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Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska grundvetenskaper) > (1980-1994)

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  • Corticchiato, Olivier, et al. (författare)
  • Cystatin C and cathepsin B in human colon carcinoma: Expression in cell lines and matrix degradation
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 52, s. 645-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expression of the cysteine proteinase cathepsin B and its physiological inhibitor cystatin C was analyzed in vitro in I human fibrosarcoma and 4 human colon carcinoma cell lines. Cystatin C antigen as well as cathepsin B activity were detected in the conditioned media of the 5 cell lines. The corresponding cell extracts expressed high levels of cathepsin B activity, whereas only trace amounts of cystatin C antigen could be found. Northern-blot analysis revealed the presence in the 5 cell lines of a 0.8-kb cystatin C mRNA transcript and 2 cathepsin B transcripts of 2.3 and 4.3 kb. Pepsin treatment of tumor-cell-released cathepsin B induced an average 7.3-fold increase in activity, indicating that the enzyme was mainly present as a latent form in conditioned medium. The pepsin-activated cathepsin B from one colon carcinoma cell line was further characterized using the cysteine proteinase inhibitors E-64, recombinant cystatin C, a cystatin-C-derived peptidyl inhibitor (Z-LVG-CHN2), and cathepsin-B-specific diazomethyl ketone inhibitors (Z-FT(OBzl)-CHN2, Z-FS(OBzl)-CHN2). This activity was totally neutralized by recombinant cystatin C, suggesting a potential for interaction between released extracellular cathepsin B and cystatin C. In vitro assays of degradation of extracellular matrix showed that cyrteine proteinase inhibitors could decrease matrix degradation induced by pepsin-activated conditioned media. With colon cells, this inhibition was not observed, indicating a requirement for an extracellular activation of latent cathepsin B. Our data provide evidence that cystatin C and latent cathepsin B are both released extracellularly by colon carcinoma cells in vitro. They suggest that cystatin C and cathepsin B interactions may participate, in an as yet unelucidated way, in the modulation of the invasive phenotype of human colonic tumors.
  • Dalboge, H, et al. (författare)
  • High-level expression of active human cystatin C in Escherichia coli
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Gene. - Elsevier. - 1879-0038. ; 79:2, s. 325-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expression of the human cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C (CysC) in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli was studied using a cDNA fragment encoding the cysteine proteinase inhibitor controlled by the phage λ pImage /cI857 system. The yield of CysC was low, probably due to proteolytic degradation. By fusing the cysC cDNA to a DNA fragment encoding the signal peptide of the E. coli outer membrane protein A, it was possible to produce a substantial amount of CysC in the periplasm. The processing of the signal peptide was shown to be quantitative and to result in CysC with the correct N-terminal amino acid. Yields higher than 1000 μg CysC/ml can be obtained by initiating the product formation at a moderate temperature (40 °C) late in an optimized fermentation process. A method that gives selective extraction of the periplasmic proteins and at the same time stabilizes CysC has been used.
  • Ekelund, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of total parenteral nutrition on lipid metabolism in rats
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: JPEN. - American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. - 0148-6071. ; 18:6, s. 503-509
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The pathophysiologic mechanisms behind the development of liver steatosis during total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and the possible relationship to alterations of lipoprotein lipase activities in different tissues are not fully known. It is also unknown whether continuous and discontinuous administration of TPN affect lipid metabolism differently. METHODS: TPN, including 8.4 g of triglycerides per kilogram per day, was given for 10 days to two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats that received the infusions discontinuously and continuously, respectively. Freely fed rats were used as controls. RESULTS: TPN led to hyperlipidemia and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. High-density lipoproteins were enriched in triglycerides, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and phospholipid levels were low. The activities of hepatic lipase were markedly decreased, and lipoprotein lipase activities in adipose tissue and in cardiac muscle were both up-regulated. The increased levels of cholesterol and phospholipids in the serum of TPN animals were more pronounced after discontinuous administration. CONCLUSIONS: TPN including lipids interferes with the normal regulation of lipid metabolism. Although the mechanisms remain obscure, the elevation of lipoprotein lipase activities seems functionally important to accommodate the increased input of triglycerides during TPN. Possibly, the observed alterations in lipase activities may be attributed to a state of hypothyroidism.
  • Eriksson, S, et al. (författare)
  • Hypertension and thirst outlasting renal vasoconstriction as effects of a brief evaluation of systemic angiotensin II in sheep.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6772 .- 1365-201X. ; 150:2, s. 181-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The influence of 10 min intracarotid (i.c.) and intravenous (i.v.) infusions of angiotensin II (Ang II; 20 pmol kg-1 min-1) on carotid blood pressure (cBP) and renal blood flow (RBF) was studied in unanaesthetized ewes without and with pre-treatment with the alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptor blocker labetalol. RBF was also monitored during 30 min intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of Ang II at 2 pmol kg-1 min-1. The i.c. infusions of Ang II induced about 50 mmHg rise in cBP. A steep decline occurred during 5 min post-infusion, followed by a much slower reduction with the cBP remaining above control level at 40 min post-infusion. The pressure elevation induced by i.v. Ang II was less pronounced but exhibited a similar pattern. Labetalol significantly reduced the pressor response to i.c. as well as i.v. Ang II. The i.c. and i.v. infusions of Ang II conspicuously reduced the RBF regardless of whether the ewes were labetalol-treated or not. At 5 min after the infusions RBF had returned to control level. The ICV infusions did not influence the RBF. Ang II i.c. elicited thirst in 50% of the ewes with the urge to drink remaining at 40 min post-infusion. The dipsogenic response was not reduced by labetalol pretreatment. The results imply that no cerebral component contributes to the reduction in RBF induced by systemic Ang II. However, a centrally mediated action seems to be the cause of the long-lasting post-infusion cBP elevation and dipsogenic response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p>
  • Fagher, B, et al. (författare)
  • L-carnitine and haemodialysis: double blind study on muscle function and metabolism and peripheral nerve function
  • 1985
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 45:2, s. 169-178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twenty-eight haemodialysis patients were randomized to L-carnitine, 2 g i.v. three times a week, and saline over a 6-week period. No obvious deficiency of carnitine was found in vastus lateralis with a median value of 12.9 mmol/kg dry weight; range 6.2-21.4. Female patients had lower total plasma carnitine compared to female controls, p less than 0.002, whereas no decrease was found in males. No relationship was found between muscle and total plasma carnitine. After carnitine administration the muscle carnitine level increased about 60%, p less than 0.01, and the total plasma carnitine level more than tenfold, whereas the initially high degree of acylation decreased, p less than 0.02. Maximum dynamic muscular strength was reduced with a mean value of 44% compared with healthy controls. Total metabolic activity of isolated skeletal muscle fibres, measured as heat production with a new technique using a perfusion microcalorimeter, showed a median value of 0.40 mW/g, 25% lower than normal, p less than 0.02. Carnitine administration had no effect on several different tests of muscular function. Neurophysiologically, discrete improvements in the temperature responses were recorded, but no changes in sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities or in vibration thresholds were noted. No symptomatic improvement was observed even in patients with the lowest carnitine levels prior to treatment. Our data do not support the hypothesis that carnitine deficiency contributes to muscle and nerve dysfunction in patients on chronic haemodialysis.
  • Fransson, Lars-Åke, et al. (författare)
  • Oligosaccharide mapping of proteoglycan-bound and xyloside-initiated dermatan sulfate from fibroblasts
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Glycoconjugate Journal. - Springer. - 1573-4986. ; 8:2, s. 108-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The copolymeric structure of dermatan sulfate chains synthesized by skin fibroblasts has been examined. Chains initiated onto exogeneous p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside or attached to protein in a large proteoglycan, PG-L, and two small proteoglycans, PG-S1 and PG-S2, have been compared by using high resolution electrophoresis and gel chromatography of oligosaccharides generated by specific enzymatic or chemical degradations. The results confirm that chains attached to PG-L are glucuronate-rich, whereas novel findings indicate that chains attached to either of the two PG-S variants yield closely similar oligosaccharide maps, have approximately equal glucuronate and iduronate content and contain over 90% 4-sulfated disaccharide repeating units. Dermatan sulfate chains built onto xyloside at concentrations of 50 microM and below have a copolymeric structure similar to that of chains from the two PG-S variants. These findings indicate that the polymer-modifying machinery can generate chains with extended iduronate-containing repeats also when the xylose primer is not linked to core protein.
  • Freije, JP, et al. (författare)
  • Localization of the human cystatin D gene (CST5) to chromosome 20p11.21 by in situ hybridization
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. - Karger. - 0301-0171. ; 62:1, s. 29-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gene coding for cystatin D (CST5), a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, was mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization to human chromosome 20p11.21. This assignment, together with previous data on mapping of members of the cystatin gene family, indicates that cystatin family II genes are all clustered on the short arm of chromosome 20, whereas cystatin family I and III genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 3.
  • Freije, José P, et al. (författare)
  • Human cystatin D: cDNA cloning, characterization of the E. coli expressed inhibitor, and identification of the native protein in saliva
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 268:21, s. 15737-15744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A cDNA coding for cystatin D, a human member of the cystatin protein family, has been cloned after specific amplification of reverse- transcribed parotid gland RNA. After replacing the segment encoding the putative 20-residue signal peptide with one encoding the Escherichia coli OmpA leader sequence, the cDNA was expressed in E. coli. The isolated recombinant protein exhibited Ki values of 1.2 nM and > 1 microM for papain and cathepsin B, respectively. An antiserum raised against recombinant cystatin D recognized a protein in human saliva with electrophoretical mobility identical to that of the recombinant protein. Immunoenzymatic analysis revealed that this cysteine proteinase inhibitor is present in human saliva and tears at concentrations of 3.8 and 0.5 mg/liter, respectively, while it was not detected in seminal plasma, blood plasma, milk, or cerebrospinal fluid. Cystatin D purified from human saliva by immunosorption displayed a heterogeneous N-terminal end, with sequences starting at residues 5, 7, 9, and 11 of the predicted N-terminal portion of the mature protein. On the basis of structural and functional properties, cystatin D represents a novel cysteine proteinase inhibitor possibly playing a protective role against proteinases present in the oral cavity.
  • Freije, José P, et al. (författare)
  • Structure and expression of the gene encoding cystatin D, a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 266:30, s. 20538-20543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new member of the human cystatin multigene family has been cloned from a genomic library using a cystatin C cDNA probe. The complete nucleotide sequence of a 4.3-kilobase DNA segment, containing a complete gene with structure very similar to those of known Family 2 cystatin genes, was determined. The novel gene, called CST4, is composed of three exons and two introns. It contains the coding information for a protein of 142 amino acid residues, which has been tentatively called cystatin D. The deduced amino acid sequence includes a putative signal peptide and presents 51-55% identical residues with the sequences of either cystatin C or the secretory gland cystatins S, SN, or SA. The cystatin D sequence contains all regions of relevance for cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity and also the 4 cysteine residues that form disulfide bridges in the other members of cystatin Family 2. Northern blot analysis revealed that the cystatin D gene is expressed in parotid gland but not in seminal vesicle, prostate, epididymis, testis, ovary, placenta, thyroid, gastric corpus, small intestine, liver, or gall-bladder tissue. This tissue-restricted expression is in marked contrast with the wider distribution of all the other Family 2 cystatins, since cystatin C is expressed in all these tissues and the secretory gland cystatins are present in saliva, seminal plasma, and tears. Cystatin D, being the first described member of a third subfamily within the cystatin Family 2, thus appears to have a distinct function in the body in contrast to other cystatins.
  • Fu, Michael, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Increase in functional activity rather than in amount of Gi-alpha in failing human heart with dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular research. - 0008-6363. ; 26:10, s. 950-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether or not increased pertussis toxin catalysed ADP ribosylation correlates with increased amount of Gi-alpha in failing human heart. DESIGN: Antisera raised against unique synthetic peptides corresponding to alpha subunits of Gs and Gi 1-3 were used in immunoblotting and ELISA to determine amounts of various G proteins. Adenylyl cyclase activity, beta adrenoceptors, and muscarinic receptors were then measured in cardiomyopathic hearts (n = 6) obtained at transplant in order to study whether or not an altered expression of G proteins has relevance to the integrity and function of the receptor--adenylyl cyclase system. Six non-failing control hearts were also studied. RESULTS: No significant differences in the peptide equivalent amounts of either Gs or Gi were found in the failing human heart as compared to the non-failing heart. However, functional activity of Gi was shown to increase significantly since there was a decrease in basal (57%), isoprenaline stimulated (60%), and guanyliminodiphosphate stimulated (52%) adenylyl cyclase activity. In contrast the density of beta adrenoceptors was markedly decreased (51%) in failing human heart in comparison to non-failing hearts. Neither the density nor the affinity of muscarinic receptors changed in the failing human heart. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in the failing human heart, there is an increase in functional activity rather than in amount of Gi, and an important part of functional expression of Gi-alpha may be regulated at the post-translational level.
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