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1.
  • Kyprianidis, Konstantinos, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Geared Fan Intercooled Core Aero-Engine
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power. - 0742-4795. ; 136:1, s. Article number 011203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reduction of CO2 emissions is strongly linked with the improvement of engine specific fuel consumption, along with the reduction of engine nacelle drag and weight. One alternative design approach to improving specific fuel consumption is to consider a geared fan combined with an increased overall pressure ratio intercooled core performance cycle. The thermal benefits from intercooling have been well documented in the literature. Nevertheless, there is very little information available in the public domain with respect to design space exploration of such an engine concept when combined with a geared fan. The present work uses a multidisciplinary conceptual design tool to analyze the option of an intercooled core geared fan aero engine for long haul applications with a 2020 entry into service technology level assumption. With minimum mission fuel in mind, the results indicate as optimal values a pressure ratio split exponent of 0.38 and an intercooler mass flow ratio of 1.18 at hot-day top of climb conditions. At ISA midcruise conditions a specific thrust of 86?m/s, a jet velocity ratio of 0.83, an intercooler effectiveness of 56%, and an overall pressure ratio value of 76 are likely to be a good choice. A 70,000?lbf intercooled turbofan engine is large enough to make efficient use of an all-axial compression system, particularly within a geared fan configuration, but intercooling is perhaps more likely to be applied to even larger engines. The proposed optimal jet velocity ratio is actually higher than the value one would expect by using standard analytical expressions, primarily because this design variable affects core efficiency at mid-cruise due to a combination of several different subtle changes to the core cycle and core component efficiencies at this condition. The analytical expressions do not consider changes in core efficiency and the beneficial effect of intercooling on transfer efficiency, nor do they account for losses in the bypass duct and jet pipe, while a relatively detailed engine performance model, such as the one utilized in this study, does. Mission fuel results from a surrogate model are in good agreement with the results obtained from a rubberized-wing aircraft model for some of the design parameters. This indicates that it is possible to replace an aircraft model with specific fuel consumption and weight penalty exchange rates. Nevertheless, drag count exchange rates have to be utilized to properly assess changes in mission fuel for those design parameters that affect nacelle diameter.
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2.
  • Saha, Ranjan, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Aerodynamic Implication of Endwall and Profile Film Cooling in a Transonic Annular Cascade
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: 21st ISABE Conference. - Busan, Korea.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experimental study is performed to observe the aerodynamic implications of endwall and profile film cooling on flow structures and aerodynamic losses. The investigated vane is a geometrically similar transonic nozzle guide vane with engine-representative cooling geometry. Furthermore, a new formulation of the cooling aerodynamic loss equation is presented and compared with the conventional methods. Results from a 5-hole pneumatic probe show that the film coolant significantly alters the secondary flow structure. The effect of different assumptions for the loss calculation is shown to significantly change the measured loss.
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3.
  • Saha, Ranjan, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Suction and Pressure Side Film Cooling Influence on Vane Aero Performance in a Transonic Annular Cascade
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. - 978-079185522-5
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experimental study on a film cooled nozzle guide vane has been conducted in a transonic annular sector to observe the influence of suction and pressure side film cooling on aerodynamic performance. The investigated vane is a typical high pressure gas turbine vane, geometrically similar to a real engine component, operated at an exit reference Mach number of 0.89. The aerodynamic results using a five hole miniature probe are quantified and compared with the baseline case which is uncooled. Results lead to a conclusion that the aerodynamic loss is influenced substantially with the change of the cooling flow rate regardless the positions of the cooling rows. The aerodynamic loss is very sensitive to the blowing ratio and a value of blowing ratio higher than one leads to a considerable higher loss penalty. The suction side film cooling has larger influence on the aerodynamic loss compared to the pressure side film cooling. Pitch-averaged exit flow angles around midspan remain unaffected at moderate blowing ratio. The secondary loss decreases (greater decrease in the tip region compared to the hub region) with inserting cooling air for all cases compared to the uncooled case.
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4.
  • Chernoray, Valery, 1975- (författare)
  • Prediction of Laminar-Turbulent Transition on an Airfoil at High Level of Free-Stream Turbulence
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proc of EUCASS Conf..
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high level of free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of airfoil geometries with external pressure gradient changeover is in focus. The aim is a validation of a transition model for transition prediction in turbomachinery applications. Numerical simulations have been performed by using a transition model by Langtry and Menter for a number of different cases of pressure gradient, at Reynolds number-range, based on the airfoil chord, 50 000 ≤ Re ≤ 500 000 and free-stream turbulence intensities 2 % and 4 %. The validation of the computational results against the experimental data showed good performance of used turbulence model for all test cases.
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5.
  • Chernoray, Valery, 1975- (författare)
  • Prediction of Laminar-Turbulent Transition on an Airfoil at High Level of Free-Stream Turbulence
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Progress in Flight Physics Vol. 7. - 978-5-94588-165-5
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high level of free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of airfoil geometries with external pressure gradient changeover is in focus. The aim is a validation of a transition model for transition prediction in turbomachinery applications. Numerical simulations have been performed by using a transition model by Langtry and Menter for a number of different cases of pressure gradient, at Reynolds number-range, based on the airfoil chord, 50 000 ≤ Re ≤ 500 000 and free-stream turbulence intensities 2 % and 4 %. The validation of the computational results against the experimental data showed good performance of used turbulence model for all test cases.
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6.
  • Grönstedt, Tomas, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • First and Second Law Analysis of Future Aircraft Engines
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Engineering For Gas Turbines and Power. - 0742-4795. ; 136:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An optimal baseline turbofan cycle designed for a performance level expected to be available around year 2050 is established. Detailed performance data are given in take-off, top of climb, and cruise to support the analysis. The losses are analyzed, based on a combined use of the first and second law of thermodynamics, in order to establish a basis for a discussion on future radical engine concepts and to quantify loss levels of very high performance engines. In light of the performance of the future baseline engine, three radical cycles designed to reduce the observed major loss sources are introduced. The combined use of a first and second law analysis of an open rotor engine, an intercooled recuperated engine, and an engine working with a pulse detonation combustion core is presented. In the past, virtually no attention has been paid to the systematic quantification of the irreversibility rates of such radical concepts. Previous research on this topic has concentrated on the analysis of the turbojet and the turbofan engine. In the developed framework, the irreversibility rates are quantified through the calculation of the exergy destruction per unit time. A striking strength of the analysis is that it establishes a common currency for comparing losses originating from very different physical sources of irreversibility. This substantially reduces the complexity of analyzing and comparing losses in aero engines. In particular, the analysis sheds new light on how the intercooled recuperated engine establishes its performance benefits.
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7.
  • Niebles Atencio, Bercelay M., 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • An experimental study on laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers with pressure gradients
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Conferences.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report here the results of a study on measurements and prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of the airfoil-like geometries with presence of the external pressure gradient changeover. The experiments are performed for a number of flow cases with different flow Reynolds number, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient distributions. The results were then compared to numerical calculations for same geometries and flow conditions. The experiments and computations are performed for the flow parameters which are typical for turbomachinery applications and the major idea of the current study is the validation of the turbulence model which can be used for such engineering applications.
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8.
  • Wang, Chenglong, et al. (författare)
  • An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer on an Outlet Guide Vane
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ASME Turbo Expo 2014: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2014; Dusseldorf; Germany; 16 June 2014 through 20 June 2014. - 978-079184572-1 ; 5B
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study, the heat transfer characteristics on the suction and pressure sides of an outlet guide vane (OGV) are investigated by using liquid crystal thermography (LCT) method in a linear cascade. Because the OGV has a complex curved surface, it is necessary to calibrate the LCT by taking into account the effect of viewing angles of the camera. Based on the calibration results, heat transfer measurements of the OGV were conducted. Both on- and off-design conditions were tested, where the incidence angles of the OGV were 25 degrees and -25 degrees, respectively. The Reynolds numbers, based on the axial flow velocity and the chord length, were 300,000 and 450,000. In addition, heat transfer on suction side of the OGV with +40 degrees incidence angle was measured. The results indicate that the Reynolds number and incidence angle have considerable influences upon the heat transfer on both pressure and suction surfaces. For on-design conditions, laminar-turbulent boundary layer transitions are on both sides, but no flow separation occurs; on the contrary, for off-design conditions, the position of laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is significantly displaced downstream on the suction surface, and a separation occurs from the leading edge on the pressure surface. As expected, larger Reynolds number gives higher heat transfer coefficients on both sides of the OGV.
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9.
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10.
  • Aghaali, Habib, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Turbocharged SI-Engine Simulation with Cold and Hot-Measured Turbocharger Performance Maps
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Vol 5. - ASME Press. - 978-079184471-7 ; s. 671-679
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heat transfer within the turbocharger is an issue in engine simulation based on zero and one-dimensional gas dynamics. Turbocharged engine simulation is often done without taking into account the heat transfer in the turbocharger. In the simulation, using multipliers is the common way of adjusting turbocharger speed and parameters downstream of the compressor and upstream of the turbine. However, they do not represent the physical reality. The multipliers change the maps and need often to be different for different load points. The aim of this paper is to simulate a turbocharged engine and also consider heat transfer in the turbocharger. To be able to consider heat transfer in the turbine and compressor, heat is transferred from the turbine volute and into the compressor scroll. Additionally, the engine simulation was done by using two different turbocharger performance maps of a turbocharger measured under cold and hot conditions. The turbine inlet temperatures were 100 and 600°C, respectively. The turbocharged engine experiment was performed on a water-oil-cooled turbocharger (closed waste-gate), which was installed on a 2-liter gasoline direct-injected engine with variable valve timing, for different load points of the engine. In the work described in this paper, the difference between cold and hot-measured turbocharger performance maps is discussed and the quantified heat transfers from the turbine and to/from the compressor are interpreted and related to the maps.
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