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  • Resultat 1-10 av 2116
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1.
  • Omstedt, Anders, 1949- (författare)
  • The Development of Climate Science of the Baltic Sea Region
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. - Oxford University Press.
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dramatic climate changes have occurred in the Baltic Sea region caused by changes in orbital movement in the earth–sun system and the melting of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Added to these longer-term changes, changes have occurred at all timescales, caused mainly by variations in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems due to competition between the meandering midlatitude low-pressure systems and highpressure systems. Here we follow the development of climate science of the Baltic Sea from when observations began in the 18th century to the early 21st century. The question of why the water level is sinking around the Baltic Sea coasts could not be answered until the ideas of postglacial uplift and the thermal history of the earth were better understood in the 19th century and periodic behavior in climate related time series attracted scientific interest. Herring and sardine fishing successes and failures have led to investigations of fishery and climate change and to the realization that fisheries themselves have strongly negative effects on the marine environment, calling for international assessment efforts. Scientists later introduced the concept of regime shifts when interpreting their data, attributing these to various causes. The increasing amount of anoxic deep water in the Baltic Sea and eutrophication have prompted debate about what is natural and what is anthropogenic, and the scientific outcome of these debates now forms the basis of international management efforts to reduce nutrient leakage from land. The observed increase in atmospheric CO and its effects on global warming have focused the climate debate on trends and generated a series of international and regional assessments and research programs that have greatly improved our understanding of climate and environmental changes, bolstering the efforts of earth system science, in which both climate and environmental factors are analyzed together.
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2.
  • Sonesten, Lars (författare)
  • Belastning på havet
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Havet : om miljötillståndet i i svenska havsområden. 2013/14. - 978-91-637-5737-2
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Olsson, Mikael, 1948- (författare)
  • Polaris Möten med världens poler www.polarisen.se
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: http://www.polarisen.se. - Göteborg : University of Gothenburg.
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Polaris is a Swedish based web site dealing with Antarctic, Arctic and sub-polar areas around the globe, including sub-Arctic regions of Scandinavia and Eurasia. Polaris is focusing on peoples and places, research and resources on high latitudes. In particular, the site's ambition is to depict the interaction between the components and put them in a context of global environmental and climate change. The web site also addresses the Swedish polar and mountain research, exemplified by the depiction of a number of Swedish polar researchers' work and choice of career. Polaris main target group is high school students. We aim at establishing Polaris as the popular web site in Sweden for polar research. Polaris was a joint production by Gothenburg and Stockholm Universities and others during the International Polar Year 2007-09. The initiative to the website was taken by the Swedish Committee for International Polar Year, the Swedish Research Council and the Universeum Science Center in Gothenburg. There are many scientific contributors, mainly from the Centre of Earth Systems Science at the University of Gothenburg, the Tarfala Research Station at Stockholm University and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat . Interviews and articles are made by professional science writers. All texts are in Swedish.
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4.
  • Wurzbacher, Christian, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Poorly known microbial taxa dominate the microbiome of permafrost thaw ponds.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The ISME journal. - 1751-7370. ; 11:8, s. 1938-1941
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla. Our results on permafrost thaw ponds lead to a revised perception of the thaw pond ecosystem and their microbes, with potential implications for carbon and nutrient cycling in this increasingly important class of freshwaters.
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5.
6.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
7.
  • Andrady, Anthony, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. - Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1474-9092. ; 15:1, s. 141-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1–184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientificfindings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change.
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8.
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9.
  • Gålfalk, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Making methane visible
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1758-678X. ; 6, s. 426-430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methane (CH4) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, and an important energy carrier in biogas and natural gas. Its large-scale emission patterns have been unpredictable and the source and sink distributions are poorly constrained. Remote assessment of CH4 with high sensitivity at a m2 spatial resolution would allow detailed mapping of the near-ground distribution and anthropogenic sources in landscapes but has hitherto not been possible. Here we show that CH4gradients can be imaged on the <m2 scale at ambient levels (~1.8 ppm) and filmed using optimized infrared (IR) hyperspectral imaging. Our approach allows both spectroscopic confirmation and quantification for all pixels in an imaged scene simultaneously. It also has the ability to map fluxes for dynamic scenes. This approach to mapping boundary layer CH4 offers a unique potential way to improve knowledge about greenhouse gases in landscapes and a step towards resolving source–sink attribution and scaling issues.
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10.
  • Hallquist, Åsa Marita, et al. (författare)
  • On-board Measurements of Nanoparticles from a SCR-Equipped Marine Diesel Engine
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology. - American Chemical Society. - 0013-936X. ; 47:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study nanoparticle emissions have been characterised on-board a ship with focus on number, size and volatility. Measurements were conducted on one of the ship’s four main 12 600 kW medium–speed diesel engines which use low sulphur marine residual fuel and have a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system for NOX abatement. The particles were measured after the SCR with an engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer (EEPS), giving particle number and mass distributions in the size range of 5.6-560 nm. The thermal characteristics of the particles were analysed using a volatility tandem DMA system (VTDMA). A dilution ratio of 450-520 was used which is similar to the initial real-world dilution. At a stable engine load of 75% of the maximum rated power, and after dilution and cooling of the exhaust gas, there was a bimodal number size distribution, with a major peak at ~10 nm and a smaller peak at around 30-40 nm. The mass distribution peaked around 20 nm and at 50-60 nm. The emission factor for particle number, EFPN, for an engine load of 75% in the open-sea was found to be 10.4 ± 1.6 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1 and about 50% of the particles by number were found to have a non-volatile core at 250 °C. Additionally, 20 nm particles consist of ~40% of non-volatile material by volume (evaporative temperature 250 °C) while the particles with a particle diameter <10 nm evaporate completely at a temperature of 130-150 °C. Emission factors for NOX, CO and CO2 for an engine load of 75% in the open-sea were determined to 4.06 ± 0.3 g (kg fuel)-1, 2.15 ± 0.06 g (kg fuel)-1 and 3.23 ± 0.08 kg (kg fuel)-1, respectively. This work contributes to an improved understanding of particle emissions from shipping using modern pollution reduction measures such as SCR and fuel with low sulphur content.
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