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  • Nyandoro, Stephen S., 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • N-Cinnamoyltetraketide Derivatives from the Leaves of Toussaintia orientalis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of natural products. - 0163-3864. ; 78:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seven N-cinnamoyltetraketides (1–7), including the new Z-toussaintine E (2), toussaintine F (6), and toussaintine G (7), were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Toussaintia orientalis using column chromatography and HPLC. The configurations of E-toussaintine E (1) and toussaintines A (3) and D (5) are revised based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from racemic crystals. Both the crude methanol extract and the isolated constituents exhibit antimycobacterial activities (MIC 83.3–107.7 μM) against the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 are cytotoxic (ED50 15.3–105.7 μM) against the MDA-MB-231 triple negative aggressive breast cancer cell line.
  • Nyandoro, Stephen S., 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Polyoxygenated Cyclohexenes and Other Constituents of Cleistochlamys kirkii Leaves
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of natural products. - 0163-3864. ; 80:1, s. 114-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thirteen new metabolites, including the polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives cleistodiendiol (1), cleistodienol B (3), cleistenechlorohydrins A (4) and B (5), cleistenediols A–F (6–11), cleistenonal (12), and the butenolide cleistanolate (13), 2,5-dihydroxybenzyl benzoate (cleistophenolide, 14), and eight known compounds (2, 15–21) were isolated from a MeOH extract of the leaves of Cleistochlamys kirkii. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas the absolute configurations of compounds 1, 17, and 19 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The configuration of the exocyclic double bond of compound 2 was revised based on comparison of its NMR spectroscopic features and optical rotation to those of 1, for which the configuration was determined by X-ray diffraction. Observation of the co-occurrence of cyclohexenoids and heptenolides in C. kirkii is of biogenetic and chemotaxonomic significance. Some of the isolated compounds showed activity against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7, Dd2), with IC50 values of 0.2–40 μM, and against HEK293 mammalian cells (IC50 2.7–3.6 μM). While the crude extract was inactive at 100 μg/mL against the MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cell line, some of its isolated constituents demonstrated cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.03–8.2 μM. Compound 1 showed the most potent antiplasmodial (IC50 0.2 μM) and cytotoxic (IC50 0.03 μM, MDA-MB-231 cell line) activities. None of the compounds investigated exhibited translational inhibitory activity in vitro at 20 μM.
  • Senkowski, Wojciech (författare)
  • High-throughput screening using multicellular tumor spheroids to reveal and exploit tumor-specific vulnerabilities
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>High-throughput drug screening (HTS) in live cells is often a vital part of the preclinical anticancer drug discovery process. So far, two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures have been the most prevalent model in HTS endeavors. However, 2D cell cultures often fail to recapitulate the complex microenvironments of <em>in vivo</em> tumors. Monolayer cultures are highly proliferative and generally do not contain quiescent cells, thought to be one of the main reasons for the anticancer therapy failure in clinic. Thus, there is a need for <em>in vitro </em>cellular models that would increase predictive value of preclinical research results. The utilization of more complex three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures, such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), which contain both proliferating and quiescent cells, has therefore been proposed. However, difficult handling and high costs still pose significant hurdles for application of MCTS for HTS.</p><p>In this work, we aimed to develop novel assays to apply MCTS for HTS and drug evaluation. We also set out to identify cellular processes that could be targeted to selectively eradicate quiescent cancer cells. In Paper I, we developed a novel MCTS-based HTS assay and found that nutrient-deprived and hypoxic cancer cells are selectively vulnerable to treatment with inhibitors of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We also identified nitazoxanide, an FDA-approved anthelmintic agent, to act as an OXPHOS inhibitor and to potentiate the effects of standard chemotherapy in vivo. Subsequently, in Paper II we applied the high-throughput gene-expression profiling method for MCTS-based drug screening. This led to discovery that quiescent cells up-regulate the mevalonate pathway upon OXPHOS inhibition and that the combination of OXPHOS inhibitors and mevalonate pathway inhibitors (statins) results in synergistic toxicity in this cell population. In Paper III, we developed a novel spheroid-based drug combination-screening platform and identified a set of molecules that synergize with nitazoxanide to eradicate quiescent cancer cells. Finally, in Paper IV, we applied our MCTS-based methods to evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in PDE3A-expressing cell lines.</p><p>In summary, this work illustrates how MCTS-based HTS yields potential to reveal and exploit previously unrecognized tumor-specific vulnerabilities. It also underscores the importance of cell culture conditions in preclinical drug discovery endeavors.</p>
  • Shwter, Abdrabuh N., et al. (författare)
  • Chemopreventive effect of Phaleria macrocarpa on colorectal cancer aberrant crypt foci in vivo
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. - 0378-8741 .- 1872-7573. ; 193, s. 195-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Ethnopharmacological relevance: Natural products are important ingredients for pharmaceutical applications specifically new entities for treating cancer and other diseases. Phaleria macrocarpa is native of Indonesia and considered as a prolific source of bioactive substances useful for chemoprevention. Aim of the study: To investigate the chemopreventive properties of Phaleria macrocarpa on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Methods: The biological activities of the ethanol extract of P. macrocarpa fruits were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. First the extract was investigated for its in vitro antioxidant activity by the total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Then the chemopreventive effect of P. macrocarpa was performed on AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci as colorectal carcinoma model in rats. Result: the crude ethanolic extract of P. macrocarpa has high antioxidant activity and modulated the oxidative stress as proved by the up-regulation of glutathione-s-transferase and superoxide dismutase. Immunohistochemical staining of the treated sections showed overexpression of PCNA and Bax, reduced crypt sizes and numbers, indicating the characteristic feature of apoptotic cancer cells. PCNA is a landmark of cell damage and turn-over and can be associated with clinical cancer mutation. The most potent doses were 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg as compared to 35 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: In this sense, the potential modulation of the colorectal pathophysiological pathway by P. macrocarpa natural compounds mostly flavonoids offer a great possibility for the discovery of new leads towards the colorectal cancer.</p>
  • Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta, et al. (författare)
  • Early onset of inflammation during ontogeny of bipolar disorder: the NLRP2 inflammasome gene distinctly differentiates between patients and healthy controls in the transition between iPS cell and neural stem cell stages
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuro-inflammation and neuronal communication are considered as mis-regulated processes in the aetiology and pathology of bipolar disorder (BD). Which and when specific signal pathways become abnormal during the ontogeny of bipolar disorder patients is unknown. To address this question, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology followed by cortical neural differentiation on adipocyte-derived cells from BD type I patients (with psychotic episodes in psychiatric history) and healthy volunteers (controls). RNA sequencing in iPSC and cortical neural stem cell (NSC) lines were used to examine alterations between the transcriptomes from BD I and control samples during transition from the pluripotent stage towards the neural developmental stage. At the iPSC stage, the most highly significant differentially expressed gene (DEG) was the NLRP2 inflammasome (P = 2.66 × 10-10). Also among 42 DEGs at the NSC stage, NLRP2 showed the strongest statistical significance (P = 3.07 × 10-19). In addition, we have also identified several cytoskeleton-associated genes as DEGs from the NSC stage, such as TMP2, TAGLN, and ACTA2; the former two genes are recognised for the first time to be associated with BD. Our results also suggest that iPSC-derived BD-cortical NSCs carry several abnormalities in dopamine and GABA receptor canonical pathways, underlining that our in vitro BD model reflects pathology in the CNS. This would indicate that mis-regulated gene expression of inflammatory, neurotransmitter, and cytoskeletal signalling occurs during early foetal brain development of BD I patients.
  • Yau, Estelle, et al. (författare)
  • Global Sensitivity Analysis of the Rodgers and Rowland Model for Prediction of Tissue: Plasma Partitioning Coefficients: Assessment of the Key Physiological and Physicochemical Factors That Determine Small-Molecule Tissue Distribution
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: AAPS Journal. - 1550-7416 .- 1550-7416. ; 22:41, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling, the large number of input parameters, limited amount of available data and the structural model complexity generally hinder simultaneous estimation of uncertain and/or unknown parameters. These parameters are generally subject to estimation. However, the approaches taken for parameter estimation vary widely. Global sensitivity analyses are proposed as a method to systematically determine the most influential parameters that can be subject to estimation. Herein, a global sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the key drug and physiological parameters influencing drug disposition in PBPK models and to potentially reduce the PBPK model dimensionality. The impact of these parameters was evaluated on the tissue-to-unbound plasma partition coefficients (Kpus) predicted by the Rodgers and Rowland model using Latin hypercube sampling combined to partial rank correlation coefficients (PRCC). For most drug classes, PRCC showed that LogP and fraction unbound in plasma (fu<sub>p</sub>) were generally the most influential parameters for Kpu predictions. For strong bases, blood:plasma partitioning was one of the most influential parameter. Uncertainty in tissue composition parameters had a large impact on Kpu and Vss predictions for all classes. Among tissue composition parameters, changes in Kpu outputs were especially attributed to changes in tissue acidic phospholipid concentrations and extracellular protein tissue:plasma ratio values. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that for parameter estimation involving PBPK models and dimensionality reduction purposes, less influential parameters might be assigned fixed values depending on the parameter space, while influential parameters could be subject to parameters estimation.</p>
  • Yusof, Siti R, et al. (författare)
  • Rate and extent of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine blood-brain barrier transport and their intra-brain distribution : the missing link in pharmacodynamic studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600. ; 24:5, s. 935-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Mitragyna speciosa is reported to be beneficial for the management of chronic pain and opioid withdrawal in the evolving opioid epidemic. Data on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, the active compounds of the plant, are still lacking and inconclusive. Here, we present for the first time the rate and the extent of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine transport across the BBB, with an investigation of their post-BBB intra-brain distribution. We utilized an in vitro BBB model to study the rate of BBB permeation of the compounds and their interaction with efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Mitragynine showed higher apical-to-basolateral (A-B, i.e. blood-to-brain side) permeability than 7-hydroxymitragynine. 7-Hydroxymitragynine showed a tendency to efflux, with efflux ratio (B-A/A-B) of 1.39. Both were found to inhibit the P-gp and are also subject to efflux by the P-gp. Assessment of the extent of BBB transport in vivo in rats from unbound brain to plasma concentration ratios (K<sub>p,uu,brain</sub> ) revealed extensive efflux of both compounds, with less than 10 percent of unbound mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in plasma crossing the BBB. By contrast, the extent of intra-brain distribution was significantly different, with mitragynine having 18-fold higher brain tissue uptake in brain slice assay compared with 7-hydroxymitragynine. Mitragynine showed a moderate capacity to accumulate inside brain parenchymal cells, while 7-hydroxymitragynine showed restricted cellular barrier transport. The presented findings from this systematic investigation of brain pharmacokinetics of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are essential for design and interpretation of in vivo experiments aiming to establish exposure-response relationship.</p>
  • Zetterberg, Madeleine, et al. (författare)
  • Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) S18Y polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular neurodegeneration. - 1750-1326. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by protein aggregates, i.e. senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The ubiquitin-proteasome system has been proposed a role in proteolytic removal of these protein aggregates. Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme with important functions in recycling of ubiquitin. The S18Y polymorphism of the UCHL1 gene confers protection against Parkinson's disease. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of the UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism were investigated in 452 AD patients and 234 control subjects, recruited from four memory clinics in Sweden. Using a binary logistic regression model including UCHL1 allele A and APOE epsilon 4 allele positivity, age and sex as covariates with AD diagnosis as dependent variable, an adjusted OR of 0.82 ([95% CI 0.55-1.24], P = 0.35) was obtained for a positive UCHL1 allele A carrier status. The present study thus do not support a protective effect of the UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism against AD.
  • Tjäderborn, Micaela, 1983- (författare)
  • Psychoactive prescription drug use disorders, misuse and abuse Pharmacoepidemiological aspects
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is a widespread and increasing use of psychoactive prescription drugs, such as opioid analgesics, anxiolytics, hypnotics and anti-epileptics, but their use is associated with a risk of drug use disorder, misuse and abuse. Today, these are globally recognized and emerging public health concerns.</p><p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this thesis is to estimate the prevalence of psychoactive prescription drug (PPD) use disorders, misuse and abuse, and to investigate the association with some potential risk factors.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A study using register data from forensic cause of death investigations investigated and described cases of fatal unintentional intoxication with tramadol (Study I). Based on register data on spontaneously reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported cases of tramadol dependence were investigated and summarised (Study II). In a study in suspected drug-impaired drivers with a toxicology analysis confirming the intake of one out of five pre-specified PPDs, the prevalence of non-prescribed use was assessed and associated factors were investigated (Study III). From a cohort of patients initiating prescribed treatment with pregabalin, using data on prescription fills, a study investigated longitudinal utilisation patterns during five years with regards to use of the drug above the maximum approved daily dose (MAD), and factors associated with the utilisation patterns (Study IV).</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> In the first study, 17 cases of unintentional intoxications were identified, of which more concerned men, the median age was 44 years and the majority used multiple psychoactive substances (alcohol, illicit drugs and prescription drugs). The second study identified 104 spontaneously reported cases of tramadol dependence, in which more concerned women, the median age was 45 years, and a third reported a history of substance abuse and 40% of past psychoactive medication use. In the third study, more than half of the individuals suspected of drug-impaired driving used the drug without a recent prescription. Non prescribed use was most frequent in users of benzodiazepines and tramadol, and was more likely in younger individuals and in multiple-substance users. In the last paper five longitudinal utilisation patterns were found in pregabalin users, with two patterns associated with a particularly high risk of doses above the maximum approved dosing recommendation. This pattern of use was associated with male sex, younger age, non-urban residency and a recent prescribed treatment with an antiepileptic or opioid analgesic drug.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This thesis shows that psychoactive prescription drug use disorders, misuse and abuse occur and may have serious and even fatal consequences. The prevalence varies between different drugs and populations. Abuse and misuse seem to be more common in young people. Fatal intoxications and misuse of prescribed drugs may be more common in men, while drug use disorders following prescribed treatment may be more common in women and non-prescribed use equally distributed between women and men. Individuals with a history of mental illness, substance use disorder or abuse, or of past use of psychoactive medications are likely important risk groups. In summary, the findings suggest a potential for improvements in the utilisation of psychoactive prescription drugs. The results may be useful in the planning of clinical and regulatory preventive interventions to promote the rational, individualised and safe use of such drugs.</p>
  • Lundberg, A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 signalling through the TRIF and TRAM adaptors in haematopoietic cells promotes atherosclerosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Research. - 0008-6363. ; 99:2, s. 364-373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family initiate innate immune responses and were recently shown to play a role in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that link TLR ligation to vascular inflammation and atherogenesis remain unclear. To identify which signalling pathways downstream of TLRs in immune cells are pro-atherogenic, we analysed the role of the TLR-specific adaptors MyD88 adaptor-like (MAL), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF) in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a bone-marrow transplantation strategy into low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice, we could specifically study the absence of the TLR adaptors in immune cells. We showed that haematopoietic deficiency of TRAM and TRIF, but not MAL, reduces atherosclerosis without affecting cholesterol metabolism. This was mediated by decreased aortic inflammation, indicated by lower aortic levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and reduced influx of macrophages and T cells. Furthermore, by studying Tlr3-/- chimeric Ldlr-/- mice, we found that deleting TLR3 in immune cells significantly reduced both aortic inflammation and atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSIONS: By studying hypercholesterolaemic mice with defects in TLR-signalling adaptors, we demonstrated that deleting either TRAM or TRIF in immune cells is sufficient to attenuate vessel inflammation and protect against atherosclerosis. In addition, these adaptors elicit partly different sets of inflammatory mediators and can independently inhibit the disease process. Furthermore, we identify TLR3 as a pro-atherogenic receptor in haematopoietic immune cells. The identification of these pro-atherogenic pathways downstream of TLR3 and TLR4 contributes to a better understanding of TLRs and their signalling pathways in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
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