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  • Kalmykova, Yuliya, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Waste Management. - 0956-053X. ; 33:6, s. 1403-1410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30 % of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70 % achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources.
  • Abdul-Sattar, Nizami, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative analysis using EIA for developed and developing coutnries case studies of hydroelectric power plants in Pakistan, Norway and Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. - 1745-2627. ; 18:2, s. 134-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an important legislative and scientific tool that may assist and improve the quality assistance for the decision-making process in sustainable development. Here, a comparison of EIAs from three cases of hydropower projects in Pakistan, Norway and Sweden is reported. A huge difference concerning the incorporation of environmental considerations into the decisionmaking process between developed and developing countries is observed. The EIA system of Pakistan appears to be less efficient in the application and review process. In addition, the appraisal of issues, the decision-making process and evaluation through post-monitoring is not as well performed in Pakistan as in cases of hydroelectric power plants in Sweden and Norway. The key reason for this shortcoming is misconceptions about the EIA process, which initially receives intense attention but becomes weakened by the time of implementation. This implies that there is a need to adopt simplified and flexible EIA techniques suitable for the infrastructure and resources of a specific country, taking into account institutional, technical and financial constraints. Improvements are required in public participation, awareness, as well as in environmental control and data system sectors in Pakistan, besides simply enacting legislation to achieve the goals of the EIA system.
  • Acke, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • Study of the reduction and reoxidation of a CaO surface
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: J Phys Chem B. - 1520-5207. ; 101:33, s. 6484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reduction of NO with CO and H2 is shown to comprise two basic reactions: a surface oxygen abstraction by the reducing agent and a reoxidation of the surface by NO. The former reaction step has been demonstrated by transient CO2 formation during CO exposure of oxidized CaO surfaces, while the latter was demonstrated by N2 and/or N2O transient formation during NO exposure of a prereduced CaO surface. It was shown that at low temperatures (between room temperature and 500 °C) both N2 and N2O were formed, but at temperatures above 500 °C only N2 was observed. The activation energies of the respective steps have been determined using temperature-programmed reaction experiments. The activation energy of the surface oxygen abstraction was determined to be 25 kcal/mol and is similar to the apparent activation energy of the overall reaction. The activation energy of the NO bond breakage was determined to be maximum 10 kcal/mol as measured by N2O formation. The importance of an N2O2- or N2O22- intermediate in the formation of N2O will be discussed, and the importance of N2O decomposition in forming N2 at temperatures above 500 °C will be compared with a N surface diffusion mechanism.
  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • A background on social context and renewable energy sources in Mozambique and Tanzania - An initial report from the STEEP-RES project
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This initial research report, appearing before the formal commencement of the STEEP-RES project, focuses on the background and context of the project which is intended to make a socio-technical-ecological assessment of prerequisites to and effects of introducing renewable energy sources (RES) into rural communities of the coastal Tanzania and Mozambique. Therefore a short review of the scientific literature is made dealing with societal prerequisites and repercussions of electrification. Technical aspects related to the availability of natural resources and technologies for renewable energy resources utilisation are also briefly covered along with some very brief remarks on possible environmental repercussions. The review of the social context covers > 45 papers dealing with different experiences of electrification in developing countries relating to renewable energy applicable for poverty alleviation in rural settings. The primary energy sources in rural East Africa are biofuels and electricity plays a limited role. Electrification influences the composition of the energy mix, but during early development it has very limited impact on the use of wood for cocking and heating purposes. The institutional and financial frameworks are currently major barriers to small-scale RES-projects, although local technical and financial capacities are slowly increasing. Social and cultural settings create important drivers and barriers to introduction and diffusion of new technologies. Further, poverty and gender inequality are considered key issues for electrification projects and create important barriers to success. Participatory and needoriented approaches are considered necessary by most researchers for successful RES-projects. The more technical review is based on ~50 papers covers the existing renewable energy sources (RES) - biofuels, solar, hydro, geothermal, wind, wave and tide. The technological state and resource abundance of each source is discussed briefly in a regional context, along with environmental considerations on each technology. As large scale hydropower is being used in the region since long, it is noticeable that small- and micro-scale hydropower is now advancing and will contribute to electrification in many smaller river-bound areas. Bioenergy, in terms of firewood is widely used for cooking purposes, although not environmentally sustainable and not with potential for electricity generation. Biofuels from plantations is rapidly increasing in Africa as well as the global trend. Also here, environmental considerations are of great importance for sustainability. Other RES of potential in the region, and with perhaps less environmental constrains, may be solar photovoltaic and tidal energy. Of less importance, according to regionally sparse resource abunii dance, seem to be wind and wave energy. The potential of geothermal energy is geographically restricted to a few good locations. An inventory of actors within the field of East-African RES based on internet resources reveals a “top-heavy” information situation with many and well-designed information sources and active networks on global and African regional level while less web-information is available from local levels in Tanzania and Mozambique, where only few companies working in the field has been identified. More direct investigations are needed starting from the actors identified in this initial inventory.
  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Small-scale hydropower in Africa: Socio-technical designs for renewable energy in Tanzanian villages
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - 2214-6296. ; 5, s. 20-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article, we explore the process of economic change following the NGO-led implementation of a small-scale off-grid hydropower system in Tanzania. We examine how the implementing actor deals with economic challenges and local ownership in order to achieve sustainable electricity supply. The qualitative case study shows that the NGO, ACRA-CCS, has overcome a number of constraints, which are sometimes associated with donor funding. This has been achieved by having multiple donors, an integrated approach and a longer presence. The 'logic' of implementation included active enhancement of productive electricity use, community services and benefits. As a result of these actions, the customer base grew quickly, rather than it taking many years to develop. The case illustrates the process whereby an off-grid system becomes economically viable. Local ownership has led to the project becoming an arena for community collaboration and problem solving, and creating values such as effective load management and protection of infrastructure. We suggest that attention should be given to possible public private community partnerships (PPCPs)-involving communities as crucial partners. The choice of a socio-technical system perspective was fruitful and provided crucial insights into how different factors manifested, interacted and played out in practice.
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