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  • Mani, Mahesh, et al. (författare)
  • Simulation and analysis for sustainable product development
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. - 0948-3349. ; 18:5, s. 1129-1136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation plays a critical role in the design of products, materials, and manufacturing processes. However, there are gaps in the simulation tools used by industry to provide reliable results from which effective decisions can be made about environmental impacts at different stages of product life cycle. A holistic and systems approach to predicting impacts via sustainable manufacturing planning and simulation (SMPS) is presented in an effort to incorporate sustainability aspects across a product life cycle. Methods Increasingly, simulation is replacing physical tests to ensure product reliability and quality, thereby facilitating steady reductions in design and manufacturing cycles. For SMPS, we propose to extend an earlier framework developed in the Systems Integration for Manufacturing Applications (SIMA) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. SMPS framework has four phases, viz. design product, engineer manufacturing, engineer production system, and produce products. Each phase has its inputs, outputs, phase level activities, and sustainability-related data, metrics and tools.Results and discussion An automotive manufacturing scenario that highlights the potential of utilizing SMPS framework to facilitate decision making across different phases of product life cycle is presented. Various research opportunities are discussed for the SMPS framework and corresponding information models. The SMPS framework built on the SIMA model has potential in aiding sustainable product development.
  • Nordelöf, Anders, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Less or different environmental impact?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Systems Perspectives on Electromobility 2013. - 978-91-980973-1-3 ; s. 60-75
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Electric and hybrid drivetrains are currently regarded as a promising technology for vehicle propulsion. They can reduce greenhouse and other exhaust gas emissions from road transport. Electric drivetrains are more efficient than conventional internal combustion engines fuelled by petrol or diesel (Chapter 5), and fully electrified vehicles does not give any tailpipe emissions. In addition, electric drivetrains can also assist in decoupling the transport sector from its heavy reliance on fossil fuels. On the other hand, electric vehicles will require that more electricity is produced and this can be done from several different energy sources with diverse environmental impacts. Furthermore, electric drivetrains require new advanced components (Chapter 3) that result in additional, or at least different, environmental impacts compared to conventional vehicles. The trade-off between the benefits when operating of the vehicle and possible negative impacts from the production and from energy supply can be analysed using life cycle assessment (LCA). However, LCA studies come in many shapes and diverging arguments on the utility of technology are based on them. Some advocate the technology (using for example the well-to-wheels approach to guide government promotion policies on different types of drivetrains and alternative fuel options)1 and others claim that the prospective for electric cars to reduce the environmental impacts of mobility is “substantially overrated”2 or that there will be “significant increases in human toxicity“.3 This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle impacts of electric vehicles, with general conclusions and examples of results. We review existing research and sort studies found in literature into categories by asking what we can learn from different LCA approaches. More specifically, which answers do we get from well-to-wheels (WTW) studies in comparison to complete LCA studies, and what difference does it make if a study includes a narrow or broad set of environmental impacts. We conclude by summarising these learnings and discuss implications for a set of stakeholders identified in the area of vehicle electrification, such as policy makers and various branches of industry.
  • Odenberger, Mikael, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Prospects for CCS in the EU energy roadmap to 2050
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Energy Procedia: International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies (GHGT). - 1876-6102. ; 37, s. 7573-7581
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to estimate the prospects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the European electricity supply system taking into account possible forthcoming policy based on the recent EU Energy Roadmap communication, which suggests a 93 to 99% reduction in CO2 emissions relative 1990 levels from the electricity sector by the year 2050. Furthermore, the effect of whether or not onshore storage will be accepted is investigated. The work is based on techno-economic modeling of the European electricity generation sector under different assumptions (scenarios) of the future with respect to electricity demand and fuel prices. The results indicate that the contribution from CCS on a member state level depends on local conditions, e.g., access to local fuels like lignite, and whether or not onshore storage will be allowed. Excluding on-shore storage in aquifers, the modeling results give that CCS is centralized around the North Sea. Natural gas fired conventional power plants is likely to be a serious competitor to coal CCS in the short to medium term providing large emission reduction opportunities by fuel shifting from existing coal power plants to new high efficient gas fired combined cycles. Such development can be a barrier for early deployment of CCS, and hence, result in a delay in commercialization of CCS. The scenarios presented in the Energy Roadmap prescribe power systems almost without net CO2 emissions by 2050, which implies that CCS technologies by the year 2050 must be of a zero-emission type. The modeling presented here indicates in general a large increase in technologies with low CO2 emissions, renewables as well as a significant contribution from CCS technologies, where CCS in the investigated scenarios have the potential to contribute as much as 25-35% of total electricity generation at around year 2050.
  • Pizarro, Amalia, et al. (författare)
  • Pizarro, A., Münster, M., Salvucci, R., Ljunggren Söderman, M. and Ravn, H. (2015) What is the future potential for imports of combustible municipal waste to countries with extensive district heating networks? A case study of Denmark
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Sardinia 2015 Fifteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Europe, landfilling is the most widely used method for managing municipal solid waste. By contrast, the northern European waste market is characterized by high capacities from energy recovery plants, mostly incineration in cogeneration facilities. In Denmark, there is an overcapacity of incineration plants and this study aims to analyse if import of waste is beneficial during an interim period to divert landfilling or if it might be profitable to invest in overcapacity in the long-term in those countries where heat from incineration can be recovered. The energy and waste management system are described through linking of mathematical models, taking a holistic approach. In the short-term it pays off to import waste, avoiding landfilling; however, in the longer-term, benefits from waste trading will depend on the price of heat markets.
  • Santén, Vendela, 1978- (författare)
  • Exploring logistics actions enabling environmentally sustainable freight transport
  • 2013
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To curb unsustainable freight transport trends; such as transport growth, larger dependency on road transport and generally an increased share of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector, actions needs to be taken among actors in the logistics system. The purpose of this thesis is to explore logistics actions that enable environmentally sustainable freight transport. This explorative research, based primarily on empirical data from interviews, focus groups, and a case study, adopts the perspectives of different actors in the logistics system: transport buyers, freight forwarders, transport operators, and authorities. The thesis identifies a wide range of actions in the logistics system to potentially enable environmentally sustainable freight transport. The perception from actors regarding what actions are important to adopt indicate that more knowledge among actors regarding how transport and traffic work can be reduced and how different actions affect each other are needed; especially how transport buyers acting affect the transport operations performed by freight forwarders and transport operators. By exploring what hinders environmentally sustainable freight transport in the interface between transport buyers and providers, it can be concluded that closer co-operation can provide better internal conditions for actors and new business solutions. Open dialogue, information sharing, and proactivity among both transport buyers and transport providers are essential. Furthermore, in order to increase load factor in practice, actions can be taken by transport buyers in the area of packaging, loading, and booking efficiency. More flexible time requirements will potentially increase the load factor. Gaining positive environmental effects from these changes is dependent on the freight forwarder’s actions in terms of consolidating with other transport buyers’ goods, route planning, and the positioning of vehicles. Since improvements in one actor’s system may not necessarily yield positive effects at a higher system level, it is important to also have a holistic view when aiming for environmentally sustainable freight transport. This thesis contributes with knowledge about how logistics actors can work toward environmentally sustainable freight transportation by providing insight for managers of transport buying and transport providing companies by exemplifying the interactions between actors and actions and their potential effects.
  • Ahlgren, Serina, et al. (författare)
  • Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. - 1932-104X. ; 9:5, s. 606-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).
  • Earon, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain : A Multivariate Approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ground Water. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0017-467X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.
  • Johansson, Björn, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation and Calculation of Dynamics in Environmental Impact Assessment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Advances in Production Management Systems. - 978-3-642-40351-4 ; 397:1, s. 135-141
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In ten years customers will select products not only based on price and quality but also with strong regard to the product value environmental footprint, including for example the energy consumed. Customers expect transparency in the product realization process, where most products are labeled with their environmental footprint. Vigorous companies see this new product value as an opportunity to be more competitive. In order to effectively label the envi-ronmental impact of a product, it is pertinent for companies to request the envi-ronmental footprint of each component from their suppliers. Hence, companies along the product lifecycle require a tool, not only to facilitate the computing of the environmental footprint, but also help reduce/balance the environmental impact during the lifecycle of the product. This paper proposes to develop a procedure that companies will use to evaluate, improve and externally advertise their product’s environmental footprint to customers.
  • Johansson, Björn, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Power Level Sampling of Metal Cutting Machines for Data Representation in Discrete Event Simulation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research. - 0020-7543.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An extension to the application area for discrete event simulation (DES) has been ongoing since the last decade and focused only on economic aspects to include ecologic sustainability. With this new focus, additional input parameters, such as electrical power consumption of machines, are needed. This paper aim at investigating how NC machine power consumption should be represented in simulation models of factories. The study includes data-sets from three different factories. One factory producing truck engine blocks, one producing brake disc parts for cars and one producing forklift components. The total number of data points analysed are more than 2,45,000, where of over 1,11,000 on busy state for 11 NC machines. The low variability between busy cycles indicates that statistical representations are not adding significant variability. Furthermore, results show that non-value-added activities cause a substantial amount of the total energy consumption, which can be reduced by optimising the production flow using dynamic simulations such as DES.
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