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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(NATURVETENSKAP) hsv:(Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap) hsv:(Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning) "

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  • Sonesten, Lars (författare)
  • Belastning på havet
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Havet : om miljötillståndet i i svenska havsområden. 2013/14. - 978-91-637-5737-2
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
  • Podgrajsek, E., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of floating chamber and eddy covariance measurements of lake greenhouse gas fluxes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences Discussions. - 1810-6277. ; 11, s. 4225-4233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from lakes may have a large impact on the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. Traditionally lake fluxes have been measured using the floating chamber (FC) technique; however, several recent studies use the eddy covariance (EC) method. We present simultaneous flux measurements using both methods at lake Tämnaren in Sweden during field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. Only very few similar studies exist. For CO2 flux, the two methods agree relatively well during some periods, but deviate substantially at other times. The large discrepancies might be caused by heterogeneity of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2w) in the EC flux footprint. The methods agree better for CH4 fluxes. It is, however, clear that short-term discontinuous FC measurements are likely to miss important high flux events.
  • Olsson, Mikael, 1948- (författare)
  • Polaris
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: http://www.polarisen.se. - Göteborg : University of Gothenburg.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Polaris is a Swedish based web site dealing with Antarctic, Arctic and sub-polar areas around the globe, including sub-Arctic regions of Scandinavia and Eurasia. Polaris is focusing on peoples and places, research and resources on high latitudes. In particular, the site's ambition is to depict the interaction between the components and put them in a context of global environmental and climate change. The web site also addresses the Swedish polar and mountain research, exemplified by the depiction of a number of Swedish polar researchers' work and choice of career. Polaris main target group is high school students. We aim at establishing Polaris as the popular web site in Sweden for polar research. Polaris was a joint production by Gothenburg and Stockholm Universities and others during the International Polar Year 2007-09. The initiative to the website was taken by the Swedish Committee for International Polar Year, the Swedish Research Council and the Universeum Science Center in Gothenburg. There are many scientific contributors, mainly from the Centre of Earth Systems Science at the University of Gothenburg, the Tarfala Research Station at Stockholm University and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat . Interviews and articles are made by professional science writers. All texts are in Swedish.
  • Gålfalk, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Making methane visible
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1758-678X. ; 6, s. 426-430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methane (CH4) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, and an important energy carrier in biogas and natural gas. Its large-scale emission patterns have been unpredictable and the source and sink distributions are poorly constrained. Remote assessment of CH4 with high sensitivity at a m2 spatial resolution would allow detailed mapping of the near-ground distribution and anthropogenic sources in landscapes but has hitherto not been possible. Here we show that CH4gradients can be imaged on the <m2 scale at ambient levels (~1.8 ppm) and filmed using optimized infrared (IR) hyperspectral imaging. Our approach allows both spectroscopic confirmation and quantification for all pixels in an imaged scene simultaneously. It also has the ability to map fluxes for dynamic scenes. This approach to mapping boundary layer CH4 offers a unique potential way to improve knowledge about greenhouse gases in landscapes and a step towards resolving source–sink attribution and scaling issues.
  • Hansson, Hans-Christen, et al. (författare)
  • Causes of Regional Change Land Cover
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. - Springer. - 978-3-319-16005-4 - 978-3-319-16006-1 ; s. 453-477
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response over the last two centuries is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects and to the biogeochemical versus biogeophysical effects. Palaeoecological studies show that the major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the Baltic Sea basin occurred between 6000 and 3000/2500 cal year BP. The only modelling study of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in north-western Europe suggests that deforestation between 6000 and 200 cal year BP may have caused significant change in winter and summer temperature. There is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback. Several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes.
  • Strandberg, Gustav, et al. (författare)
  • Regional climate model simulations for Europe at 6 and 0.2 k BP sensitivity to changes in anthropogenic deforestation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Climate of the Past. - 1814-9324. ; 10:2, s. 661-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aims to evaluate the direct effects of anthropogenic deforestation on simulated climate at two contrasting periods in the Holocene, similar to 6 and similar to 0.2 k BP in Europe. We apply We apply the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA3, a regional climate model with 50 km spatial resolution, for both time periods, considering three alternative descriptions of the past vegetation: (i) potential natural vegetation (V) simulated by the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, (ii) potential vegetation with anthropogenic land use (deforestation) from the HYDE3.1 (History Database of the Global Environment) scenario (V + H3.1), and (iii) potential vegetation with anthropogenic land use from the KK10 scenario (V + KK10). The climate model results show that the simulated effects of deforestation depend on both local/regional climate and vegetation characteristics. At similar to 6 k BP the extent of simulated deforestation in Europe is generally small, but there are areas where deforestation is large enough to produce significant differences in summer temperatures of 0.5-1 degrees C. At similar to 0.2 k BP, extensive deforestation, particularly according to the KK10 model, leads to significant temperature differences in large parts of Europe in both winter and summer. In winter, deforestation leads to lower temperatures because of the differences in albedo between forested and unforested areas, particularly in the snow-covered regions. In summer, deforestation leads to higher temperatures in central and eastern Europe because evapotranspiration from unforested areas is lower than from forests. Summer evaporation is already limited in the southernmost parts of Europe under potential vegetation conditions and, therefore, cannot become much lower. Accordingly, the albedo effect dominates in southern Europe also in summer, which implies that deforestation causes a decrease in temperatures. Differences in summer temperature due to deforestation range from -1 degrees C in south-western Europe to +1 degrees C in eastern Europe. The choice of anthropogenic land-cover scenario has a significant influence on the simulated climate, but uncertainties in palaeoclimate proxy data for the two time periods do not allow for a definitive discrimination among climate model results.
  • Westerberg, I, et al. (författare)
  • Precipitation data in a mountainous catchment in Honduras: quality assessment and spatiotemporal characteristics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Theoretical and Applied Climatology. - 0177-798X. ; 101:3-4, s. 381-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An accurate description of temporal and spatial precipitation variability in Central America is important for local farming, water supply and flood management. Data quality problems and lack of consistent precipitation data impede hydrometeorological analysis in the 7,500 km(2) Choluteca River basin in central Honduras, encompassing the capital Tegucigalpa. We used precipitation data from 60 daily and 13 monthly stations in 1913-2006 from five local authorities and NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network. Quality control routines were developed to tackle the specific data quality problems. The quality-controlled data were characterised spatially and temporally, and compared with regional and larger-scale studies. Two gap-filling methods for daily data and three interpolation methods for monthly and mean annual precipitation were compared. The coefficient-of-correlation-weighting method provided the best results for gap-filling and the universal kriging method for spatial interpolation. In-homogeneity in the time series was the main quality problem, and 22% of the daily precipitation data were too poor to be used. Spatial autocorrelation for monthly precipitation was low during the dry season, and correlation increased markedly when data were temporally aggregated from a daily time scale to 4-5 days. The analysis manifested the high spatial and temporal variability caused by the diverse precipitation-generating mechanisms and the need for an improved monitoring network.
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