 3.5 μM methylmercury produced a reduction in cellular mercury with increased selenium concentration. This was particularly obvious in selenite treatments. Growth curves from the simultaneous 3.5 μM methylmercury and selenite treatments indicated protection with increased selenite concentrations. In both exposure protocols, the 5 μM methylmercury treatments were toxic to the cells. In both study protocols, cells exposed to selenite and mercuric chloride manifested increased cellular mercury uptake with increased selenium concentration. In all selenite and 35 μM mercuric chloride treatments, no inhibition of growth was observed, while the 50 μM mercuric chloride treatments were toxic to the cells. Selenite-dependent protection was achieved in both exposure protocols when considering the cellular uptake of mercury. With few exceptions, selenomethionine produced similar effects as selenite on mercuric chloride uptake and growth inhibition.
67.
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68.
  • Gelig Thurfjell, Mercidyl (författare)
  • Aspects in mammographic screening : Detection, prediction, recurrence and prognosis
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Screening mammograms comprising of 32 first round, 10 interval and 32 second round detected cancers and 46 normal were examined by an expert screener, a screening radiologist, a clinical radiologist and a computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system. The expert screener, screening radiologist, clinical radiologist and the CAD detected 44, 41, 34 and 37 cancers, respectively, while their respective specificities were 80%, 83%, 100% and 22%. Later, with CAD prompting, the screening and the clinical radiologist detected 1 and 3 additional cancers each with unchanged specificities.Screening mammograms comprising 35 first round, 12 interval and 14 second round detected cancers and 89 normal findings were examined without and with previous mammograms by experienced screeners. Without previous mammograms, the screeners detected 40.3 cancers with a specificity of 87%. With previous mammograms, 37.7 cancers were detected with a 96% specificity. The decrease in sensitivity was not significant but the screeners showed significant increase in specificity.Local recurrences in 303 nonpalpable breast cancers with preoperative localizations and breast conservation therapy were evaluated for needle-caused implant metastasis. A total of 214 percutaneous biopsies were performed. There were 33 local recurrences. Needle-caused seeding or implantation as based on the location of the recurrence in comparison to the needle path in the mammograms was suspected in 3/44 (7%) invasive cancers without radiotherapy.The mammographic characteristics of 317 nonpalpable breast cancers were categorized. Logistic regression showed that the risk ratios for a spiculated mass without calcifications and calcifications alone were 12 and 19 for invasive cancer and ductal cancer in situ (DCIS), respectively. Invasive ductal grade 1, ductal grade 2, lobular and ductal grade 3, had a risk ratio (RR) of 28, 17, 11 and 4.6, respectively, for a spiculated mass without calcifications. DCIS nuclear grade 3 and invasive ductal grade 3 had an RR of 17 and 9.7, respectively, for sole casting calcifications.The eight-year survival of 96 1-9 mm invasive breast cancers were investigated in relation to their mammographic appearance, node status and histologic grade. After a median follow-up of 7 years, 6/96 died from breast cancer: 3/14 had calcifications alone, 2/56 had spiculated masses, 1/12 had rounded mass, 5/78 were node-negative and 1/4 was node-positive. The survival rate was 93%: 77% for the calcifications alone, 95% for spiculated masses, 91% for rounded masses, 92% for node-negative and 75% for node-positive. Calcifications alone and node positivity, each, carried a significantly higher risk of death.
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69.
  • Gentile, Massimiliano, et al. (författare)
  • Deletion mapping of chromosome segment 11q24-q25, exhibiting extensive allelic loss in early onset breast cancer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 92:2, s. 208-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frequent allelic deletions at chromosome 11q24-q25 have been described in both early and late onset breast cancers, suggesting the existence of a gene locus implicated in the initiation and/or progression of the disease. In the present study we fine mapped this region further by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis in a population of early onset breast cancer cases (n = 102, 22 to 36 years old). Loss of chromosomal material was assessed for possible association with patient survival as well as Nottingham histologic grade (NHG). Additionally, we investigated the involvement of the 11q24-q25 locus in a group of familial breast cancer cases with no detectable BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene alterations (n = 32, ages 28 to 40 years). Among the consecutive patients, extensive LOH was observed for all markers at 11q24-q25, with frequencies ranging from 42% to 54%. Deletion at the D11S4125 marker was found to be associated with reduced survival (p = 0.026), whereas the adjacent D11S387 marker correlated with higher histologic grade (p = 0.042). In the familial cases, the most telomeric markers showed substantially lower proportions of LOH, ranging from 10% to 21%. Comparison of the two patient groups demonstrated that this difference in LOH frequency was statistically significant for the D11S4098, D11S968, D11S387 and D11S4125 markers (p = 0.020, p = 0.029, p = 0.0070 and p = 0.0030, respectively). We conclude that 11q25 may harbor a gene implicated in early onset breast cancer. Our data suggest that the most probable position for this locus is defined by the markers D11S387 and D11S4125 and furthermore that it may play a less significant role in familial breast cancer cases not linked to either of the BRCA genes.
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70.
  • Gisselsson, D, et al. (författare)
  • Abnormal nuclear shape in solid tumors reflects mitotic instability
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - American Society for Investigative Pathology. - 1525-2191. ; 158:1, s. 199-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abnormalities in nuclear morphology are frequently observed in malignant tissues but the mechanisms behind these phenomena are still poorly understood. In this study, the relation between abnormal nuclear shape and chromosomal instability was explored in short-term tumor cell cultures. Mitotically unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization at metaphase and subsequently localized in interphase nuclei from five malignant soft tissue tumors. The vast majority (71 to 86%) of nuclear blebs, chromatin strings, and micronuclei contained material from the unstable chromosomes, whereas few (<11%) were positive for stable chromosomes. Nuclear morphology was also evaluated in fibroblasts and an osteosarcoma cell line exposed to irradiation. A linear correlation was found between the frequency of abnormalities in nuclear shape, on one hand, and cells with unstable chromosomes (r = 0.87) and anaphase bridge configurations (r = 0.98), on the other hand. The relation between nuclear shape and karyotypic pattern was investigated further in cultures from 58 tumors of bone, soft tissue, and epithelium. Blebs, strings, and micronuclei were significantly more frequent in tumors that contained rings, dicentrics, or telomeric associations than in those exhibiting only stable aberrations (P: < 0.001) and a positive correlation (r = 0.78) was found between the frequency of such nuclear abnormalities and the intratumor heterogeneity of structural chromosome aberrations. These results indicate that the formation of nuclear blebs, chromatin strings, and micronuclei in malignant tissues is closely related to the breakage-fusion-bridge type of mitotic disturbances. Abnormalities in nuclear shape may thus primarily be regarded as an indicator of genetic instability and intratumor heterogeneity, independent of cytogenetic complexity and the grade of malignancy.
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