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Sökning: hsv:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP) > Heshmati Almas > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Landmine Fatalities and Injuries in the Kurdistan Region
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence. - 0886-2605 .- 1552-6518. ; 30:15, s. 2591-2615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study analyzes landmine victim data in the Kurdistan Region during the period 1960 to 2005. A regression analysis is used to identify the determinants and impact of the probability of getting killed by mines and unexploded ordnances. The rates of killed/injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. As the data are a repeated cross-section in which the individuals are observed when they are subjected to landmine incidents, and to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects, a pseudo panel data are created where districts are observed over the entire time period forming a panel data. The results show that (a) males, children, and the elderly are more susceptible to a higher level of landmine risks; (b) landmine training and awareness programs do not reduce the rate of landmine mortality; and (c) the rate of incidents are declining over time. This result can be used in the planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action, as well as labor market programs and rehabilitation activities.</p>
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2.
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement and Analysis of Multidimensional Well-Being in Rwanda
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Efficiency, equity and well-being in selected African countries. - Cham : Springer. - 9783030114190 ; s. 37-68
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The well-being of families and their children is given high priority in development goals. Children’s well-being in Africa is important since the growing number of children is the greatest resource of this continent. Rwanda was one of the first countries that ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The country, despite its very low GDP per capita, also has one of the best child well-being indicators in Africa. In the recent past the country has also had two important achievements: protection of children by establishing the National Commission for Children and launching a Strategy for National Child Care Reform. The measures aim to protect children’s rights and integrate children into families that are supported to provide needed care to them. These achievements are largely the result of strong laws and policies many of which have been developed with support from UNICEF. Investments in children’s well-being will help in addressing many persistent difficulties that society may have to face in the future. What happens during the early years is of crucial importance for every child’s development. This period offers great opportunities, but children are also vulnerable to negative influences. The objective of this research is to estimate multidimensional well-being of children and their families in Rwanda. The aim is to compute an overall well-being index decomposed into its underlying main components. The households are ranked by the level of well-being and by various household and community characteristics. The results shed light on the state and changes in the well-being of children and their families in Rwanda indicating which provinces and districts offer relatively better conditions for them. This can serve as a model for public policies aimed at improving general well-being in the country. </p>
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3.
  • Abolhosseini, Shahrouz, et al. (författare)
  • Energy security and competition over energy resources in Iran and Caucasus region
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: AIMS Energy. - AIMS Press. - 2333-8326 .- 2333-8334. ; 5:2, s. 224-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Energy security as a dominant factor in international stability is of great importance for major economies. The global energy market with its current level of supply and demand relies on energy sources in the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia. After the Fukushima disaster nuclear powers in Europe view renewable energy sources as a serious alternative. Europe’s energy vulnerability has deteriorated due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. However, renewable energy sources are not large enough to replace nuclear power completely. This trend will continue with climbing demand especially in the natural gas sector as clean energy. In this research, Caucasus and Iran are considered the main sources and routes for energy transmission to the global market, including Europe. Caucasus plays a key role in bridging Europe and Asia. Also, Iran is an alternative for energy transmission to Europe after lifted sanctions. As part of the European active supply diversification policy Iran has capacity to reduce Europe’s energy dependency on Russia. However, changes in US new administration America First Policy is harmful for the EUs energy security. Caucasus aims to catch a large share of the European energy market since the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline has started operations and Iran is also trying to expand its market to become a sustainable source of energy for major consumers. Therefore, Iran and Caucasus are considered reliable energy suppliers for Europe. In this regard, we analyze the best motivation for changing the direction new suppliers’ energy policies towards Europe and suggest alternative solutions to compete with rival countries in order to enhance energy security.</p>
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4.
  • Altmann, Jörn, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of e-infrastructure deployment in OECD and MENA countries
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Catalyzing development through ICT adoption : The developing world experience. - Cham : Springer. - 9783319565231 - 9783319565224 ; s. 113-148
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper introduces new indices quantifying country's level of e-infrastructure deployment. These indices comprise six components, which include several indicators, and are based on parametric or nonparametric methods. They improve existing indices. Based on index calculations, variations between countries, regions, and over time are analyzed. The data used covers MENA and OECD countries, 2000-2007. Analysis results identified areas, in which countries need improvements, and showed that some MENA countries outperformed some OECD countries. The rankings based on the indices differ only slightly. Additionally, the parametric method-based index produces equally distributed value ranges and shows an overall e-infrastructure improvement over time. </p>
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5.
  • Bersisa, Mekkonen, et al. (författare)
  • Multidimensional Measure of Poverty in Ethiopia : Factor and Stochastic Dominance Analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa : A Multi-faceted Economic Approach. - Springer. - 978-3-319-30980-4 - 978-3-319-30981-1 ; s. 215-238
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study did an in-depth analysis of multidimensional poverty in rural and small towns in Ethiopia. As social well-being or poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, using a multidimensional measure of poverty helps circumvent problems surrounding the conventional measures of poverty and helps show clearly the realities of households. In this line, our analysis used six dimensions with 14 indicators to construct a multidimensional index of poverty using first rounds of Ethiopian Rural Households’ Socioeconomic Survey data set. The study also employed a factor analysis for determining relative weights in computing a multidimensional index and did an in-depth analysis of stochastic dominancy of poverty for different segments of society. Besides, a comparison of the extent of poverty using the conventional measure of poverty and the multidimensional approach was also done. The results reveal that intensity, severity, and depth of poverty vary considerably across the two measures. Moreover, demographic, regional, and household heads’ characteristics are major factors in determining poverty.</p>
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6.
  • Cho, Sungwook, et al. (författare)
  • What if you had been less fortunate : The effects of poor family background on current labor market outcomes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of economic studies. - 0144-3585 .- 1758-7387. ; 42:1, s. 20-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Purpose</strong>– The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to the experience of poverty or poor family background during one’s childhood.</p><p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong>– With data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, a quantile regression technique and a decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income groups along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.</p><p><strong>Findings</strong>– The results show that those who had been less fortunate during their childhood were also less likely to have the opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics, such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about 15 percentage points in the wage, on average, in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with a middle class background. This disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, with a greater effect at the lower quantiles compared to the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution.</p><p><strong>Originality/value</strong>– This research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea along with possible causes, including poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of an intergenerational effect is considered.</p>
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7.
  • Chung, Yeimin, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of environmentally sensitive productivity growth in Korean industries
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - 0959-6526 .- 1879-1786. ; 104, s. 380-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this study we will attempt to measure productivity growth at the industrial level using the Metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger (MML) productivity growth index and dissect/analyze this index to reveal further information. The results will be compared with those obtained from the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger (ML) productivity growth index. Utilizing the MML-index has two advantages when compared with the ML-index: the first is that it is able to consider undesirable output as a by-product of production; and the second is that it can account for producer group heterogeneities such as production technology. Noting such advantages, we will model this study to achieve three objectives related to productivity, technology and policy effects. To separate the results of the productivity index, we estimate the changes in the technological gap between regional and global frontier technologies. The proposed index presents productivity growth and dissects its components into 14 Korean industrial sectors from 1981 to 2010. For the purpose of detailed analysis, we have divided the relevant period into three decades. The results show that technology innovation can be regarded as an important component of productivity growth, rather than merely efficiency change. Chemical and petrochemical, iron and steel and machinery are all treated as global innovators throughout the entire period. It is also inferred that the groups with higher labor productivity obtain a higher productivity growth rate as compared with their low labor productivity counterparts. Considering the heterogeneity of production technology and the time that policy is introduced, the policy implications of the results will affect the circumstances regarding investment in environmental technology.</p>
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8.
  • Determinants of economic growth in Africa
  • 2018
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This volume is a collection of selected empirical studies on determinants of economic growth in Africa. Grouped into three parts, chapters examine the influence of financial sources and economic growth; sources of productivity growth; and prices, exchange rates and trade relationships with growth in regions in Africa or the continent as a whole. This edited book is authored by African experts in the field who employ diverse up-to-date data and methods to provide robust empirical results based on representative firms, household surveys and secondary country level data covering individuals or multiple countries on the continent. It contains a wealth of empirical evidence, deep analyses and sound recommendations for policymakers and researchers for designing and implementing effective social and national policies and strategies to prevent and to reduce poverty and its negative effects on poor households and in poor regions. The volume will be a useful resource for policymakers and researchers involved in promoting economic growth and fighting poverty. It will also appeal to a broader audience interested in economic development, resource economics, policies, economic welfare and inclusive growth. </p>
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9.
  • Economic Growth and Development in Ethiopia
  • 2018
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This volume is a collection of selected empirical studies on determinants of economic growth and development in Ethiopia.The core argument for editing this book is to provide an up-to-date picture of the state and patterns of growth and development in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has been under focus in the past due to draughts, war, famine, development changes and the effects of global economic crisis in the country. A main contribution of this volume is that it helps identify selected important determinants of growth and development in Ethiopia and provides an estimation of their effects using up-to-date data, modelling and methods. Taken together the studies provide a comprehensive picture of the state of growth and development, their measurements, causal relationships and evaluation of efficient policies and practices in achieving progress in Ethiopia. The issues covered represent major challenges to the government and development organizations who are aiming at achieving higher growth and alleviating poverty in the country. The studies cover transition from rural agriculture to urban industry and the development of services.</p>
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10.
  • Economic Integration, Currency Union, and Sustainable and Inclusive Growth in East Africa
  • 2016
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This edited volume is an outcome of a project funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The project involves development of Doctoral Programs in Economics and Management, Research Capacity Building and Training and Career Development Initiative at the University of Rwanda, College of Business and Economics (UR-CBE). The project is implemented jointly by J€onk€oping University, J€onk€oping International Business School (JIBS) and the College of Business and Economics at the University of Rwanda. The Doctoral Programs aim at building local teaching and supervision capacities, while the Career Development Initiative aims at assisting faculty and staff of UR-CBE to develop their research and academic writing skills. The chapters in this volume were selected from among papers presented at the conference ‘Recent Trends in Economic Development, Finance and Management Research in Eastern Africa’, in Kigali, Rwanda, on 4–6 May 2015. The conference was organized jointly by JIBS and CBE. The submissions focused on recent trends in economic development in the developing economies of East Africa. This was the first conference in what is planned to be a yearly event. Theoretical, methodological and empirical research and policy or practice-oriented papers were invited, provided they were based on sound conceptual foundations with well-thought methods. Applied and practice-oriented manuscripts could focus on Eastern Africa as a whole or a group of countries or individual economies in the region. Priority was given to studies on Eastern Africa, but submissions from the rest of Africa were also welcome. Papers from regions other than Africa were also welcome, provided they discussed the implications of the research findings in the African context.</p>
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