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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Mälardalens högskola > (2020)

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  • Bruno, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Barnäktenskap och hedersrelaterat våld
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Barn & unga i utsatta livssituationer : Perspektiv från forskning och praktik. - Liber. - 978-91-47-13359-8 ; s. 140-156
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Gregory, Amanda J., et al. (författare)
  • Stakeholder identification and engagement in problem structuring interventions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research. - ELSEVIER. - 0377-2217 .- 1872-6860. ; 283:1, s. 321-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper addresses the under-researched issue of stakeholder identification and engagement in problem structuring interventions. A concise framework is proposed to aid critical reflection in the design and reporting of stakeholder identification and engagement. This is grounded in a critical-systemic epistemology, and is informed by social identity theory. We illustrate the utility of the framework with an example of a problem structuring workshop, which was part of a green innovation project on the development of a technology for the recovery of rare metals from steel slag. The workshop was initially going to be designed to surface stakeholder views on the technology itself. However, it became apparent that a range of other strategic issues concerning the future of the site were going to impact on decision making about the use of steel slag. It therefore became important to evolve the agenda for the problem structuring, and this is where the critical-systemic approach made a difference. It enabled the workshop to be reframed as a community-based event looking at how the former steelworks site could be developed for new purposes. Evaluation of this problem structuring intervention revealed significant stakeholder learning about the issues needing to be accounted for, and a range of possible options for the development of the steelworks site were explored. The paper ends with a discussion of the utility of social identity theory for understanding the processes and outcomes of the workshop, and reflections are provided on its implications for operational research practice more generally. </p>
  • Hasson, Henna, et al. (författare)
  • How can evidence-based interventions give the best value for users in social services? Balance between adherence and adaptations : a study protocol
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Implementation Science Communications. - 2662-2211. ; 1:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background</p><p>Using evidence-based interventions (EBIs) is a basic premise of contemporary social services (e.g., child and family social services). However, EBIs seldom fit seamlessly into a specific setting but often need to be adapted. Although some adaptions might be necessary, they can cause interventions to be less effective or even unsafe. The challenge of balancing adherence and adaptations when using EBIs is often referred to as the adherence and adaptation dilemma. Although the current literature identifies professionals’ management of this dilemma as problematic, it offers little practical guidance for professionals. This research aims to investigate how the adherence and adaptation dilemma is handled in social services and to explore how structured decision support can impact the management of the dilemma.</p><p>Methods</p><p>The design is a prospective, longitudinal intervention with a focus on the feasibility and usefulness of the structured decision support. The project is a collaboration between academic researchers, embedded researchers at three research and development units, and social service organizations. A multi-method data collection will be employed. Initially, a scoping review will be performed, and the results will be used in the development of a structured decision support. The decision support will be further developed and tested during a series of workshops with social service professionals. Different forms of data—focus group interviews, questionnaires, and documentation—will be used on several occasions to evaluate the impact of the structured decision support. Qualitative and quantitative analysis will be performed and usefulness for practice prioritized throughout the study.</p><p>Discussion</p><p>The study will contribute with knowledge on how the adherence and adaption dilemma is handled and experienced by social service professionals. Most importantly, the study will generate rich empirical data on how a structured decision support impacts professionals’ management of adherence and adaptions. The goal is to produce more strategic and context-sensitive implementation of EBIs in social service, which will increase value for service users.</p>
  • Knezevic, Zlatana, 1984- (författare)
  • Child (Bio)Welfare and Beyond Intersecting Injustices in Childhoods and Swedish Child Welfare
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The current thesis discusses how tools for analysing power are developed predominately for adults, and thus remain underdeveloped in terms of understanding injustices related to age, ethnicity/race and gender in childhoods. The overall ambition of this dissertation is to inscribe a discourse of intersecting social injustices as relevant for childhoods and child welfare, and by interlinking postcolonial, feminist, and critical childhood studies. The dissertation is set empirically within the policy and practice of Swedish child welfare, here exemplified by the assessment framework <em>Barns Behov i Centrum</em> (BBIC). It aims to explore how Swedish child welfare, as a field of knowledge, modes of knowing and knowing subjects, constitutes an arena for claims and responses to intersecting social justice issues.</p><p>The material consists of BBIC primers and selected samples from, a total of 283 case reports from a Swedish social service agency. The case reports address assessments of children (0<strong>­­–</strong>12 years of age). This dissertation is based on four qualitative studies using discourse analysis, as well as analysis inspired by thematic and case-study methodology. Two studies focus on child welfare discourses in BBIC documents involving social problems and violence, and two studies are based on child welfare case reports.</p><p>Studies I<strong>­­-</strong>II address child welfare policy and practice by analysing the conditions required for children to participate, in terms of children’s moral status and in terms of status of ‘evidencing’ needs for protection. Studies III<strong>­­-</strong>IV explore this further from the perspective of intersecting and embodied social injustices in childhoods. Together, the studies interconnect child welfare as a field of knowledge, modes of knowing and knowers with child welfare as a moral arena for claims to rights, recognition, and social justice.</p><p>The synthesised findings point to child biowelfare, in which justice discourses are largely absent. Biowelfare is informed by a mode of knowing and ‘evidencing’ risks to children’s health and development, which are confined to scientific predicting-believing, seeing-believing by professionals and a moral economy of care, all of which constrain the idea that injustices are structural and intersecting. Biowelfare primarily responds to children as ‘speaking’ biological bodies, rather than as voices of justice. In this sense, injustices of an epistemological nature are interconnected with social injustices. When issues of justice are mobilised in case reports and policy, they come across as rather ‘unjust’, primarily confined to the sphere of the family home of racialised children and not connected to ‘general’ children. In addition to intersections of age, ethnicity/race and gender, class and health are fundamental to recognition and protection in biowelfare. Finally, the dissertation indicates the need for a moral economy which responds to intersecting social injustices such as racial, gender-based and ageist violence in childhoods, and violations of children’s bodily integrity.</p><p><em>Key words</em>: biowelfare, child protection, child welfare, critical childhood studies, critical social work, embodiment, epistemic injustice, epistemology, feminist theory, intersectionality, justice subjectivity, moral economy, moral subjectivity, participation, postcolonial theory, poststructural social work, social justice, violence</p>
  • Lagrosen, Yvonne, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Organizational learning in consciousness-based education schools : a multiple-case study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Educational Management. - EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0951-354X .- 1758-6518. ; 34:5, s. 849-867
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose An innovative technology called consciousness-based education (CBE) is being introduced in schools worldwide. The approach includes both an experiential and an intellectual component. However, research studies exploring learning in CBE are rare. The purpose of the paper is to explore how organizational learning takes place in schools, which adopt CBE in addition to their ordinary curriculum. Moreover, the ambition of the approach regarding quality is examined. Methodology/approach A multiple-case study has been carried out. Four schools using CBE have been studied: a private school in Fairfield, Iowa, USA; a governmentally funded free school in Skelmersdale, United Kingdom; an independent school in Melbourne, Australia, and a primary school in Lelystad, the Netherlands. In total, 26 in-depth interviews have been performed, mainly with teachers and students but also with principals and experts in the CBE pedagogy. In addition, three focus-group interviews with primary school pupils were conducted and observation during classes was included. The data were analyzed by the constant comparative technique from the grounded theory approach. Findings Categories characterizing organizational learning in the CBE schools have been identified. These findings are related to theories of the learning organization, resulting in a framework depicting different components of learning. Research limitation/implication - The study provides a framework illustrating organizational learning in schools that utilize CBE which affords an overview of the technology and can serve as a vantage point for further research. Since this is a qualitative case study, the effectiveness of the CBE approach and its impact on learning outcomes were not assessed, and the possibilities to generalize the findings are limited. Originality/value CBE has not previously been studied from an organizational learning perspective.</p>
  • Andrighetto, Giulia, et al. (författare)
  • Peer effects on compliance with extortive requests
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>We conduct laboratory experiments to study peer effects on compliance with extortive requests. To this aim, we use an “extortion game” with multiple victims. In agreement with our hypothesis, our results show that when the information on peers’ behavior is available, compliance with appropriative requests is triggered by conformism among victims rather than by punishment. Moreover, we find that extorted sums are rather small, requests are proportional to the victim’s earnings, similar across victims, and are significantly lower when the extorter self-selects into this role. Punishment is rare, but effective. Finally, our results indicate that fairness concerns matter even in a context of extra-legal taxation, shaping both extorters’ requests and victims’ compliance. </p>
  • Andersson, Anna-Lena (författare)
  • Utbildningssituationen för elever med lindrig intellektuell funktionsnedsättning : Lärares och föräldrars perspektiv
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The goal of the Swedish educational system is to offer all students a meaningful and equal education in an inclusive classroom environment. At the same time there are parallel school systems in Sweden, comprised by the Compulsory School for Students with Intellectual Disability (CSSID) and Compulsory School (CS). Students who are not able to achieve in accordance with syllabus of CS and who have an intellectual disability (ID) are eligible to receive education according to the CSSID syllabus. The decision of placement in either type of school rests on students’ parents. It can be assumed, therefore, that teachers are expected to offer education adjusted to each student’s individual needs.</p><p>The aim of the thesis is to deepen the knowledge about the educational situation of students with mild intellectual disability (MID) through the perspectives of teachers and parents. Teachers’ and parents’ experiences and perceptions are studied: parents offer their stories about their children’s educational situation over time, and teachers’ reason about their work in teaching situations with the target group. Furthermore, pedagogical evaluations are studied to look at how school difficulties in teaching situations are described.</p><p>The empirical data was collected in one municipality from the middle part of Sweden. The data constitutes of six interviews with parents of students with MID, and also 21 pedagogical evaluations of students with MID. Additionally, interviews were conducted with 21 teachers: eleven CS teachers and ten CSSID teachers.</p><p>All interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis and using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), and manifest contents analysis was used to analyze pedagogical evaluations. Theories used were Biesta’s theory on the dimensions of education, the three levels in education transitions by Griebel and Niesel, and the school didactic theory by Uljen.</p><p>The results show that the educational transitions and the educational situation around students with MID are complex. The transition from CS to CSSID means a readjustment for parents and they express the need for support from professionals in these transitions. Pedagogical evaluations contain individual-focused descriptions and focus to a lesser extent on teaching adaptations. Teachers in CS and CSSID outlined both common challenges in provision of support to all students but also described different prerequisites for it in the two school types. The results indicate that the teaching situation in both CSSID and the CS needs to be reviewed with regard to the school's organizational conditions to offer inclusive education.</p><p></p><p>Keywords</p><p>inclusive education, transition, students with mild intellectual disability, interview, pedagogical evaluations, teachers, parents</p>
  • Blackbright, Helena, 1972- (författare)
  • Exploring Purposeful use of Innovation Self-assessments
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Innovation management is a multidimensional practice characterized by the requirement of a constant renewal to maintain an organization’s relative innovativeness. A practice highly characterized by a requirement to handle uncertainty, risk, and long lead times, which requires an active management of both the prerequisites of today and a yet-undefined future. Therefore, it is of little surprise that the so-called “innovation audits,” with their purpose of direct or indirect improvement are often considered a vital part of innovation management practices. This thesis focuses on the internal self-assessment use of such audits by organizations to self-assess their current state of innovativeness against indicators of good practice or their own prior state. The purpose of such innovation audits is to reveal gaps between the current and desired state, which the organization can use to develop improvement activities.</p><p>Substantial empirical and theoretical research on innovation audits exists, which focuses primarily on the development of the audit itself, but seldom on enacting audits that lead to desired improvements. Much innovation audit research discusses the areas to assess and the development of different types of indicators, statements, and framework, which represents these assessment areas. The problem is that no matter how well the indicators identify possible improvement areas or gaps between current and desired states, it still says very little about integrating retrieved information into activities that actually lead to the desired improvements.</p><p>This thesis takes a process perspective on the undertaking of an innovation self-assessment audit (ISA). Rather than examining what to assess and how to use the result, it focuses on the undertaking of an ISA as an improvement process in itself. The overall objective is to contribute to the understanding of why a purposeful use of ISA emerges (or does not emerge). To this end, this thesis collects empirical data about ISA use and its context from qualitative case studies, involving 14 self-assessment groups from 9 different organizations. The findings from these studies is presented in the six appended papers that address different perspectives on ISA use and contextual prerequisites.</p><p>To better understand why a purposeful use of ISA emerges (or does not), it was necessary to bring the appended papers together and undertake a more focused discussion on ISA use as a process in its entirety. Therefore, this thesis recontextualizes the six appended papers against a new theoretical framework based on theories on processes, complex adaptive systems (CAS), and competence-in-use.</p><p>The theoretical discussion in this thesis offers several contributions. First, by approaching the undertaking of ISA as an improvement process, it focuses on the continuity of the process, which in turn allows a distinction between the execution of the process and the enabling of this execution. Second, the enactment of purposeful use is related to knowledge about the focus area of the assessment (e.g. innovation culture or capabilities) and the current state being assessed. Together, these create the basis for the theorization of a four-dimensional ISA competence-in-use that impacts how ISA can be purposefully enacted. Overall, the main reason why purposeful use emerges (or does not) does not seem to be so much about having a high ISA competence-in-use, as having high correspondence between expectations and competence-in-use.</p><p>Together, this contributes to an increased understanding of why purposeful use emerges (or does not), making this its primary contribution within the field of innovation management. The focus on self-assessment use as an improvement process embedded in the organizational context it intends to improve, does give a more general relevance to the discussion on improvement processes, and the use of self-assessment audits outside the field of innovation management.</p><p>The contribution of this thesis is closely related to the use of ISA and can be used to support the process of planning and undertaking an ISA. This thesis also contributes to knowledge on ISA competence-in-use, which can guide practical choices in undertaking an ISA for more purposeful use.</p>
  • Bryant, Lia, et al. (författare)
  • Place and space in social work
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Qualitative Social Work. - SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC. - 1473-3250 .- 1741-3117. ; 19:3, s. 321-336
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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