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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Radiologi och bildbehandling) srt2:(2000-2004)"

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1.
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2.
  • Matson, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Nonattendance in mammographic screening: a study of intraurban differences in Malmo, Sweden, 1990-1994
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cancer Detection and Prevention. - Elsevier. - 0361-090X. ; 25:2, s. 132-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mammographic screening may reduce breast cancer mortality. Not all women, however, come for examination. The objective in this study from Malmo has been to assess extent to which the rate of nonattendance varies between residential areas with different sociodemographic profiles. The study is based on 32,605 women, 45 to 68 years old and living in 17 areas, who between 1990 and 1994 were invited to screening. Between age groups, the age-specific nonattendance rate ranged from 31% to 35 % (P < .01). The nonattendance rate was highest for women 65 years or older. Between residential areas, age-adjusted nonattendance rates ranged from 23% to 43% (P < .01). A socioeconomic score was developed to express the socioeconomic circumstances in the residential areas and ranged from -7.18 in the most deprived area to 5.01 in the least. Nonattendance covaried in an inverse fashion with the socioeconomic score (r = -0.78; P < .01). One of three women in this urban population did not accept the invitation to mammographic screening. Our conclusion is that women in areas with less favorable circumstances seem to be less willing to participate.
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3.
  • Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Proton MR spectroscopy and preoperative diagnostic accuracy: an evaluation of intracranial mass lesions characterized by stereotactic biopsy findings
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - American Society of Neuroradiology. - 1936-959X. ; 21:1, s. 84-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has made it easier to distinguish among the different types of intracranial mass lesions. Nevertheless, it is sometimes impossible to base a diagnosis solely on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, and, in these cases, biopsy must be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopy is able to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy in cases of intracranial tumors and may therefore obviate stereotactic biopsy. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intracranial tumors underwent MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and stereotactic biopsy. MR spectroscopic findings were evaluated for the distribution pattern of pathologic spectra (NAA/Cho ratio < 1) across the lesion and neighboring tissue, for signal ratios in different tumor types, and for their potential to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Gliomas and lymphomas showed pathologic spectra outside the area of contrast enhancement while four nonastrocytic circumscribed tumors (meningioma, pineocytoma, metastasis, and germinoma) showed no pathologic spectra outside the region of enhancement. No significant correlation was found between different tumor types and signal ratios. MR spectroscopy improved diagnostic accuracy by differentiating infiltrative from circumscribed tumors; however, diagnostic accuracy was not improved in terms of differentiating the types of infiltrative or circumscribed lesions. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy can improve diagnostic accuracy by differentiating circumscribed brain lesions from histologically infiltrating processes, which may be difficult or impossible solely on the basis of clinical or neuroradiologic findings.
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4.
  • Sundgren, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Value of conventional, and diffusion- and perfusion weighted MRI in the management of patients with unclear cerebral pathology, admitted to the intensive care unit
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 44:8, s. 674-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the extent to which diffusion- and perfusion- weighted MRI combined with conventional MRI could be helpful in the evaluation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients who have unknown or unclear cerebral pathology underlying a serious clinical condition. Twenty-one ICU patients with disparity between the findings on brain CT scan and their clinical status were studied. All patients underwent conventional MR and diffusion-weighted imaging and 14 also had MR perfusion studies. Abnormalities were present on diffusion-weighted imaging of 17 of the 21 patients and on perfusion-weighted studies of 7 of 14 patients. The MRI results changed the preliminary/working diagnosis in six patients. In eight other patients, MRI revealed additional pathology that had not been suspected clinically, and/or characterized more closely findings that had already been detected by CT or suspected clinically. MRI showed abnormalities in four of the five patients who had normal CT. MRI findings suggested a negative clinical outcome in all nine patients who subsequently died. MRI findings also suggested positive long-term outcome in five of nine patients who improved significantly as based on Glasgow and extended Glasgow outcome scales. In the three unconscious patients who had normal diffusion- and perfusion weighted imaging the clinical outcome was good. This study suggests that MRI in seriously ill ICU patients with unclear cerebral pathology can provide information that changes, characterizes, or supports diagnoses and/or prognoses and therefore facilitates further management.
5.
  • Toth, Ervin, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of gastric acid secretion at endoscopy with a modified Congo red test.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. - Mosby. - 1097-6779. ; 56:2, s. 254-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Markedly decreased or absent gastric acid production is associated with a number of clinically significant conditions, and identification of patients with hypo/achlorhydria may be important. However, current methods of assessing impaired acid secretion are unreliable, time-consuming, and/or complex. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate a modified endoscopic Congo red test for the diagnosis of hypo/achlorhydria by correlation with a standard gastric acid secretory test. METHODS: One hundred six consecutive outpatients with or without dyspeptic symptoms referred for endoscopy were evaluated by using a modified endoscopic Congo red test and a standard test of gastric acid secretion. The modified endoscopic Congo red test suggested hypo/achlorhydria when there was no color shift or a shift of small extent (less than one third of fundic mucosa). Hypo/achlorhydria by the standard gastric acid secretory test was defined as a maximal acid output of less than 6.9 mmol/hour in men and 5.0 mmol/hour in women. RESULTS: The accuracy of the modified endoscopic Congo red test for the diagnosis of hypo/achlorhydria was 0.98 (95% CI [0.93, 0.99]). The sensitivity was 1.0 (95% CI [0.92, 1.00]) and specificity 0.96 (95% CI [0.88, 0.99]). All patients tolerated the modified endoscopic Congo red test well. CONCLUSION: The modified endoscopic Congo red is an accurate, simple, fast, inexpensive, and well-tolerated chromoendoscopic method for identification of patients with hypo/achlorhydria during routine upper endoscopy.
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6.
  • Malina, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Rupturerat bukaortaaneurysm. Endovaskulär behandling i lokalanestesi
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Swedish Medical Association. - 0023-7205. ; 98:49, s. 5644-5648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on endovascular repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent graft was inserted under local anesthesia. Aortic clamping is rapidly provided by percutaneous placement of an aortic occlusion balloon catheter. Carbon dioxide can usually replace conventional contrast in patients with renal insufficiency. This minimally invasive procedure may reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with ruptured aortic aneurysms. The advantages and limitations of this novel technique are discussed.
7.
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9.
  • Baureus Koch, Catrin, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Bioelectromagnetics. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0197-8462. ; 24:6, s. 395-402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The question of whether very weak low frequency magnetic fields can affect biological systems, has attracted attention by many research groups for quite some time. Still, today, the theoretical possibility of such an interaction is often questioned and the site of interaction in the cell is unknown. In the present study, the influence of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on the transport of Ca2+ was studied in a biological system consisting of highly purified plasma membrane vesicles. We tested two quantum mechanical theoretical models that assume that biologically active ions can be bound to a channel protein and influence the opening state of the channel. Vesicles were exposed for 30 min at 32 °C and the calcium efflux was studied using radioactive 45Ca as a tracer. Static magnetic fields ranging from 27 to 37 T and time varying magnetic fields with frequencies between 7 and 72 Hz and amplitudes between 13 and 114 T (peak) were used. We show that suitable combinations of static and time varying magnetic fields directly interact with the Ca2+ channel protein in the cell membrane, and we could quantitatively confirm the model proposed by Blanchard. Bioelectromagnetics 24:395-402, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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10.
  • Capala, J, et al. (författare)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: clinical studies in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuro-Oncology. - Springer. - 1573-7373. ; 62:1, s. 135-144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A boron neutron capture therapy ( BNCT) facility has been constructed at Studsvik, Sweden. It includes two filter/ moderator configurations. One of the resulting neutron beams has been optimized for clinical irradiations with a filter/ moderator system that allows easy variation of the neutron spectrum from the thermal to the epithermal energy range. The other beam has been designed to produce a large uniform field of thermal neutrons for radiobiological research. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia. The clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro- Oncology Group and, presently, involve a protocol for BNCT treatment of glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery. In this protocol, p- boronophenylalanine ( BPA), administered as a 6- h intravenous infusion, is used as the boron delivery agent. As of January 2002, 17 patients were treated. The 6- h infusion of 900 mg BPA/ kg body weight was shown to be safe and resulted in the average blood - boron concentration of 24 mu g/ g ( range: 15 - 32 mu g/ g) at the time of irradiation ( approximately 2 - 3 h post- infusion). Peak and average weighted radiation doses to the brain were in the ranges of 8.0 - 15.5 Gy( W) and 3.3 - 6.1 Gy( W), respectively. So far, no severe BNCT- related acute toxicities have been observed. Due to the short follow- up time, it is too early to evaluate the efficacy of these studies.
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