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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Klinisk laboratoriemedicin) ;srt2:(1995-1999)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Klinisk laboratoriemedicin) > (1995-1999)

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11.
  • Jahnson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive value of p53 and pRb immunostaining in locally advanced bladder cancer treated with cystectomy
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Philadelphia, USA : Elsevier. - 0022-5347. ; 160:4, s. 1291-1296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: We elucidate the association between altered immunostaining for retinoblastoma gene protein (pRb) and p53 nuclear proteins, and cancer specific death in patients treated with cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer.Materials and Methods: The hospital records of 173 patients treated with cystectomy for advanced urothelial bladder cancer between 1967 and 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. Representative biopsies obtained before treatment were sectioned and stained using the standard immunohistochemical technique with antibody DO-7 (p53) and antibody PMG3-245 (pRb). A tumor was considered to have an altered p53 expression if 20% or more of tumor cells exhibited nuclear staining. Similarly, if no tumor cell had nuclear immunostaining the tumor was considered to have an altered pRb expression.Results: An altered expression was observed for p53 in 98 tumors (57%) and for pRb in 60 (35%). In a proportional hazards analysis no association was found between an altered expression of pRb or p53 and cancer specific death. This finding was also true in another analysis when the results of immunostaining for pRb and p53 were combined.Conclusions: An altered expression for pRb and/or p53 was not correlated to cancer specific death. Thus, these parameters could not be used as predictors of treatment outcome after cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer.
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12.
  • Karlsson, Mats G., 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Endothelial adhesion molecules for nasal-homing T cells in allergy
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Virchows Archiv. - Heidelberg, Germany : Springer. - 0945-6317. ; 429:1, s. 49-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the allergic reaction mucosal T cells are activated and a local increase in numbers occurs. In peripheral blood, a concomitant T cell activation and switch towards memory phenotype appears. E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were studied in nasal mucosal biopsies taken during a time-course provocation study, including patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and healthy controls. Allergic patients were also studied during the natural pollen season with particular attention to the influence of local corticosteroid treatment. Before provocation allergic patients and controls did not differ concerning the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. However, the epithelial ICAM-1 expression was increased among allergics (P < 0.05). Repetitive allergen provocation induces an increased endothelial expression of VCAM-1 in allergic patients (P < 0.01). Similarly, VCAM-1 expression was increased during the natural pollen season (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the increased VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by the use of local corticosteroids. The present data demonstrate a putative integrin-VCAM-1 mechanism for selective homing of T memory cells to the allergic nasal mucosa and new in vivo effects of local corticosteroid treatment are demonstrated.
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13.
  • Karlsson, Mats G., 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Nasal messenger RNA expression of interleukins 2, 4, and 5 in patients with allergic rhinitis
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Diagnostic molecular pathology (Print). - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1052-9551. ; 4:2, s. 85-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In nasal biopsies from 17 adult patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and from 10 healthy controls, cytokines were analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The time-course study during winter included repeated local allergen provocation with subsequent nasal biopsies as well as biopsies taken during pollen season. The RT-PCR for CD44 yielded positive bands in 65 of 71 cases, in which cases mRNA for interleukins 2, 4, and 5 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5) were thus investigated by means of seminested PCR. IL-4 mRNA was found almost exclusively in the allergic patients. During provocation a significant increase in IL-4 was noticed compared with controls (p = 0.043). Equally, during the natural pollen season, IL-4 mRNA expression was significantly higher in patients not using nasal corticosteroids compared with those who did (p = 0.011). No differences in IL-2 or IL-5 were observed between the groups. These findings also indicate, together with earlier observations of T-cell activation, a phenotype switch toward T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, and the accumulation (homing) of these T cells in the nasal mucosa, that T cells constitute the main source for IL-4 in the nasal mucosa. Therefore, allergic patients have an increased synthesis of IL-4 when provoked with the allergen, and during natural pollen season this synthesis can be downregulated by corticosteroids. Furthermore, this study exemplifies the versatility of molecular biology in surgical pathology and that even low-copy-number cytokine mRNA can be examined in routinely snap-frozen surgical specimens.
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14.
  • Karlsson, Mats G., 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • No association between immunohistochemical expression of p53, c-erbB-2, Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors in female papillary thyroid cancer and ionizing radiation
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Cancer Letters. - Clare, Ireland : Elsevier. - 0304-3835. ; 120:2, s. 173-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An association has previously been reported between exposure to medical diagnostic ionizing radiation and papillary thyroid cancer in women. To further evaluate potential mechanisms in carcinogenesis, the expression of p53, c-erbB-2, as well as Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 19 women exposed to X-rays and for comparison in nine women without such reported exposure. They all had papillary thyroid cancer. No difference was found between these groups. The results of this study showed that p53, c-erbB-2, Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors are not involved in papillary thyroid cancer associated with exposure to medical diagnostic ionizing radiation.
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15.
  • Svensson, J, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I in growth hormone-deficient adults: relationship to population-based normal values, body composition and insulin tolerance test.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Clinical endocrinology. - 0300-0664. ; 46:5, s. 579-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although an insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the most commonly used method for detecting growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adults, measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) may also be of value.To validate the use of serum IGF-I concentration in the diagnosis of GHD in adults.A cross-sectional study.One hundred and four patients, 60 men and 44 women, with known pituitary disease and verified GHD based on ITT.Serum IGF-I was determined by radioimmunoassay after acid-ethanol extraction. Body composition was estimated with total body potassium combined with total body water assessments.According to age- and sex-adjusted population-based references values, 51 patients had serum IGF-I concentrations below -2 SD of the predicted values and 53 had concentrations within 2 SD. Fifty-seven per cent of the patients aged 41 years (25th percentile) or below and 39% of the patients aged 57 years (75th percentile) or above had serum IGF-I concentrations below -2 SD. Women had lower mean IGF-I SD scores than men (P < 0.01). Serum IGF-I was correlated with peak GH response during ITT (r = 0.40; P < 0.001), age (r = -0.27; P < 0.01), duration of hypopituitarism (r = -0.52; P < 0.001), number of pituitary hormonal deficiencies (r = -0.35; P < 0.001), body cell mass (r = 0.30; P < 0.01) and serum insulin (r = 0.21; P < 0.05). The peak GH response during ITT correlated with spontaneous GH secretion, duration (P = -0.48; P < 0.001) and number of deficiencies (r = -0.50; P 0.001).The measurement of serum IGF-I concentrations is not suitable as a single diagnostic test for growth hormone deficiency in adults. Even as a screening test, its use appears to be limited, especially in elderly subjects. The serum level of IGF-I was influenced by several factors in addition to GH, such as age, gender, anthropodometry and serum insulin level. The peak GH response during the insulin tolerance test appears to be influenced to a lesser degree by these factors.
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16.
  • Ahrén, B, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of minor increase in serum calcium on the immunoheterogeneity of parathyroid hormone in healthy subjects and in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research. - Karger. - 0301-0163. ; 43:6, s. 9-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study possible influences of a mild increase in serum-ionized calcium concentration that is seen during daily life on circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) immunoheterogeneity, we used sequence-specific PTH assays to determine serum intact PTH, C-terminal PTH and N-terminal PTH following oral calcium (1.5 g) in healthy subjects (n = 7). This was also performed in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT; n = 10) to see if their regulation of circulating PTH molecular forms is normal. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients were hypercalcemic (p < 0.05) and had higher levels of PTH in all three assays (p < 0.001). Following the oral calcium load, serum-ionized calcium increased by 0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l in the patients and by 0.07 +/- 0.03 mmol/l in the healthy subjects after 90 min, whereas serum intact PTH, C-terminal PTH and N-terminal PTH were reduced, both in the healthy subjects and in the patients. Suppression by calcium of both intact PTH and C-terminal PTH were impaired in the patients (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001), whereas suppression of N-terminal PTH was normal. Furthermore, the C/i and N/i ratios were higher at the highest calcium concentration achieved after calcium intake in the healthy subjects than in the basal state in the patients (p < 0.05), in spite of the larger degree of hypercalcemia in the latter (1.40 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/l; p < 0.05). Thus, (1) a minor increase in serum-ionized calcium that is seen during daily life alters the relative circulating concentrations of PTH versus its fragments; (2) the impaired sensitivity to calcium in pHPT is not evident for the suppression of N-terminal PTH, and (3) pHPT is accompanied by altered immunoheterogeneity of circulating PTH.
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17.
  • Becker, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Individual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) forms as prostate tumor markers
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta. - Elsevier. - 0009-8981. ; 257:1, s. 117-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a kallikrein-like serine protease mainly expressed in the human prostate. It is responsible for the proteolysis of the gel-forming proteins in human semen. Two major extracellular protease inhibitors, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (AMG) may inactivate PSA escaping from the prostate. The predominant immunodetected form of PSA in serum is complexed to ACT but PSA exists also in a free non-complexed form despite the large excess of inhibitors. The concentrations of PSA in serum are normally less than 4 micrograms/l. but elevated concentrations are found in a majority of patients with prostate cancer (CAP) and the analysis of PSA in serum has become invaluable in the detection and monitoring of patients with CAP. However, it is not an ideal tumor marker in the sense that there are CAP patients with normal PSA concentrations in serum and patients with benign hyperplasia of the prostate (BPH) with elevated PSA concentrations. Analysis of the various PSA forms in serum attracts much interest as there is a higher proportion of PSA in complex with ACT in patients with CAP than in those with BPH. Optimal combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been used to design sensitive noncross-reacting immunoassays for the detection of free PSA, PSA-ACT complexes and the detection of both free PSA and PSA complexes in an equimolar fashion (i.e. total PSA). Several studies have demonstrated that the analysis of the proportions of the free-to-total PSA in serum may increase the diagnostic specificity by 15-20% without significant loss in the sensitivity for detection of CAP.
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18.
  • Elneihoum, A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Leukocyte activation detected by increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation. - American Heart Association. - 0039-2499. ; 27:10, s. 1734-1738
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose: Leukocytes have been implicated in the development of ischemia atherosclerotic vascular disease. In a prospective study we investigated whether the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediator, ie, proteases and cytokine, as markers for systemic leukocyte activation, are increased in patient with acute ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we measured the plasma level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), neutrophil proteinase 4 (NP4), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)m and soluble TNF receptor protein-1 p55 (sTNFR-1) in 120 patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular insult (72 with and 48 stroke and 48 with transient ischemic attack (TIAl) and in 35 age-and sex-matched healthy subject. Results: Compared with the control group, plasma NGAL levels were higher in the stroke group (P<.0001) and the TIA group (P<.01); plasma NP4 levels were higher in the stroke group (P<.0001) and the TIA group (P<.01); and plasma sTNFR-1 levels wee higher in the stroke group (P<.04). There was significant correlation between the plasma levels of fibrinogen and those of both sTNFR-1 (r=.32; P=32; P=.005) and NGAL 9r=.40; P=.0001) and between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the plasma levels of both sTNFR-1 (r=.35; P=.001) and NGAL (r=.34;P=.002). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that marker for systemic leukocyte activation, ie, plasma levels of cytokine and protease, were higher in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease than in healthy control subject. Activated leukocytes and leukocytic mediator may have an important role in acute cerebrovascular ischemia and it consequences.
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19.
  • Hedin, G, et al. (författare)
  • Endocarditis due to Staphylococcus sciuri.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. - 0934-9723 .- 1435-4373. ; 17:9, s. 673-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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20.
  • Hultberg, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Concentrations of plasma methylmalonic acid in 80-year-olds show only weak relation to psychological performance
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - De Gruyter. - 1434-6621. ; 37:10, s. 963-967
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most studies of the relation between psychological performance in the elderly and deficiencies of cobalamin and folate have used methods that determine the blood concentrations of these vitamins, which might not reflect the vitamin status in the tissues. Recently, two new markers, plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, have attracted growing interest since they are considered to reflect the status of cobalamins and folates in the tissues. In a previous study, we noted a strong association between five parameters of well-being and lower concentrations of plasma homocysteine. In the present study, we have extended these observations by determination of plasma methylmalonic acid in the same healthy elderly population. In the present study, 18 out of 100 subjects had increased plasma methylmalonic acid and in 7 of these subjects, the concentrations of serum cobalamin, blood folate, plasma homocysteine and serum creatinine were within normal limits. The relation between plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations and concentrations of serum cobalamin and blood folates and five parameters of well-being were investigated. Concentrations of plasma methylmalonic acid were only weakly associated with the concentrations of serum cobalamin and lower scores on the logical reasoning test. The present study clearly shows that the levels of plasma methylmalonic acid show a much lesser association with the parameters of well-being than did plasma homocysteine.
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