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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Klinisk laboratoriemedicin) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Klinisk laboratoriemedicin) > (2005-2009)

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  • Sundvall, Pär-Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of dipstick analysis among elderly residents to detect bacteriuria: a cross-sectional study in 32 nursing homes.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC geriatrics. - 1471-2318. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer. RESULTS: 207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84-92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement. CONCLUSION: When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary.
  • Robinson, Yohan, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Intravascular hemolysis and mean red blood cell age in athletes.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Medicine and science in sports and exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 38:3, s. 480-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Since the observation that mechanical stress causes red blood cell (RBC) destruction, foot-strike hemolysis has been used to explain sports anemia and RBC rejuvenation in athletes. Recently gained knowledge questions the importance of mechanical RBC trauma on RBC hemolysis in athletes. METHODS: Male athletes (N = 90) and untrained male controls (N = 58) were investigated for aerobic performance, hematological parameters, serum erythropoietin concentration (EPO), soluble transferrin receptor concentration (sTFR), and erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity (eAST). RESULTS: On hard floor running disciplines (HFR, N = 26, short- and long-distance runners, triathletes) showed a lower eAST (P < 0.001) and thus no younger RBC population than not on hard floor running athletes (NHFR, N = 64, cyclists, soccer players, others) or the untrained control group (N = 58). HFR had higher but still normal EPO (P < 0.01) and no higher sTFR. CONCLUSION: Because intravascular hemolysis occurs in swimmers, cyclists, and runners, and mean RBC age is not reduced in runners, mechanisms other than foot-strike hemolysis have to be considered as well. Possible reasons are intramuscular destruction, osmotic stress, and membrane lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals released by activated leukocytes. Intravascular hemolysis can even be regarded as physiological means to provide heme and proteins for muscle growth.
  • Axelson, Hans W, et al. (författare)
  • Successful repeated treatment with high dose cyclophosphamide and autologous blood stem cell transplantation in CIDP
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMJ case reports. - 1757-790X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterised by the occurrence of symmetrical weakness and sensory impairment in arms and legs. The course is relapsing or chronic and progressing. CIDP is considered to be an autoimmune disease, which is supported by the beneficial response to immunomodulating therapies in most patients. We report on a patient with CIDP who has been in remission for more than 3 years after treatment with high dose cyclophosphamide and autologous blood stem cell transplantation in CIDP on two occasions.
  • Andersson, Patiyan, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • PIK3CA, HRAS and KRAS gene mutations in human penile cancer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - 0022-5347. ; 179:5, s. 2030-2034
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The knowledge of somatic mutations that arise in penile cancer is limited. We examined the dysregulation of components in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras pathways.Materials and Methods: Using single stranded conformational analysis and direct sequencing we performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA, PTEN, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in 28 penile tumors.Results: We identified somatic missense mutations in 11 of the 28 penile cancer samples (39%). In the PIK3CA gene 8 mutations (29%) were identified that were E542K or E545K. In the HRAS gene a G12S and a Q61L mutation were found (7%). The KRAS gene contained 1 mutation (3%), that is a G12S change. PIK3CA mutations were found in all grades and stages, whereas HRAS and KRAS mutations were found in larger and more advanced tumors. The mutations were mutually exclusive, suggesting that dysregulation of either pathway is sufficient for the development and progression of penile carcinoma.Conclusions: The high frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA, HRAS and KRAS genes leads us to believe that dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Ras pathway is significant for the development and progression of penile carcinoma.
  • Demetris, Anthony J, et al. (författare)
  • Liver biopsy interpretation for causes of late liver allograft dysfunction.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). - 0270-9139. ; 44:2, s. 489-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evaluation of needle biopsies and extensive clinicopathological correlation play an important role in the determination of liver allograft dysfunction occurring more than 1 year after transplantation. Interpretation of these biopsies can be quite difficult because of the high incidence of recurrent diseases that show histopathological, clinical, and serological features that overlap with each other and with rejection. Also, more than one insult can contribute to allograft injury. In an attempt to enable centers to compare and pool results, improve therapy, and better understand pathophysiological disease mechanisms, the Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology herein proposes a set of consensus criteria for the most common and problematic causes of late liver allograft dysfunction, including late-onset acute and chronic rejection, recurrent and new-onset viral and autoimmune hepatitis, biliary strictures, and recurrent primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. A discussion of differential diagnosis is also presented.
  • Lindahl, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Adenocarcinoma corpus uteri stage I-II: results of a treatment programme based upon cytometry.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Anticancer research. - International Institute of Cancer Research. - 1791-7530. ; 29:11, s. 4731-4735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The results of a treatment method on adenocarcinoma corpus uteri stage I-II based upon cytometrically measured DNA ploidy are presented. All patients had a simple hysterectomy. Adjuvant treatment (postoperative vaginal brachytherapy) were given only to those patients with non-diploid tumours regardless of stage and grade. A total of 1,634 women with endometroid adenocarcinoma corpus uteri stage I-II were included where 1,396 patients were followed-up for at least 5 years or until death and the remaining 238 patients were followed-up 3.5-5 years or until death. By using cytometry only, we identified a low-risk group comprising 83% of the patients (with 5.2% dead from their disease) and a high-risk group of 17% (with 15.7% dead from their disease). By using grade only (well- and moderately differentiated vs poorly differentiated), the low-risk group comprised 87% of the patients (with 4.6% dead from their disease) and the high-risk group 13% (with 13% dead from their disease). By using stage only (stage Ia and Ib vs stage Ic and II), the low-risk group comprised 78% of the patients (with 3.6% dead from their disease) and the high risk group 22% (with 14.5% dead from their disease). By combining these prognostic parameters, we were able to identify small subgroups with increased mortality rates in need of adjuvant therapy. As ploidy still had a strong prognostic strength regardless of given adjuvant radiotherapy, we do not believe that this treatment was effective. We therefore recommend future research to be directed toward cytostatics as an alternative adjuvant treatment.
  • Skirnisdottir, Ingiridur, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and biological characteristics of clear cell carcinomas of the ovary in FIGO stages I-II
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oncology. - Athens, Greece : Spandidos Publications. - 1019-6439. ; 26:1, s. 177-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary is considered to be a specific subtype among the epithelial ovarian malignancies. To characterize clear cell carcinomas in early FIGO stages (I-II) with regard to clinical and biological properties, a retrospective study was performed to compare these tumors with other histological subtypes. From a complete series of 226 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinomas in FIGO stages I-II, 28 patients with clear cell carcinomas were selected and the clinical and biological characteristics of these tumors were compared with the remaining non-clear cell carcinomas. All patients underwent primary staging laparotomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The apoptosis regulators p53, bcl-2 and bax, and the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER-2/neu were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques and DNA analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Clear cell carcinomas stained negative for p53 significantly more often than other histological subtypes. Positive EGFR staining was seen more frequently in serous carcinomas than in the clear cell carcinomas. Aneuploid DNA status was seen more frequently in clear cell carcinomas than in other histological subtypes and tetraploid tumors made up 50% of the non-diploid tumors. Clear cell tumors were frequently (64%) found in FIGO stages IC and IIC and this was more common than for non-clear cell tumors. No difference was found in the rate of tumor recurrences or survival for patients with clear cell and non-clear cell carcinomas. Clear cell carcinomas of the ovary should be regarded as a separate entity among the epithelial ovarian carcinomas and they differ with regard to both clinical and biological characteristics when compared with non-clear cell tumors.
  • Agardh, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Calcium activation of tissue transglutaminase in radioligand binding and enzyme-linked autoantibody immunoassays in childhood celiac disease.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta. - Elsevier. - 0009-8981. ; 358:1-2, s. 95-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Conflicting data have been published concerning the effect of calcium on binding of autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in celiac disease (CD). Methods IgA-tTG and IgG-tTG were measured with radioligand binding assays (RBA) using human recombinant (hr) 35S-tTG produced in lysate of rabbit reticulocytes and with guinea pig (gp) tTG ELISA in 51 CD children (median: 5.7 years) and 35 controls (median: 2.2 years). Assays were performed with and without calcium. Results In hr-tTG RBA, IgA-tTG levels remained unchanged after calcium detecting 50/51 CD children and 1/35 controls (p < 0.0001). IgG-tTG levels decreased with calcium (p < 0.0001) in CD children and detected 48/51 with and 49/51 without calcium as compared to 1/35 controls (p < 0.0001). In gp-tTG ELISA, levels increased with calcium (p < 0.0001) making it possible to detect an additional three to a total of 50/51 with IgA-tTG and 13 to 39/51 CD children with IgG-tTG compared to 4/35 and 8/35 controls (respectively, p < 0.0001). Rabbit reticulocytes displayed calcium-dependent tTG activity. Conclusions Calcium increased binding of IgA-tTG and IgG-tTG in the ELISA test. The reverse effect observed in RBA may be explained by competitive binding between calcium activated native rabbit reticulocyte tTG and hr 35S-tTG. tTG autoantibody assays may need taking calcium into account for accurate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for CD.
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