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  • Abbas, Abdul-Karim, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term potentiation and insult conditioning in hippocampal slices from young rats: a role for protein synthesis under chemical stress?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The 10th Biennial Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry (APSN), October 17-20, 2010, Phuket, Thailand.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We have previously demonstrated that in young rats (12-20-day-old) a sustained long-term potentiation (LTP) can still be induced under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition. It was therefore suggested that sufficient and necessary proteins were already available at the induction time to accomplish LTP maintenance for several hours. Against this background, we have questioned whether hippocampal slices subjected to certain insult conditions might be more sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors. High K+ concentration has previously been reported to cause an amnesic effect in vivo as well as increasing protein turnover in vitro. We have here employed a K+ insult model under conditions when protein synthesis was inhibited. Recordings were obtained from hippocampal slices for up to 9 h, with or without a cocktail of protein synthesis inhibitors, containing cycloheximide (60 µM) and anisomycin (25 µM). High potassium (50 mM) was transiently applied (5-15 min) shortly after inducing LTP in one of two separate pathways stimulated alternatively. Additionally, an NMDA-receptor antagonist AP5 was supplied after LTP induction to minimize effects related to depolarization-induced glutamate release. Following elimination of all responses for about 30 min, both test and control responses partly recovered. The degree of remaining LTP, defined as test/control ratio, was reduced in both groups of slices (NMDA-independent depotentiation) but was significantly smaller in the drug-treated ones. We are also running an insult model based on oxidative stress, applying hydrogen peroxide (4-5 mM) before or after LTP induction; however, the results are still insufficient for a final conclusion. The potency of cycloheximide, anisomycin or cocktail of the drugs was verified by measurement of incorporation of [3H]-leucine into trichloracetic acid (TCA) precipitable macromolecules. Cycloheximide, anisomycin or cocktail, at concentrations used here caused 95%, 97% and 95% blocking effect, respectively. Our data confirm the idea that sufficient and necessary constitutive proteins are available in the young hippocampus to maintain LTP under conditions of protein synthesis inhibition. They also reveal that LTP in slices subjected to certain insult conditions early after the induction is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition, probably due to increase in constitutive proteins turnover.
  • Casar-Borota, Olivera, et al. (författare)
  • A novel dynamin-2 gene mutation associated with a late-onset centronuclear myopathy with necklace fibres
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neuromuscular Disorders. - Elsevier. - 0960-8966. ; 25:4, s. 345-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear centralisation and internalisation, sarcoplasmic radiating strands and type 1 muscle fibre predominance and hypotrophy characterise dynamin-2 (DNM2) associated centronuclear myopathy, whereas necklace fibres are typically seen in late onset myotubularin-1 (MTM1)-related myopathy. We report a woman with unilateral symptoms probably related to brachial plexus neuritis. Electromyography revealed localised neuropathic and generalised myopathic abnormalities. The typical features of DNM2 centronuclear myopathy with additional necklace fibres were found in the muscle biopsy. Sequencing of the DNM2 and MTM1 genes revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon 18 of the DNM2, leading to replacement of highly conserved proline at position 647 by arginine. The muscle symptoms have not progressed during the 3-year follow-up. However, the patient has developed bilateral subtle lens opacities. Our findings support the concept that necklace fibres may occasionally be found in DNM2-related myopathy, possibly indicating a common pathogenic mechanism in DNM2 and MTM1 associated centronuclear myopathy. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nat Med. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
  • Hogenkamp, Pleunie S, et al. (författare)
  • Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Somnologie : Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin = Somnology : sleep research and sleep medicine. - 1432-9123. ; 17:2, s. 111-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans.METHOD:A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29?%).RESULTS:Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD.CONCLUSION:One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.
  • Romero-Picó, Amparo, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothalamic κ-Opioid Receptor Modulates the Orexigenic Effect of Ghrelin.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1740-634X. ; 38:7, s. 1296-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The opioid system is well recognized as an important regulator of appetite and energy balance. We now hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might modulate the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Using pharmacological and gene silencing approaches, we demonstrate that ghrelin utilizes a hypothalamic κ-opioid receptor (KOR) pathway to increase food intake in rats. Pharmacological blockade of KOR decreases the acute orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Inhibition of KOR expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is sufficient to blunt ghrelin-induced food intake. By contrast, the specific inhibition of KOR expression in the ventral tegmental area does not affect central ghrelin-induced feeding. This new pathway is independent of ghrelin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation, but modulates the levels of the transcription factors and orexigenic neuropeptides triggered by ghrelin to finally stimulate feeding. Our novel data implicate hypothalamic KOR signaling in the orexigenic action of ghrelin.
  • Järemo, Petter, et al. (författare)
  • Alzheimer's disease and granulocyte density diversity
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Investigation. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0014-2972. ; 43:6, s. 545-548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:The current study investigates circulating eosinophils and neutrophils in Alzheimer's (AD) type dementia with respect to density (kg/L). The existence of ?-amyloid plaques in the brain is a feature of AD. Sporadic scientific reports indicate that the disease affects circulating neutrophils. In contrast, numerous publications investigate inflammatory reactions in AD brains. Locally, the plaques evoke a substantial inflammatory response involving activated microglia and astrocytes.METHODS:Subjects with probable AD (n = 39) were included and compared with elderly individuals (n = 22) lacking apparent memory problems. We sampled 10 mL venous blood in citrate. Granulocytes were separated according to density in linear Percoll™ gradients. Subsequently, the gradients were divided into density subfractions (n = 16). In every fraction, determination of eosinophil and neutrophil counts was carried out.RESULTS:AD sufferers displayed less granulocytes in fractions nos. 13-15 containing light cells. For these fractions, the P-values proved to be (P < 0·001; not significant; P = 0·03) and (P = 0·01; P = 0·01; not significant), for eosinophils and neutrophils, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:The present work describes that less circulating light granulocytes are a feature of AD demented individuals. It is to hypothesize that it is a sign of impaired granulocyte turnover and cell damage. It is concluded that AD affects inflammatory cells in the periphery and that the behaviour of granulocytes in dementia is worthwhile further studies.
  • Rostami, Elham, 1979- (författare)
  • Traumatic brain injury in humans and animal models
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are receiving increasing attention due to a combination of injuries related to war and sports, as well as to an increasing number of traffic accident survivors. Today the leading cause of death in young adults in industrialized nations is traumatic brain injury and in the population under 35 years, the death rate is 3.5 times that of cancer and heart disease combined. Despite a major improvement in the outcome of TBI in the acute setting, the assessment, therapeutic interventions and prevention of long-term complications remain a challenge. The challenges today are primarily related to a rapid diagnosis, identification of patient’s pathophysiological heterogeneity and to limit the secondary injuries. TBI is a complex condition that can be caused by focal or diffuse primary impacts that may initiate complex secondary neurochemical processes that proceeds over hours and days. The major secondary events include neuronal death, ischemia, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial failure, oxidative stress, oedema and inflammation. In addition, the brain’s restorative capacity involving neurotrophins, in particular brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is triggered. Animal models are necessary to gain a deeper insight into the events that follow a TBI, and to ultimately apply the findings to the clinical setting. The aim of this thesis was to identify distinct pathological processes in different types of TBI by using animal models that mimic distinct types of TBI found in patients. We investigated alterations in gene expression, serum biomarkers and secondary processes such as inflammatory response involving the complement cascade. In addition we aimed to assess the effects of heterogeneity of TBI patients, based on their genetic background, on the outcome of TBI, with specific focus on BDNF. We used animal models to mimic three major types of TBI; blast wave, penetrating and rotational acceleration TBI. We found distinct profiles of alteration in gene expression in these models. The histological findings in blast and rotational TBI indicated these injuries to be mild. The hallmark of the rotational TBI was axonal injuries found in anatomical locations comparable with clinical findings in diffuse axonal injuries (DAI) in humans. Despite the mild type of injury displayed in the histology and behavioural outcome, significant increases in the serum biomarkers Tau, S100B, NF-H and MBP were observed up to 2 weeks following the injury. The complement cascade was initiated in both penetrating and rotational TBI, detected by C1q and C3. However, the terminal pathway that generates cell death, detected by C5b9, was only activated in the penetrating TBI. This suggests that axonal injuries and secondary axotomy found in the rotational TBI are not complement mediated. In order to investigate whether genetic heterogeneity can be used to predict injury outcome and brain plasticity following TBI, we targeted the ApoE ?4 allele and the BDNF gene. We investigated whether there was an association between the presence of the ApoE ?4 allele and BDNF polymorphisms and cognitive outcome in veterans who had suffered penetrating head injury. We found that the genetic polymorphisms of BDNF predict general intelligence following penetrating TBI. Subsequently we investigated the expression of BDNF and its receptors TrkB-full length, TrkB-truncated and p75NTR, in animals exposed to penetrating TBI. The expression of TrkB truncated and p75NTR was altered in the chronic phase. In summary, these results show the importance of categorizing the different types of TBI, not only through the use of animal models but also in the clinical setting. Each type of TBI shows distinct patterns of gene expression, behavioural outcome, and morphological changes that may be reflected in the release of serum biomarkers. In the clinical setting, the situation is further complicated by the coexistence of different types of injuries. In addition to this, the genetic background of each patient contributes to the heterogeneity of TBI pathology as well as their ability to recover. The use of distinct types of TBI models will provide essential information about the underlying pathology, which can then be applied to the clinical setting. This will contribute to the establishment of better diagnostic tools as well as more individualized treatment approaches.
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