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  • Abbas, Abdul-Karim, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term potentiation and insult conditioning in hippocampal slices from young rats: a role for protein synthesis under chemical stress?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The 10th Biennial Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry (APSN), October 17-20, 2010, Phuket, Thailand.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We have previously demonstrated that in young rats (12-20-day-old) a sustained long-term potentiation (LTP) can still be induced under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition. It was therefore suggested that sufficient and necessary proteins were already available at the induction time to accomplish LTP maintenance for several hours. Against this background, we have questioned whether hippocampal slices subjected to certain insult conditions might be more sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors. High K+ concentration has previously been reported to cause an amnesic effect in vivo as well as increasing protein turnover in vitro. We have here employed a K+ insult model under conditions when protein synthesis was inhibited. Recordings were obtained from hippocampal slices for up to 9 h, with or without a cocktail of protein synthesis inhibitors, containing cycloheximide (60 µM) and anisomycin (25 µM). High potassium (50 mM) was transiently applied (5-15 min) shortly after inducing LTP in one of two separate pathways stimulated alternatively. Additionally, an NMDA-receptor antagonist AP5 was supplied after LTP induction to minimize effects related to depolarization-induced glutamate release. Following elimination of all responses for about 30 min, both test and control responses partly recovered. The degree of remaining LTP, defined as test/control ratio, was reduced in both groups of slices (NMDA-independent depotentiation) but was significantly smaller in the drug-treated ones. We are also running an insult model based on oxidative stress, applying hydrogen peroxide (4-5 mM) before or after LTP induction; however, the results are still insufficient for a final conclusion. The potency of cycloheximide, anisomycin or cocktail of the drugs was verified by measurement of incorporation of [3H]-leucine into trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitable macromolecules. Cycloheximide, anisomycin or cocktail, at concentrations used here caused 95%, 97% and 95% blocking effect, respectively. Our data confirm the idea that sufficient and necessary constitutive proteins are available in the young hippocampus to maintain LTP under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition. They also reveal that LTP in slices subjected to certain insult conditions early after the induction is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition, probably due to increase in constitutive proteins turnover.
  • Casar-Borota, Olivera, et al. (författare)
  • A novel dynamin-2 gene mutation associated with a late-onset centronuclear myopathy with necklace fibres
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neuromuscular Disorders. - Elsevier. - 0960-8966. ; 25:4, s. 345-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear centralisation and internalisation, sarcoplasmic radiating strands and type 1 muscle fibre predominance and hypotrophy characterise dynamin-2 (DNM2) associated centronuclear myopathy, whereas necklace fibres are typically seen in late onset myotubularin-1 (MTM1)-related myopathy. We report a woman with unilateral symptoms probably related to brachial plexus neuritis. Electromyography revealed localised neuropathic and generalised myopathic abnormalities. The typical features of DNM2 centronuclear myopathy with additional necklace fibres were found in the muscle biopsy. Sequencing of the DNM2 and MTM1 genes revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon 18 of the DNM2, leading to replacement of highly conserved proline at position 647 by arginine. The muscle symptoms have not progressed during the 3-year follow-up. However, the patient has developed bilateral subtle lens opacities. Our findings support the concept that necklace fibres may occasionally be found in DNM2-related myopathy, possibly indicating a common pathogenic mechanism in DNM2 and MTM1 associated centronuclear myopathy. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
  • Bhandage, Amol K., 1988- (författare)
  • Glutamate and GABA signalling components in the human brain and in immune cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). They both can activate their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate activates ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGlu - AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors) and GABA activates GABA-A receptors which are modulated by many types of drugs and substances including alcohol. Using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, I have shown that iGlu and/or GABA-A receptor subunits were expressed in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (HDG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), central amygdala (CeA), caudate and putamen of the human brain and their expression was altered by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. It indicates that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission may have been altered in the brain of human alcoholics. It is possible that changes in one type of neurotransmitter system may drive changes in another. These brain regions also play a role in brain reward system. Any changes in them may lead to changes in the normal brain functions.Apart from the CNS, glutamate and GABA are also present in the blood and can be synthesised by pancreatic islet cells and immune cells. They may act as immunomodulators of circulating immune cells and can affect immune function through glutamate and GABA receptors. I found that T cells from human, rat and mouse lymph nodes expressed the mRNAs and proteins for specific GABA-A receptor subunits. GABA-evoked transient and tonic currents recorded using the patch clamp technique demonstrate the functional GABA-A channel in T cells. Furthermore, the mRNAs for specific iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptor subunits and chloride cotransporters were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men, non-pregnant women, healthy and depressed pregnant women. The results indicate that the expression of iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptors is related to gender, pregnancy and mental health and support the notion that glutamate and GABA receptors may modulate immune function. Intra- and interspecies variability exists in the expression and it is further influenced by physiological conditions.
  • Gabrielsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-response-time data analysis involving nonlinear dynamics, feedback and delay
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences. - 0928-0987. ; 59, s. 36-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper offers dose-response-time data analysis of four different case studies where the pharmacological response (neuronal ACh-release, tail-flick response, locomotor activity, NEFA) was modelled by a biophase-driven turnover model. The analysis uses a mathematical/analytical perspective in which analytic properties of the models involved are exploited in order to address the dual challenge of extracting information from these time-series about (i) the biophase kinetics following different routes of administration and (ii) pharmacodynamic issues such as transduction, saturation, and adaptation, and more specifically, parameter identifiability, such as correct estimation of potency (SD50 or ID50). It is shown how many of these estimates can be obtained by analytical means, giving considerable insight in the dynamics involved. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hogenkamp, Pleunie S, et al. (författare)
  • Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Somnologie : Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin = Somnology : sleep research and sleep medicine. - 1432-9123. ; 17:2, s. 111-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans.METHOD:A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29?%).RESULTS:Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD.CONCLUSION:One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.
  • Romero-Picó, Amparo, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothalamic κ-Opioid Receptor Modulates the Orexigenic Effect of Ghrelin.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1740-634X. ; 38:7, s. 1296-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The opioid system is well recognized as an important regulator of appetite and energy balance. We now hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might modulate the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Using pharmacological and gene silencing approaches, we demonstrate that ghrelin utilizes a hypothalamic κ-opioid receptor (KOR) pathway to increase food intake in rats. Pharmacological blockade of KOR decreases the acute orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Inhibition of KOR expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is sufficient to blunt ghrelin-induced food intake. By contrast, the specific inhibition of KOR expression in the ventral tegmental area does not affect central ghrelin-induced feeding. This new pathway is independent of ghrelin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation, but modulates the levels of the transcription factors and orexigenic neuropeptides triggered by ghrelin to finally stimulate feeding. Our novel data implicate hypothalamic KOR signaling in the orexigenic action of ghrelin.
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