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1.
  • Ranebo, Mats, 1970- (författare)
  • Rotator Cuff Tears Short- and long-term aspects on treatment outcome
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rotator cuff tear is a common disorder and there is a lack of knowledge of appropriate treatment and consequences of different treatment modalities. The overall aim of this thesis was to examine short- and long-term results of rotator cuff tear treatment.In Paper I we did a retrospective 21 to 25-year follow-up of a consecutive series of patients with partial and full-thickness rotator cuff tears, treated with acromioplasty without cuff repair. The cuff status had been documented in a specific perioperative protocol in all patients at the index operation. We did x-ray, ultrasonography and clinical scores with Constant score and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index (WORC) at follow-up. We identified 111 patients with either a partial or a full-thickness tear, but at follow-up 21 were deceased and 11 were too ill from medical conditions unrelated to their shoulder. Out of the remaining 78 eligible patients, 69 were examined (follow-up rate 88 %) and they had a mean age at the index operation of 49 years (range 19-69 years). Forty-five had a partial tear and 24 a full-thickness tear at the index operation. At follow-up, 74% of patients with full-thickness tear had cuff tear arthropathy grade 2 or more according to the arthropathy classification of Hamada (grade 1 to 5) and 87% had developed tear progression (i.e. a larger tear). Corresponding numbers in those with a partial tear was 7 % arthropathy and 42 % tear progression, and the differences between the full-thickness group and the partial tear group was significant for both outcome measures (P<0.001 for both analyses). In those with arthropathy, the mean Constant score was 47 (standard deviation [SD], 23), the mean age and gender-adjusted Constant score 62 (SD, 27) and the mean WORC 58 % (SD, 26). Patients with a partial tear at follow-up had mean Constant score and WORC within the normal range. In multivariable analysis with logistic regression, having a full-thickness tear at the index operation was a risk factor for arthropathy (odds ratio [OR] 37.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-175.0) and for tear progression (OR 6.09; 95% CI, 1.41-26.29).In Paper II we examined the contralateral shoulder in the same patients as in paper I and with the same methodology. Sixty-one patients were examined and 38 had had a partial tear at the index operation 21-25 years ago and 23 a full-thickness tear. The overall rate of contralateral full-thickness tears was 50.8 %, which is higher than the 16-35 % rate found in previous studies of newly diagnosed cuff patients. The rate of contralateral full-thickness tear ranged from 13.6 % in patients with a partial tear in the index shoulder at follow-up, to 90 % in patients with a full-thickness tear and arthropathy in the index shoulder. There was a significant correlation regarding conditions between shoulders in the same patient, with a Spearman coefficient of 0.72 for the number of ten-dons with a full-thickness tear, 0.31 for Hamada grade of arthropathy and 0.65 for Constant score. The number of tendons with a full-thickness tear in the index shoulder at follow-up was a risk factor for a contralateral full-thickness tear (OR 3.28; 95% CI, 1.67-6.44) in a multi-variable logistic regression model. We also found that cuff tear arthropathy was significantly more common in patients who had undergone an acromioplasty (P<0.001), a finding which is not confirmatory but may generate a hypothesis.Paper III addressed 17 to 20-year results after operation with a synthetic interposition graft for irreparable cuff tears. We used X-ray, ultrasonography and clinical scores at follow-up. We identified a consecutive series of 13 patients, one of whom was deceased at follow-up. Ten of the remaining 12 participated in a complete follow-up and 2 did only x-ray examination. Nine out of 12 (75 %; 95% CI, 43-95 %) had cuff tear arthropathy Hamada grade 2 or more in the index shoulder at follow-up. The mean Constant score was 46 (SD, 26) and the mean WORC 59 % (SD, 20). Seven out of 12 had contralateral cuff tear arthropathy, and the difference in frequency of arthropathy between shoulders was not statistically significant (P=0.667).In Paper IV we tested whether early repair of small cuff tears, involving mainly supraspinatus, would give a superior clinical result com-pared to physiotherapy without repair in a prospective randomised trial with 12 months follow-up. We used Constant score as the primary out-come, and WORC, EQ-VAS and Numerical Rating Scale for pain (NRS) as secondary outcomes. We also aimed at assessing the rate of tear progression in unrepaired shoulders and the healing rate in repaired shoulders by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed at 12 months. With a high grade of follow-up (100 % for 12 months Constant score and 95 % for 12 months MRI), the repair group had a 12 months median Constant score of 83 (Quartile range [QR], 25) and the conservative group 78 (QR, 22). This between-group difference in medians of 4.5 (95% CI,-5 to 9; P=0.68) was not statistically significant and we did not detect any significant differences in the secondary outcomes at 12 months. The retear rate was 6.5 % in repaired patients and 29 % of unrepaired patients had a tear enlargement >5 mm.The results in this thesis indicate that patients with small, traumatic, full-thickness tears of mainly supraspinatus have no clinical benefit of early surgical repair compared to physiotherapy alone, but in the long-term, patients with full-thickness tears have an increased risk of tear progression, cuff tear arthropathy and low clinical scores. These results are especially important in the treatment decision of repair or not in younger patients. Having a full-thickness tear is also a risk factor for having a contralateral cuff tear, a phenomenon that underlines the importance of endogenous factors in the development of rotator cuff tears. If a cuff tear is not repairable to bone, the addition of a synthetic inter-position graft does not seem to prevent cuff tear arthropathy.
2.
  • Choung, Rok Seon, et al. (författare)
  • Community-Based Study of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity Progression in Adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - 1528-0012 .- 0016-5085. ; 158:1, s. 151-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: Celiac disease can develop at any age, but outcomes of adults with positive results from serologic tests for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) without endoscopic determination of celiac disease (called celiac autoimmunity) have not been thoroughly evaluated. We investigated the proportion of adults with celiac autoimmunity at a community medical center and their progression to celiac disease. Methods: We analyzed waste blood samples from a community clinic from 15,551 adults for tTGA and, if titer results were above 2 U/mL, for endomysial antibody. The blood samples had been collected at 2 time points (median interval, 8.8 years) from 2006 through 2017. We collected data from the clinic on diagnoses of celiac disease based on duodenal biopsy analysis. Results: Of the serum samples collected at the first time point, 15,398 had negative results for tTGA, and 153 had positive results for tTGA (>4 U/mL). Based on medical records, 6 individuals received a diagnosis of celiac disease, for a cumulative incidence of celiac disease diagnosis of 0.06% (95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.11). Forty-nine (0.32%) individuals with a negative result from the first serologic test for tTGA had a positive result from the second test. Among the 153 adults who were tTGA positive at the first time point, 31 (20%) had a subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease, 81 (53%) remained positive for tTGA without a clinical diagnosis of celiac disease, and 41 (27%) had negative test results for tTGA at the second time point. Higher initial tTGA titers, female sex, and a history of hypothyroidism and autoimmune disease were associated with increased risks of subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. Interestingly, adults whose first blood sample had a positive test result but second blood sample had a negative result for tTGA were older, had lower-than-average initial tTGA titer results, and had a higher mean body mass index than adults whose blood samples were positive for tTGA at both time points and adults later diagnosed with celiac disease. Conclusions: In an analysis of serum samples collected from a community clinic an average of 8.8 years apart, we found that fewer than 1% of adults with negative results from an initial test for tTGA have a positive result on a second test. Of adults with positive results from the test for tTGA, only 20% are later diagnosed with celiac disease; the remaining individuals maintain persistent increases in tTGA without diagnoses of celiac disease or have negative results from second tests.
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3.
  • Byenfeldt, Marie, 1967- (författare)
  • Ultrasound based shear wave elastography of the liver a non-invasive method for evaluation of liver disease
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Detecting liver disease at an early stage is important, given that early intervention decreases the risk of developing cirrhosis and subsequently hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The non-invasive ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) has been used clinically for a decade to assess liver stiffness. This method is reliable, rapid and can be performed in an outpatient setting without known risks for the patient. However, increased variance in SWE results has been detected, without clear explanation. Factors that affect SWE results needs to be identified. Data are insufficient regarding the reliability of SWE with different body positions and probe pressures. Men have higher SWE results than women, also for unclear reasons. Increasing the reliability of SWE is crucial for understanding how factors such as overweight and obesity, cardiovascular and antiviral medication, age, sex, smoking habits, hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis affect SWE results.Aims: The overall aim of the studies included in this thesis was to increase the reliability of SWE liver. The specific aims were to investigate patient-related factors associated with increased uncertainty in SWE results. Another aim was to investigate the influence of increased intercostal probe pressure on liver stiffness assessment with SWE liver.  The final aims were to investigate the influence of postural changes, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and skin-to-liver capsule distance (SCD) on SWE results, along with sex-based differences for SWE results and cardiovascular medication.Methods: All enrolled participants in these studies were consecutive patients with various liver diseases presenting at the radiology department Östersunds Hospital. The patients were examined using SWE liver method at the ultrasound unit between April 2014 and May 2018. Inclusion criteria were that participants be adults (age ≥18 years) who had provided written consent for participating in the study. The exclusion criterion was an inability to communicate. Current guidelines for SWE of the liver were used in the thesis with the following exceptions: In study II, increased intercostal probe pressure was used, and in study III, postural change was used. Study I included 188 patients; study II included 112 patients, and studies III and IV involved 200 patients. The four studies were conducted as cross-sectional and clinical trial, using quantitative methods.Results: Factors associated with low variance for SWE results were age, sex, and presence of cirrhosis, the use of antiviral and/or cardiovascular medication, smoking habits, and body mass index.  Factors associated with increased uncertainty in SWE results were increased SCD and the presence of steatosis. With increased probe pressure SCD decreased and the quality of shear wave increased. The results showed that the number of required measurements can be reduced. A postural change to left decubitus decreased SCD. For patients with increased SAD and increased SWE result in the supine position, SWE result decreased with a postural change to left decubitus.  The SWE results, SCD and SAD significantly differed between women and men. SWE results was higher in the presence of increased SAD (≥23 cm) among men, but not among women.Conclusions:  SWE of the liver is a reliable, non-invasive method for diagnosing liver disease. Results in this thesis suggest that for patients with SCD ≥2.5 cm, shear wave measures could be of poor quality and the SWE exam less reliable. In these cases, increased probe pressure may facilitate a reliable SWE exam. With such adjustments in probe pressure, the ultrasound-based SWE method can be superior for examination in patients with overweight or obesity. An effect of SAD ≥23 cm was seen for men with liver fibrosis only, which may explain the higher SWE result for men compared to women. Depending on the severity of liver disease and SAD, a postural change to left decubitus can produce a different outcome. As SAD increased, liver stiffness did, as well. Increased SAD thus is linked to increased liver stiffness, indicating that SAD should be taken into account when performing SWE of the liver.
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4.
  • Åkesson, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Surface Microdialysis Detects Ischemia After Esophageal Resection—An Experimental Animal Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Surgical Research. - Elsevier. - 0022-4804. ; 245, s. 537-543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: After an esophageal resection, continuity is commonly restored by a gastric tube reconstruction and an intrathoracic anastomosis to the remaining proximal esophagus. Ischemia of the anastomotic region is considered to play a pivotal role in anastomotic leakage. Microdialysis (μD) is an excellent method to measure local biochemical substances and parameters in a specific organ or compartment aiming at early detection of ischemia. This animal study evaluates ischemia of the gastric tube reconstruction using a novel method—μD on organ surfaces. This promising method may have the potential to detect an anastomotic leakage before clinical symptoms develop. Methods: Anesthetized normoventilated pigs were used. Surface microdialysis (S-μD) catheters and an intraparenchymal oxygen tension catheter were placed on the stomach. A gastric tube was made and the gastroepiploic artery was divided halfway along the greater curvature to produce severe ischemia at the top of the gastric tube. μD data from four locations (gastric tube, ileum and peritoneal cavity) were recorded every 20 min during the experiment. Tissue samples from all catheter sites underwent histopathological analysis. Intraparenchymal oxygen partial pressure, systemic blood tests, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Results: S-μD data showed values indicating severe ischemia at the top of the gastric tube and intermediate ischemia at the level of transection of the gastroepiploic artery. Ischemia was verified by histopathological analysis of tissue samples and intraparenchymal oxygen tension data. Conclusions: S-μD can detect and grade severity of local ischemia in real time, in an animal model.
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5.
  • Abdalla, Maie, et al. (författare)
  • Anorectal Function After Ileo-Rectal Anastomosis Is Better than Pelvic Pouch in Selected Ulcerative Colitis Patients
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Digestive Diseases and Sciences. - Springer-Verlag New York. - 0163-2116 .- 1573-2568. ; s. 250-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: With a lifelong perspective, 12% of ulcerative colitis patients will need a colectomy. Further reconstruction via ileo-rectal anastomosis or pouch can be affected by patients' perspective of their quality of life after surgery.AIM: To assess the function and quality of life after restorative procedures with either ileo-rectal anastomosis or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in relation to the inflammatory activity on endoscopy and in biopsies.METHOD: A total of 143 UC patients operated with subtotal colectomy and ileo-rectal anastomosis or pouches between 1992 and 2006 at Linköping University Hospital were invited to participate. Those who completed the validated questionnaires (Öresland score, SF-36, Short Health Scale) were offered an endoscopic evaluation including multiple biopsies. Associations between anorectal function and quality of life with type of restorative procedure and severity of endoscopic and histopathologic grading of inflammation were evaluated.RESULTS: Some 77 (53.9%) eligible patients completed questionnaires, of these 68 (88.3%) underwent endoscopic evaluation after a median follow-up of 12.5 (range 3.5-19.4) years after restorative procedure. Patients with ileo-rectal anastomosis reported better overall Öresland score: median = 3 (IQR 2-5) for ileo-rectal anastomosis (n = 38) and 10 (IQR 5-15) for pouch patients (n = 39) (p < 0.001). Anorectal function (Öresland score) and endoscopic findings (Baron-Ginsberg score) were positively correlated in pouch patients (tau: 0.28, p = 0.006).CONCLUSION: Patients operated with ileo-rectal anastomosis reported better continence compared to pouches. Minor differences were noted regarding the quality of life. Ileo-rectal anastomosis is a valid option for properly selected ulcerative colitis patients if strict postoperative endoscopic surveillance is carried out.
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6.
  • Campanello, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and gastric acid-suppression medication 20 years after laparoscopic fundoplication
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ANZ Journal of Surgery. - 1445-1433. ; 90:1-2, s. 76-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Laparoscopic fundoplication is an effective treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to assess quality of life (QoL), long-term residual symptoms, patient satisfaction and use of acid-suppression medication at 5, 10 and 20 years after surgery. Methods: We identified a cohort of 100 patients who underwent laparoscopic fundoplication between 1993 and 1998. The validated QoL questionnaires Short Form health survey (SF-36), and Quality-of-Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD), as well as a specific questionnaire regarding post-fundoplication symptoms, were sent to the patients at 5, 10 and 20 years after surgery. Furthermore, patients who reported using the acid-suppression medication after 20 years were interviewed by telephone regarding their reason for taking it. Results: Eighty-eight percent of the patients responded at 5 and 10 years post-surgery. Twenty years following fundoplication, 68 (84% of those still alive) patients completed the questionnaires. The patients had equivalent health-related QoL scores in both the QOLRAD and SF-36 questionnaires after 10 and 20 years, and those scores were in line with a Swedish age-matched population. After 20 years, 87% were satisfied with the results, and 84% of the patients would recommend reflux surgery to a relative or a friend. At the telephone interview, 32% (22/68) confirmed using acid-suppression medication, but only half (11/68) used it because of reflux symptoms. Conclusion: The long-term, satisfying outcomes in GERD symptoms and QoL 5 and 10 years after surgery were maintained at a 20-year follow-up. Half of the patients used acid-suppression medication for reasons other than GERD symptoms. © 2019 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
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7.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal and antibiotic exposures and the risk of developing childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease : A nested case-control study based on a population-based birth cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 17:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of early-life environmental exposures on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) onset remains unclear. We aimed to quantify the impact of perinatal conditions and antibiotic use in the first 6 and 12 months of life, on the risk of childhood-onset IBD, in a birth cohort of the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). A nested case-control design on a longitudinal cohort of 213,515 newborns was adopted. Conditional binomial regression models were used to estimate Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all analyzed risk factors. We identified 164 individuals with IBD onset before the age of 18 years and 1640 controls. None of the considered perinatal conditions were associated with IBD. Analyses on antibiotic exposure were based on 70 cases and 700 controls. Risks were significantly higher for children with ≥4 antibiotic prescriptions in the first 6 and 12 months of life (OR = 6.34; 95%CI 1.68–24.02 and OR = 2.91; 95%CI 1.31–6.45, respectively). This association was present only among patients with Crohn’s disease and those with earlier IBD onset. We found that perinatal characteristics were not associated to IBD, while the frequent use of antibiotics during the first year of life was associated to an increased risk of developing subsequent childhood-onset IBD.
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8.
  • Danielson, Johan, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Injectable bulking treatment of persistent fecal incontinence in adult patients after anorectal malformations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Surgery. - W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0022-3468 .- 1531-5037. ; 55:3, s. 397-402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Purpose: Injectable bulking therapy has emerged as a treatment for fecal incontinence (IT, however there are no studies including adult patients with anorectal malformations (ARM). This study aimed to evaluate non-animal stabilized hyaluronic add with dextranomer (NASHA/Dx) for the treatment of adult ARM patients with persistent FI.Methods: Seven adults with ARM and incontinence to loose stool at least once weekly and without rectal or mucosal prolapse were treated with anal NASHA/Dx injection. They were evaluated preoperatively, at 6 and 18 months with a bowel function questionnaire and a 2-week bowel diary as well as FTQL and SF-36 quality of life questionnaires.Results: Before treatment, the mean number of incontinence episodes over 2 weeks was 20.7 (median 16, range 8-52). At 6 months, the corresponding figures were 53 (median 4, range 0-19, p = 0.018), and at 18 months the figures were 4.3 (median 2, range 1-20,p = 0.018). An improved physical function in SF-36 from 74.3 at baseline to 86.4 at 6 months was noted (p = 0.04). No serious adverse events occurred.Conclusions: NASHA/Dx is a promising treatment option for selected adult patients with persistent Ft after ARM. Longer follow up of larger patient series and studies on patients in adolescence is needed. 
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9.
  • Hasselgren, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Liver resection is beneficial for patients with colorectal liver metastases and extrahepatic disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Translational Medicine. - AME Publishing Company. - 2305-5839 .- 2305-5847. ; 8:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Liver metastases are the most common cause of death for patients with colorectal cancer and affect up to half of the patients. Liver resection is an established method that can potentially be curative. For patients with extrahepatic disease (EHD), the role of liver surgery is less established.Methods: This is a retrospective study based on data from the national quality registry SweLiv. Data were obtained between 2009 and 2015. SweLiv is a validated registry and has been in use since 2009, with coverage above 95%. Patients with liver metastases and EHD were analyzed and cross-checked against the national death cause registry for survival analysis.Results: During the study period, 2,174 patients underwent surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), and 277 patients with EHD were treated with resection or ablation. The estimated median survival time for the entire cohort from liver resection/ablation was 40 months (95% CI, 32-47). The survival time for patients treated with liver resection was 45 months compared to 26 months for patients treated with ablation (95% CI 38-53, 18-33, P=0.001). A subgroup analysis of resected patients revealed that the group with pulmonary metastases had a significantly longer estimated median survival (50 months; 95 % CI, 39-60) than the group with lymph node metastases (32 months; 95% CI, 7-58) or peritoneal carcinomatosis (28 months; 95% CI, 14-41) (P=0.022 and 0.012, respectively). Other negative prognostic factors were major liver resection and nonradical liver resection.Conclusions: For patients with liver metastases and limited EHD, liver resection results in prolonged survival compared to what can be expected from chemotherapy alone.
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10.
  • Hasselgren, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Liver resection is beneficial for patients with colorectal liver metastases and extrahepatic disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Translational Medicine. - AME PUBL CO. - 2305-5839 .- 2305-5847. ; 8:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Liver metastases are the most common cause of death for patients with colorectal cancer and affect up to half of the patients. Liver resection is an established method that can potentially be curative. For patients with extrahepatic disease (EHD), the role of liver surgery is less established. Methods: This is a retrospective study based on data from the national quality registry SweLiv. Data were obtained between 2009 and 2015. SweLiv is a validated registry and has been in use since 2009, with coverage above 95%. Patients with liver metastases and EHD were analyzed and cross-checked against the national death cause registry for survival analysis. Results: During the study period, 2,174 patients underwent surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), and 277 patients with EHD were treated with resection or ablation. The estimated median survival time for the entire cohort from liver resection/ablation was 40 months (95% CI, 32-47). The survival time for patients treated with liver resection was 45 months compared to 26 months for patients treated with ablation (95% CI 38-53, 18-33, P=0.001). A subgroup analysis of resected patients revealed that the group with pulmonary metastases had a significantly longer estimated median survival (50 months; 95 % CI, 39-60) than the group with lymph node metastases (32 months; 95% CI, 7-58) or peritoneal carcinomatosis (28 months; 95% CI, 14-41) (P=0.022 and 0.012, respectively). Other negative prognostic factors were major liver resection and nonradical liver resection. Conclusions: For patients with liver metastases and limited EHD, liver resection results in prolonged survival compared to what can be expected from chemotherapy alone.
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