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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) ;srt2:(1995-2009)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) > (1995-2009)

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  • Johansson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Nitric oxide synthase inhibition blocks phencyclidine-induced behavioural effects on prepulse inhibition and locomotor activity in the rat.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - 0033-3158. ; 131:2, s. 167-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), to block the behavioural effects of the potent psychotomimetic, phencyclidine, was tested in rats using two different behavioural models. L-NAME was found to block both phencyclidine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and phencyclidine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity. A selective action of L-NAME on the effects of phencyclidine was indicated, since L-NAME did not alter the effects of amphetamine, another potent psychotomimetic, in these behavioural models. These observations suggest that a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism may be involved in the effects of phencyclidine in the central nervous system.
  • Movahed Rad, Pouya, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous unsaturated C18 N-acylethanolamines are vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) agonists.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 280:46, s. 38496-38504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The endogenous C18 N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) N-linolenoylethanolamine (18:3 NAE), N-linoleoylethanolamine (18:2 NAE), N-oleoylethanolamine (18:1 NAE), and N-stearoylethanolamine (18:0 NAE) are structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide (20:4 NAE), but these lipids are poor ligands at cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Anandamide is also an activator of the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on primary sensory neurons. Here we show that C18 NAEs are present in rat sensory ganglia and vascular tissue. With the exception of 18:3 NAE in rat sensory ganglia, the levels of C18 NAEs are equal to or substantially exceed those of anandamide. At submicromolar concentrations, 18:3 NAE, 18:2 NAE, and 18:1 NAE, but not 18:0 NAE and oleic acid, activate native rTRPV1 on perivascular sensory nerves. 18:1 NAE does not activate these nerves in TRPV1 gene knock-out mice. Only the unsaturated C18 NAEs elicit whole cell currents and fluorometric calcium responses in HEK293 cells expressing hTRPV1. Molecular modeling revealed a low energy cluster of U-shaped unsaturated NAE conformers, sharing several pharmacophoric elements with capsaicin. Furthermore, one of the two major low energy conformational families of anandamide also overlaps with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligand HU210, which is in line with anandamide being a dual activator of TRPV1 and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. This study shows that several endogenous non-cannabinoid NAEs, many of which are more abundant than anandamide in rat tissues, activate TRPV1 and thus may play a role as endogenous TRPV1 modulators.
  • Vincents, Bjarne, et al. (författare)
  • Down-regulation of human extracellular cysteine protease inhibitors by the secreted staphylococcal cysteine proteases, staphopain A and B.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biological Chemistry. - De Gruyter. - 1437-4315. ; 388:4, s. 437-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Of seven human cystatins investigated, none inhibited the cysteine proteases staphopain A and B secreted by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Rather, the extracellular cystatins C, D and E/M were hydrolyzed by both staphopains. Based on MALDI-TOF time-course experiments, staphopain A cleavage of cystatin C and D should be physiologically relevant and occur upon S. aureus infection. Staphopain A hydrolyzed the Glyl 1 bond of cystatin C and the Ala10 bond of cystatin D with similar K-m values of approximately 33 and 32 mu m, respectively. Such N-terminal truncation of cystatin C caused > 300-fold lower inhibition of papain, cathepsin B, L and K, whereas the cathepsin H activity was compromised by a factor of ca. 10. Similarly, truncation of cystatin D caused alleviated inhibition of all endogenous target enzymes investigated. The normal activity of the cystatins is thus down-regulated, indicating that the bacterial enzymes can cause disturbance of the host protease-inhibitor balance. To illustrate the in vivo consequences, a mixed cystatin C assay showed release of cathepsin B activity in the presence of staphopain A. Results presented for the specificity of staphopains when interacting with cystatins as natural protein substrates could aid in the development of therapeutic agents directed toward these proteolytic virulence factors.
  • Zhang, Jianhua, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Repeated administration of amphetamine induces sensitisation to its disruptive effect on prepulse inhibition in the rat.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - 0033-3158. ; 135:4, s. 401-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly treated with amphetamine (AMP, 1 mg/kg, SC) at 3- day intervals for 15 days and tested for prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle after each treatment. This treatment regimen induced sensitisation in the animals as evidenced by a progressive increase in the disruptive effect of AMP on prepulse inhibition. Persistent changes in brain function was indicated, since an increase in disruptive effect was observed in sensitised animals also after a 22-day-long drug- and test-free period. The development of sensitisation was blocked by pretreatment with haloperidol (HPD, 0.1 mg/kg, SC), which suggests that sensitisation to the disruptive effect of AMP was dependent on dopamine (DA) D2 receptor activation. Furthermore, the development of sensitisation was blocked by adrenalectomy, which suggests that sensitisation was dependent also on circulating adrenal hormones. Increased DA-ergic activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and AMP-induced sensitisation to the neuronal functions that modulate prepulse inhibition may be an experimental model to investigate this hypothesis.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-bridge cycling in smooth muscle: a short review
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 164:4, s. 363-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This review is focused on the cross-bridge interaction of the organized contractile system of smooth muscle fibres. By using chemically skinned preparations the different enzymatic reactions of actin-myosin interaction have been associated with mechanical events. A rigor state has been identified in smooth muscle and the binding of ATP causes dissociation of rigor cross-bridges at rates slightly slower than those in skeletal muscle, but fast enough not to be rate-limiting for cross-bridge turn over in the muscle fibre. The release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is associated with force generation, and this process is not rate-limiting for maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) in the fully activated muscle. The binding of ADP to myosin is strong in the smooth muscle contractile system, a property that might be associated with the generally slow cross-bridge turn over. Both force and Vmax are modulated by the extent of myosin light chain phosphorylation. Low levels of activation are considered to be associated with the recruitment of slowly cycling dephosphorylated cross-bridges which reduces shortening velocity. The attachment of these cross-bridge states in skinned smooth muscles can be regulated by cooperative mechanisms and thin filament associated systems. Smooth muscles exhibit a large diversity in their Vmax and the individual smooth muscle tissue can alter its Vmax under physiological conditions. The diversity and the long-term modulation of phenotype are associated with changes in myosin heavy and light chain isoform expression.
  • Blomgren, Klas, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Pathological apoptosis in the developing brain
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Apoptosis. - 1360-8185 (Print). ; 12:5, s. 993-1010
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than half of the initially-formed neurons are deleted in certain brain regions during normal development. This process, whereby cells are discretely removed without interfering with the further development of remaining cells, is called programmed cell death (PCD). The term apoptosis is used to describe certain morphological manifestations of PCD. Many of the effectors of this developmental cell death program are highly expressed in the developing brain, making it more susceptible to accidental activation of the death machinery, e.g. following hypoxia-ischemia or irradiation. Recent evidence suggests, however, that activation and regulation of cell death mechanisms under pathological conditions do not exactly mirror physiological, developmentally regulated PCD. It may be argued that the conditions after e.g. ischemia are not even compatible with the execution of PCD as we know it. Under pathological conditions cells are exposed to various stressors, including energy failure, oxidative stress and unbalanced ion fluxes. This results in parallel triggering and potential overshooting of several different cell death pathways, which then interact with one another and result in complex patterns of biochemical manifestations and cellular morphological features. These types of cell death are here called "pathological apoptosis," where classical hallmarks of PCD, like pyknosis, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activation, are combined with non-PCD features of cell death. Here we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved, with special focus on the potential for therapeutic intervention tailored to the needs of the developing brain.
  • Brage, M, et al. (författare)
  • Different cysteine proteinases involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Calcified tissue international. - 0171-967X. ; 76:6, s. 439-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cysteine proteinases, especially cathepsin K, play an important role in osteoclastic degradation of bone matrix proteins and the process can, consequently, be significantly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. We have recently reported that cystatin C and other cysteine proteinase inhibitors also reduce osteoclast formation. However, it is not known which cysteine proteinase(s) are involved in osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we compared the relative potencies of cystatins C and D as inhibitors of bone resorption in cultured mouse calvariae, osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures, and cathepsin K activity. Inhibition of cathepsin K activity was assessed by determining equilibrium constants for inhibitor complexes in fluorogenic substrate assays. The data demonstrate that whereas human cystatins C and D are equipotent as inhibitors of bone resorption, cystatin D is 10-fold less potent as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and 200-fold less potent as an inhibitor of cathepsin K activity. A recombinant human cystatin C variant with Gly substitutions for residues Arg(8), Leu(9), Val(10), and Trp(106) did not inhibit bone resorption, had 1,000-fold decreased inhibitory effect on catbepsin K activity compared to wildtype cystatin C, but was equipotent with wildtype cystatin C as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. It is concluded that (i) different cysteine proteinases are likely to be involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation, (ii) cathepsin K may not be an exclusive target enzyme in any of the two systems, and (iii) the enzyme(s) involved in osteoclastogenesis might not be a typical papain-like cysteine proteinase.
  • Cheng, Fang, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in the uptake and nuclear localization of anti-proliferative heparan sulfate between human lung fibroblasts and human lung carcinoma cells
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0730-2312. ; 83:4, s. 597-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heparan sulfate inhibits the proliferation of normal human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) but not of a human lung carcinoma cell-line (A549). in this study we investigated possible mechanisms and structural requirements by which anti proliferative heparan sulfates exerts its effects on binding, uptake and subcellular localisation. Both HFL-1 and A549 cells were incubated with I-125- or rhodamine-labeled L-iduronate-rich antiproliferative heparan sulfate species as well as L-iduronate-poor inactive ones. The anti proliferative heparan sulfate was bound to the cell surface on both HFL-1 and A549 cells, but to a lesser extent and with less affinity to A549 cells. Both cell types bound the anti proliferative heparan sulfate with one high- and with one low affinity site. The L-iduronate-poor heparan sulfate bound to a lesser extent and with less affinity to both cell types compared to the anti proliferative heparan sulfate. The antiproliferative heparan sulfate accumulated in the cytoplasm of HFL-1 cells after 24 h incubation, but after 72 h it was found evenly distributed in the nucleus. The time-scale for anti proliferative activity correlated with nuclear localization. In contrast, in A549 cells it was only found near the nuclear membrane. The inactive heparan sulfate was taken up in considerably smaller amounts compared to the antiproliferative heparan sulfate and could not be detected in the nucleus of either HFL-1 or A549 cells. Our data suggest that the anti proliferative activity of L-iduronate-rich heparan sulfate on normal fibroblasts may be due to direct effects on nuclear processes, such as gene transcription.
  • Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J, et al. (författare)
  • Melatonin restores impaired contractility in aged guinea pig urinary bladder
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pineal Research. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-079X. ; 44:4, s. 416-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urinary bladder disturbances are frequent in the elderly population but the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood. This study evaluates the effects of aging on detrusor myogenic contractile responses and the impact of melatonin treatment. The contractility of bladder strips from adult, aged and melatonin-treated guinea pigs was evaluated by isometric tension recordings. Cytoplasmatic calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) was estimated by epifluorescence microscopy of fura-2-loaded isolated detrusor smooth muscle cells, and the levels of protein expression and phosphorylation were quantitated by Western blotting. Aging impairs the contractile response of detrusor strips to cholinergic and purinergic agonists and to membrane depolarization. The impaired contractility correlates with increased [Ca2+](i) in response to the stimuli, suggesting a reduced Ca(2+)sensitivity. Indeed, the agonist-induced contractions in adult strips were sensitive to blockade with Y27362, an inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROCK) and GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), but these inhibitors had negligible effects in aged strips. The reduced Ca2+ sensitivity in aged tissues correlated with lower levels of RhoA, ROCK, PKC and the two effectors CPI-17 and MYPT1, and with the absence of CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation in response to agonists. Interestingly, melatonin treatment restored impaired contractility via normalization of Ca2+ handling and Ca2+ sensitizations pathways. Moreover, the indoleamine restored age-induced changes in oxidative stress and mitochondrial polarity. These results suggest that melatonin might be a novel therapeutic tool to palliate aging-related urinary bladder contractile impairment.
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