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  • Battese, G. E., et al. (författare)
  • Efficiency of labour use in the Swedish banking industry : A stochastic frontier approach
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Empirical Economics. - 0377-7332 .- 1435-8921. ; 25:4, s. 623-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of the deregulation of the Swedish banking industry in the mid-1980s, and the consequent banking crisis, on productive efficiency and productivity growth in the industry. An unbalanced panel of Swedish banks is studied over the period, 1984 to 1995. A total of 1275 observations are analysed for 156 banks that were observed for between two and twelve years. We adopt a translog stochastic frontier model to estimate the labour-use requirements in terms of the variables, loans, deposits, guarantees, number of branches and total inventories, together with the year of observation. The inefficiency effects in the labour-use frontier are modelled in terms of the number of branches, total inventories, the type of bank and year of observation. The technical inefficiencies of labour use of Swedish banks were found to be significant, with mean inefficiencies per year estimated to be between about 8 and 15 per cent over the years of study. However, the confidence interval predictions for these inefficiencies were found to be quite wide.
  • Berisso, O., et al. (författare)
  • Farm-Heterogeneity and Persistent and Transient Productive Efficiencies in Ethiopia’s Smallholder Cereal Farming
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IZA Journal of Development and Migration. - : Sciendo. - 2520-1786. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper does an empirical comparison of time-invariant and time-varying technical inefficiency measures obtained from an econometric estimation of different panel data stochastic production frontier models. It estimates four panel data specifications of frontier models widely used in empirical applications using a panel dataset from the Ethiopian cereal farming sector. The empirical results show that estimates of both the magnitude and the individual farms' rankings of persistent and transient productive efficiencies differ considerably across models and based on their agro-ecological zones location. The results further show that the cereal growing farms experience much more transient inefficiency as compared to persistent inefficiency.
  • Bersisa, Mekonnen, et al. (författare)
  • A distributional analysis of uni-and multidimensional poverty and inequalities in Ethiopia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Social Indicators Research. - : Springer. - 0303-8300 .- 1573-0921.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study analyzes uni-and multidimensional poverty and inequalities in rural and small towns in Ethiopia. Unlike the unidimensional measure, the multidimensional measure of poverty shows all the channels through which poverty may manifest itself; it also shows the extent of deprivation. The analysis uses 6 dimensions with 14 indicators to construct a multidimensional index of poverty and inequalities using Ethiopian Households’ Socioeconomic Survey dataset. The study also uses multiple correspondence analyses for determining relative weights in computing a multidimensional index and conducts a stochastic dominance analysis of distribution of poverty for different population segments. The paper sheds light on the degree of inequalities in consumption expenditure and multidimensional deprivations. In addition, it also compares the degree of poverty using the conventional measure of poverty and the multidimensional approach. It also examines the determinants of household poverty status using both unidimensional and multidimensional measures using the logit model. The results show that the intensity, severity, and depth of poverty varies substantially across the 2 measures. The unidimensional measure of poverty shows that 36 percent of the households were poor as compared to 46 percent multidimensionally poor households. Moreover, demographic, regional, and household heads’ characteristics also affect households’ poverty status.
  • Bersisa, Mekkonen, et al. (författare)
  • Multidimensional Measure of Poverty in Ethiopia : Factor and Stochastic Dominance Analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa. - : Springer. - 9783319309804 - 9783319309811 ; , s. 215-238
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study did an in-depth analysis of multidimensional poverty in rural and small towns in Ethiopia. As social well-being or poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, using a multidimensional measure of poverty helps circumvent problems surrounding the conventional measures of poverty and helps show clearly the realities of households. In this line, our analysis used six dimensions with 14 indicators to construct a multidimensional index of poverty using first rounds of Ethiopian Rural Households’ Socioeconomic Survey data set. The study also employed a factor analysis for determining relative weights in computing a multidimensional index and did an in-depth analysis of stochastic dominancy of poverty for different segments of society. Besides, a comparison of the extent of poverty using the conventional measure of poverty and the multidimensional approach was also done. The results reveal that intensity, severity, and depth of poverty vary considerably across the two measures. Moreover, demographic, regional, and household heads’ characteristics are major factors in determining poverty.
  • Bhandari, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Labour use and its adjustment in Indian manufacturing Industries
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Global Economic Review. - 1226-508X .- 1744-3873. ; 34:3, s. 261-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study provides an empirical investigation of the adjustment process of labour in Indian manufacturing industries, which evolved through structural transformation in the era of globalization. The analysis is based on a dynamic model applied to a panel of 22 two-digit manufacturing industries for the time period of 22 years covering 1980/1981 to 2001/2002. It is assumed that as competition increases industries adjust their employment to a desired level which is both industry and time specific. The results indicate that the manufacturing sector has shown a considerable dynamism in adjusting its workforce. The long-run labour demand responds greatest to the output, followed by capital and least by wages. It is observed that Indian manufacturing is not inefficient in labour use as modest speed of adjustment has led employment size closer to the optimal level. ©2005 Institute of East and West Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul.
  • Bhandari, Amit Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Wage Inequality and Job Insecurity Among Permanent and Contract Workers in India: Evidence from Organized Manufacturing Industries
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The ICFAI Journal of Applied Economics. - 0972-6861. ; 7:1, s. 80-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the early 1990s, the employment structure of organized manufacturing industries in India has undergone substantial changes with steep rise in the use of contract workers in place of permanent workers. This process has led to increased wage inequality, discrimination as well as concern of job insecurity in the labor market. The paper focuses on wage inequality between permanent and contract workers, since contract workers earn substantially lower wages than their counterparts. The study uses data at the individual level from a recent labor survey of organized manufacturing industries in the India. The lower wage earned by contract workers is largely due to cost cutting, rather than differences in labor productivity. The issue of job insecurity has been modeled in the form of a binary logistic model. The factors affecting job security are divided into productivity-related attributes such as level of education and skill, and institutional attributes such as labor market rules and regulations and union membership. Contrary to the general expectation, the study finds that permanent workers are more concerned regarding job insecurity than the contract workers.
  • Bhandari, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. - 1054-8408 .- 1540-7306. ; 27:6, s. 612-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nature-based tourism is the fastest growing tourism in many parts of the world. The attitude toward conservation of nature is measured by individuals’ willingness to pay. This study has made an attempt to investigate the determinants of tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity conservation. The determinants include a combination of socio-economic and site-specific characteristics of tourists. The study was conducted in Sikkim, which is India’s prime nature-based tourism destination. Results show WTP, and effects of education, and income of tourists. Among site-specific characteristics, length of stay and number of spots are the significant determinants ofWTP. This empirical research is a valuable input to identify market segment among tourists, which might help to generate more revenues for biodiversity conservation in Sikkim. ©Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  • Borja-Barrera, S. M., et al. (författare)
  • A comparison of efficiency of mobile operators in South America
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Information and communication technologies policies and practices. - New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. - 9781608766710 ; , s. 145-165
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Telecommunications plays a major role worldwide with the aim of achieving a bettersocial life for citizens and is one of the major factors contributing to economic growth.This study provides an efficiency analysis of mobile operators in Colombia, Venezuela,Chile and Brazil.For the empirical analysis, the stochastic frontier functions approach is employed toanalyze data from 10 mobile operators from the sample countries. Mobile operators inColombia are compared with others from Venezuela, Chile, and Brazil. Panel data from2005 to 2007 is used in the analysis.The efficiency estimation for each operator over time shows that the level is affectedby some firms and market characteristics such as: type of ownership, market share, typeof technology and firm level wages. One of the main findings of this research is thatsmaller operators work at the same level of efficiency compared with their largercounterparts. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cho, Sungwook, et al. (författare)
  • What if you had been less fortunate : The effects of poor family background on current labor market outcomes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of economic studies. - 0144-3585 .- 1758-7387. ; 42:1, s. 20-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to the experience of poverty or poor family background during one’s childhood.Design/methodology/approach– With data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, a quantile regression technique and a decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income groups along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.Findings– The results show that those who had been less fortunate during their childhood were also less likely to have the opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics, such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about 15 percentage points in the wage, on average, in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with a middle class background. This disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, with a greater effect at the lower quantiles compared to the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution.Originality/value– This research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea along with possible causes, including poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of an intergenerational effect is considered.
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