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1.
  • Kyprianidis, Konstantinos, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Geared Fan Intercooled Core Aero-Engine
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power. - 0742-4795. ; 136:1, s. Article number 011203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reduction of CO2 emissions is strongly linked with the improvement of engine specific fuel consumption, along with the reduction of engine nacelle drag and weight. One alternative design approach to improving specific fuel consumption is to consider a geared fan combined with an increased overall pressure ratio intercooled core performance cycle. The thermal benefits from intercooling have been well documented in the literature. Nevertheless, there is very little information available in the public domain with respect to design space exploration of such an engine concept when combined with a geared fan. The present work uses a multidisciplinary conceptual design tool to analyze the option of an intercooled core geared fan aero engine for long haul applications with a 2020 entry into service technology level assumption. With minimum mission fuel in mind, the results indicate as optimal values a pressure ratio split exponent of 0.38 and an intercooler mass flow ratio of 1.18 at hot-day top of climb conditions. At ISA midcruise conditions a specific thrust of 86?m/s, a jet velocity ratio of 0.83, an intercooler effectiveness of 56%, and an overall pressure ratio value of 76 are likely to be a good choice. A 70,000?lbf intercooled turbofan engine is large enough to make efficient use of an all-axial compression system, particularly within a geared fan configuration, but intercooling is perhaps more likely to be applied to even larger engines. The proposed optimal jet velocity ratio is actually higher than the value one would expect by using standard analytical expressions, primarily because this design variable affects core efficiency at mid-cruise due to a combination of several different subtle changes to the core cycle and core component efficiencies at this condition. The analytical expressions do not consider changes in core efficiency and the beneficial effect of intercooling on transfer efficiency, nor do they account for losses in the bypass duct and jet pipe, while a relatively detailed engine performance model, such as the one utilized in this study, does. Mission fuel results from a surrogate model are in good agreement with the results obtained from a rubberized-wing aircraft model for some of the design parameters. This indicates that it is possible to replace an aircraft model with specific fuel consumption and weight penalty exchange rates. Nevertheless, drag count exchange rates have to be utilized to properly assess changes in mission fuel for those design parameters that affect nacelle diameter.
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2.
  • INNOTRACK: Concluding technical report
  • 2010
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The track structure, rails, switches and crossings account for more than 50% of maintenance and renewal costs for the rail industry. To improve the competitiveness of rail transportation, the cost-efficiency of these areas needs to be addressed. This the background to INNOTRACK, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission’s 6th research framework pro- gramme. Running from September 2006 to December 2009, INN- OTRACK has developed a multitude of innovative solutions in the areas of track substructure, rails & welds, and switches & crossings. The solutions have been assessed from technical, logistics and life cycle cost point of views. This Concluding Technical Report of INNOTRACK includes an overview of the project. It further details implementable results, and clusters them into ”highlight” areas. In addition, the book acts as a ”key” to the vast amount of information from INNOTRACK: All sections refer to project reports where more information can be found.
3.
  • Högman, Ulf, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Requirements on New Technology and the Technology Implementation Process
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of NordDesign 2010, August 25-27, Gothenburg, Sweden. - 978-91-633-7064-2 ; 2, s. 289-300
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In literature, many authors have pointed to the importance of technology and technology development for company competitiveness. In this study we aim to study the technology in more detail and attempt to develop an understanding on the requirements and needs on “technology” from the perspective of product development. The research question which we aim to answer in this study is: “What are the requirements on maturity of technology when this technology is about to enter into the product development process?“ A qualitative research strategy, based on three study cases involving 17 interviewees, has been chosen. All three cases come from one single company, Volvo Aero Corporation (VAC) in Sweden, in the context of the aero engine industry. The study contributes with a broad mapping of requirements and how they relate to different categories of technologies, showing big differences both regarding content and timing. It is concluded that attention should be payed both to how the organization builds new capabilities and to the capabilities of the technology itself. A surprisingly complicated picture on the requirements relating to the implementation of new technologies has emerged in the study. This contributes to the understanding regarding the difficulties of developing new technology and integrating it into an application.
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4.
  • Caprioli, Sara, 1978- (författare)
  • Thermal impact on rolling contact fatigue of railway wheels
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is a very common and costly damage mechanism for rails and wheels. This thesis investigates the influence of combined thermal and mechanical loading on RCF of railway wheels on the basis of numerical predictions. The established computational framework includes heat flux analyses, (two- and three-dimensional) elastoplastic finite element simulations and subsequent RCF life analyses. The computational framework is employed to quantify the influence of various operational parameters and modelling presumptions such as applied heat and tangential stress characteristics, load application schemes, mesh densities etc. Examples of results include quantifications of how partial slip conditions result in higher plastic strain magnitudes in a thin layer at the wheel tread surface, and differences in material responses between accelerating and braking wheels. The numerical model was extended to incorporate surface initiated cracks. With the extended model it is shown that 1 mm deep cracks have a substantial influence on the state of stress and strain in the bulk material between surface cracks. Further, comparisons between radial (thermal) and inclined (RCF) surface cracks show that the deformation of significantly inclined cracks (30 degrees) is more severe than that of radial cracks. Further, acceleration is found to give larger crack face displacements. However braking tends to induce tensile residual stresses that open the crack mouth, thus allowing fluid penetration that can promote crack growth. Also thermal loading is found to cause a significant crack mouth opening that is decreased by subsequent rolling contact. In a final study numerical RCF predictions are compared to full-scale experimental studies carried out at the Railway Technical Research Institute in Japan. Thermal loading tuned towards measurements by thermocameras and thermocouples are introduced in a truncated loading scheme corresponding to the test configuration. Estimated crack initiation life is found to be in good agreement with test results. The investigation also shows the significant influence of the employed material model. In addition to thermomechanical fatigue analyses, the case of purely thermal fracture has been investigated. This study quantified how the risk of fracture and resulting crack sizes depend on braking conditions and initial surface cracks. The results of this thesis are believed to be of importance in defining and enforcing sustainable operational conditions and maintenance actions. Further, this thesis provides tools to establish root causes and pertinent mitigating actions when thermomechanical wheel cracking nevertheless occurs.
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5.
  • Johansson, Anders, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • MEASUREMENTS OF PARTICULATE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FROM A GDI ENGINE USING A NAFION DRYER AND A DMS500 WITHOUT SAMPLE DILUTION
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Fisita World Automotive Congress.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Several types of engine exhaust contain moisture that must be maintained in gaseous state when sampling particulates to prevent potential destruction of the particles or damage to the measurement apparatus. This is normally achieved by diluting the sample in order to reduce the partial pressure, thus avoiding condensation. When measuring size distributions of particulates emitted from a gasoline engine, a dilution ratio of at least 5:1 is recommended. However, in some operating modes (e.g. lean homogenous modes) or measurement locations (e.g. downstream of a particulate filter) this ratio can be too high for high-resolution measurements due to the low levels of particulates. The presented study investigates the potential for using a nafion dryer to remove water from the exhaust instead of diluting the sample. An electrical mobility measurement device, a Cambustion DMS500 mk II, was operated without diluting the exhaust gases but with a nafion dryer to remove water from the exhaust. These dryers are commonly used for measuring particulates in airborne aerosols, but no information has been found in the open literature on their application in engine research. The sampling system was connected to a four cylinder SGDI-engine operating in modes that generate small amount of particulates. Samples were taken in four operating conditions, downstream of the catalyst. Overall losses in the complete system and components of the system were determined by tests with an artificially generated aerosol. Factors such as particulate losses, system performance and sample manipulation are discussed. Particulate size distributions were successfully recorded in operating regimes in which they are difficult to measure with conventional sampling systems using the required dilution. Particulate losses were found to be small in the nafion dryer but large in the heated hose prior to the nafion dryer.
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6.
  • Bergseth, Ellen, 1979- (författare)
  • On tribological design in gear tooth contacts
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The correct tribological design will have a considerable effect on a gear’s service life and efficiency. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the impact of variation in the gear tooth flank tribological system on the gear contact load capacity – to increase the understanding of how surface topography and lubricant interact.In this thesis the variation in surface topography inherent in the manufacturing method has been shown, by experimental work and computer simulations, to be an important factor for the contact condition in the early life of gears. Surface analysis revealed that the formation and composition of surface boundary layers depends strongly on the chemical composition of the lubricant, but also on pre-existing surface boundary layers. Additionally, surface boundary layers play a major role in frictional behaviour, wear and in allowing the lubricant to react properly with the surfaces.Paper A presents the current ISO 6336 calculation of surface durability. A robust design approach was used to investigate the extent to which the current standard for calculation of surface durability allows for manufacturing variations and the choice of lubricant.Paper B investigates the extent to which a logarithmical profile modification can increase gear contact pressure robustness compared to traditional lead profiles for gears.Paper C compares different gear manufacturing methods and their as-manufactured (fresh unworn) surface topographies, using measured surface topographies as input to a contact simulation program.Paper D examines surface boundary layer formation and the corresponding wear in relation to different anti-wear additives in an environmentally adapted base oil.Papers E and F make use of specimens with surface topographies imitating two gear manufacturing methods (grinding and superfinishing) to be used in a twin-disc and barrel-on-disc machine respectively. The contacts are analysed by friction measurements and simulations combined with methods for surface analysis.
7.
  • Horn, Agnes-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • ISSC committee III.2 - Fatigue and fracture
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC 2012) in Rostock, Germany, September 9-13, 2012. - 978-3-87700-131-8 ; Vol 1, s. 365-434
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • (COMMITTEE MANDATE) Concern for crack initiation and growth under cyclic loading as well as unstable crack propagation and tearing in ship and offshore structures. Due attention shall be paid to practical application and statistical description of fracture control methods in design, fabrication and service. Consideration is to be given to the suitability and uncertainty of physical models.
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8.
  • Stylidis, Konstantinos, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived quality and the core values in the automotive industry: A corporate view
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: DS79: Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Design Creativity, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. - 978-1-904670-60-5 ; s. 166-173
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study explores how professionals from the Volvo Car Group and Volvo Group Truck Technology understands their company’s core values and transfers these into perceived quality attributes. Traditionally, both of the companies share the same core values: Quality, Safety, Environmental Care, but they transform these values in different ways due to different customer needs. In general, technical quality has been one of the key features in the automotive industry premium segment for many years, but in recent years, it has shifted from being the primary purchasing criterion into being a basic requirement. Today, maintaining a forefront position in the premium segment of the car industry can only be achieved by delivering products that are perceived by the customers as high-quality products. Perceived quality becomes a cutting edge in the competition between car manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to investigate emerging industry trends and make steps towards elicitation, objectification and distribution of issues regarding perceived quality.
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9.
  • Saha, Ranjan, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Aerodynamic Implication of Endwall and Profile Film Cooling in a Transonic Annular Cascade
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: 21st ISABE Conference. - Busan, Korea.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experimental study is performed to observe the aerodynamic implications of endwall and profile film cooling on flow structures and aerodynamic losses. The investigated vane is a geometrically similar transonic nozzle guide vane with engine-representative cooling geometry. Furthermore, a new formulation of the cooling aerodynamic loss equation is presented and compared with the conventional methods. Results from a 5-hole pneumatic probe show that the film coolant significantly alters the secondary flow structure. The effect of different assumptions for the loss calculation is shown to significantly change the measured loss.
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10.
  • Saha, Ranjan, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Suction and Pressure Side Film Cooling Influence on Vane Aero Performance in a Transonic Annular Cascade
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. - 978-079185522-5
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experimental study on a film cooled nozzle guide vane has been conducted in a transonic annular sector to observe the influence of suction and pressure side film cooling on aerodynamic performance. The investigated vane is a typical high pressure gas turbine vane, geometrically similar to a real engine component, operated at an exit reference Mach number of 0.89. The aerodynamic results using a five hole miniature probe are quantified and compared with the baseline case which is uncooled. Results lead to a conclusion that the aerodynamic loss is influenced substantially with the change of the cooling flow rate regardless the positions of the cooling rows. The aerodynamic loss is very sensitive to the blowing ratio and a value of blowing ratio higher than one leads to a considerable higher loss penalty. The suction side film cooling has larger influence on the aerodynamic loss compared to the pressure side film cooling. Pitch-averaged exit flow angles around midspan remain unaffected at moderate blowing ratio. The secondary loss decreases (greater decrease in the tip region compared to the hub region) with inserting cooling air for all cases compared to the uncooled case.
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