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1.
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2.
  • Kalmykova, Yuliya, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Waste Management. - 0956-053X. ; 33:6, s. 1403-1410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30 % of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70 % achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources.
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3.
  • Abdul-Sattar, Nizami, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative analysis using EIA for developed and developing coutnries case studies of hydroelectric power plants in Pakistan, Norway and Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. - 1745-2627. ; 18:2, s. 134-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an important legislative and scientific tool that may assist and improve the quality assistance for the decision-making process in sustainable development. Here, a comparison of EIAs from three cases of hydropower projects in Pakistan, Norway and Sweden is reported. A huge difference concerning the incorporation of environmental considerations into the decisionmaking process between developed and developing countries is observed. The EIA system of Pakistan appears to be less efficient in the application and review process. In addition, the appraisal of issues, the decision-making process and evaluation through post-monitoring is not as well performed in Pakistan as in cases of hydroelectric power plants in Sweden and Norway. The key reason for this shortcoming is misconceptions about the EIA process, which initially receives intense attention but becomes weakened by the time of implementation. This implies that there is a need to adopt simplified and flexible EIA techniques suitable for the infrastructure and resources of a specific country, taking into account institutional, technical and financial constraints. Improvements are required in public participation, awareness, as well as in environmental control and data system sectors in Pakistan, besides simply enacting legislation to achieve the goals of the EIA system.
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6.
  • Acke, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • Study of the reduction and reoxidation of a CaO surface
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: J Phys Chem B. - 1520-5207. ; 101:33, s. 6484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reduction of NO with CO and H2 is shown to comprise two basic reactions: a surface oxygen abstraction by the reducing agent and a reoxidation of the surface by NO. The former reaction step has been demonstrated by transient CO2 formation during CO exposure of oxidized CaO surfaces, while the latter was demonstrated by N2 and/or N2O transient formation during NO exposure of a prereduced CaO surface. It was shown that at low temperatures (between room temperature and 500 °C) both N2 and N2O were formed, but at temperatures above 500 °C only N2 was observed. The activation energies of the respective steps have been determined using temperature-programmed reaction experiments. The activation energy of the surface oxygen abstraction was determined to be 25 kcal/mol and is similar to the apparent activation energy of the overall reaction. The activation energy of the NO bond breakage was determined to be maximum 10 kcal/mol as measured by N2O formation. The importance of an N2O2- or N2O22- intermediate in the formation of N2O will be discussed, and the importance of N2O decomposition in forming N2 at temperatures above 500 °C will be compared with a N surface diffusion mechanism.
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9.
  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • A background on social context and renewable energy sources in Mozambique and Tanzania - An initial report from the STEEP-RES project
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This initial research report, appearing before the formal commencement of the STEEP-RES project, focuses on the background and context of the project which is intended to make a socio-technical-ecological assessment of prerequisites to and effects of introducing renewable energy sources (RES) into rural communities of the coastal Tanzania and Mozambique. Therefore a short review of the scientific literature is made dealing with societal prerequisites and repercussions of electrification. Technical aspects related to the availability of natural resources and technologies for renewable energy resources utilisation are also briefly covered along with some very brief remarks on possible environmental repercussions. The review of the social context covers > 45 papers dealing with different experiences of electrification in developing countries relating to renewable energy applicable for poverty alleviation in rural settings. The primary energy sources in rural East Africa are biofuels and electricity plays a limited role. Electrification influences the composition of the energy mix, but during early development it has very limited impact on the use of wood for cocking and heating purposes. The institutional and financial frameworks are currently major barriers to small-scale RES-projects, although local technical and financial capacities are slowly increasing. Social and cultural settings create important drivers and barriers to introduction and diffusion of new technologies. Further, poverty and gender inequality are considered key issues for electrification projects and create important barriers to success. Participatory and needoriented approaches are considered necessary by most researchers for successful RES-projects. The more technical review is based on ~50 papers covers the existing renewable energy sources (RES) - biofuels, solar, hydro, geothermal, wind, wave and tide. The technological state and resource abundance of each source is discussed briefly in a regional context, along with environmental considerations on each technology. As large scale hydropower is being used in the region since long, it is noticeable that small- and micro-scale hydropower is now advancing and will contribute to electrification in many smaller river-bound areas. Bioenergy, in terms of firewood is widely used for cooking purposes, although not environmentally sustainable and not with potential for electricity generation. Biofuels from plantations is rapidly increasing in Africa as well as the global trend. Also here, environmental considerations are of great importance for sustainability. Other RES of potential in the region, and with perhaps less environmental constrains, may be solar photovoltaic and tidal energy. Of less importance, according to regionally sparse resource abunii dance, seem to be wind and wave energy. The potential of geothermal energy is geographically restricted to a few good locations. An inventory of actors within the field of East-African RES based on internet resources reveals a “top-heavy” information situation with many and well-designed information sources and active networks on global and African regional level while less web-information is available from local levels in Tanzania and Mozambique, where only few companies working in the field has been identified. More direct investigations are needed starting from the actors identified in this initial inventory.
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10.
  • Ahlbäck, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources - POPA CTDA
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Executive summary Introduction In the strive towards a sustainable society, environmental technologies will play an increasingly important role. This has been acknowledged by the European Commission, and through the launching of the rather ambitious Environmental Technologies Action Plan (ETAP) the Commission has committed to the wide-spread of clean technologies in all the sectors of society. This programme encourage a numerous of actions designed to “remove barriers for the development and diffusion of environmental technologies”, to “ensure that the EU will take a leading role in developing and applying such technologies”, and to “mobilise all stakeholders in support of these objectives” (EU, 2004a). As a measure within the framework of ETAP, this project is designed to identify policy pathways to the promotion and development of clean technology development (POPA-CTDA) in the sectors of industry, transport, agriculture and energy. This case study deals with renewable energy technologies (RET) (bio-fuelled combined heat and power, wind power and solar power). Currently driven by all three pillars of sustainability in addition to the ‘traditional’ environmental one, RETs are increasingly looked upon as commercially competitive alternative to fossil based energy technologies. Use of renewable energy is growing on the global market - not only in niche applications as e.g. remote installations but on the broader energy/electricity markets as well. The share of renewable energy in the global primary energy supply (TPES) is about 11.3%, which of the vast majority is combustible bio resources (about 10.8%) and about 0.5% being wind, solar and geothermal (IEA, 2005). On the European energy market, RETs accounts for approximately 5% of TPES. This can be compared with the 12% penetration target by 2010 stated by the Commission in 1997. Methodological approach Starting point for the design of an integrated policy strategy supporting the development and adoption of RETs are the barriers and drivers responsible for the corresponding engagement of relevant actors in this field. Both barriers and drivers have been identified in a previous study, Work Package 2 (WP2), by the means of a behavioural approach developed by Montalvo (2001; 2002) on the basis of a survey conducted with actual and potential developers, manufacturers, operators and end-users of RETs from Austria, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Sweden and Hungary. In the survey actors in the energy UGOT POPA-CTDA: Work package 3 5 sector where asked about their opinions concerning development and adoption of RETs. Various aspects of their attitudes where addressed such as economic and environmental risk perception, relevant pressure arising from the social environment, the market and regulatory bodies and of their own technical and managing capabilities. The full analysis of the questionnaire is presented in the WP2 report. In the present study, Work Package 3, plausible policy instruments are identified to address those barriers found in WP2 and to encourage the diffusion of RETs. The insights presented in this report are based on literature study, interviews and the questionnaire study conducted in WP2. Main insights Economy Costs of producing electricity from RETs have been greatly reduced during latest decades but are generally still above the ones of fossil fuels; in particular PV technology that is, roughly, 10 times as expensive as average generation costs.1 The inability to include environmental damage costs of electricity generation (combustion of fossil fuels, nuclear power plants or even renewable technologies), the vast amount of direct or indirect subsidies, tax concessions etc. all distort competition on the energy market. Hence, some level of economic support is required for RETs to compete on the open market. In the case of both wind and solar power, the German feed-in law has proved very successful in lowering investment risk and encouraging new installations. Market On a local level, the job and economic growth opportunities derived from an establishment of local electricity production is becoming increasingly recognised. RETs compared with fossil based technologies are generally more labour intensive and, coupled with increasing recognition of RETs to fulfil national/local sustainability targets, provides an attractive option for politicians and entrepreneurs to promote local business. This is particularly a driver to establish biomass power and, if locally available, biomass resources via crop or forestry industry. 1 Average spot market price for electricity in the Eu-15 was in 2004 about 30-35 €/MWh, where average generation cost for PV is roughly 500 €/MWh electricity. UGOT POPA-CTDA: Work package 3 6 Technology and infrastructure Several interviewees pointed out performance, power output fluctuations (intermittency), actual power generation costs (factoring in costs of maintenance and service etc.) and lifetime as technological uncertainties and potential barriers to up-take. There is a need for further RD&D (research, development and demonstration) to develop both specific technology characteristic and systemic issues as grid compatibility. The varying power output of renewable generation and its consequences to power distribution is a source for controversy and may pose challenges in grid management. While it was earlier believed that even small fractions of intermittent capacity would cause instability on the power grid, new empirical data from practical examples2 shows that it is foremost a question of grid-management techniques. Institutional and regulative While wind power in general has gained in economic competitiveness, several interviewees mention regulative barriers as, perhaps, the main obstacle to a wide-spread diffusion. Issuing building permits is a complicated and time consuming process, where in Sweden, for example, several authorities at various levels are involved at different stages. A projector has to face the same process twice; first against the planning and building regulation, then the environmental legislation, in order to obtain building permits. Opposing groups may quite easily appeal and, thereby, delaying the process up to several years and risking the economy of a project. Especially small actors with no internal legal resources may face great challenges in the planning phase of a project. The coordination between the involved authorities is regarded as not very well-organised and there most definitely is a large potential to streamline the current processes. Recommendations Policy support on the EU level via communications, directives green/white papers etc. is a significant driver to policy implementation on the national level. It is of most importance to continuing to show this support by stating new targets for RET penetration (post-Kyoto objectives) and ensure compliance with e.g. national Kyoto-bindings. 2 E.g. in western Denmark, over 20% of the total load is covered by wind energy (IEA, 2005). UGOT POPA-CTDA: Work package 3 7 RETs in general • The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) has yet to prove its positive affects on RET diffusion. The potential is great however, but is to a large deal dependent on the size of the national allocation plans. If the acceptance and compliance of the scheme is not kept strong enough, the potential might very well get lost in a political barging between member states. • The formation of a single European electricity market have the potential of being the “hardware” necessary for implementing EU-wide supporting schemes. Particularly a common market for Tradable Green Certificates could be realised, where actors all over Europe would trade green electricity, ensuring a wide competition among producers and, thereby, keeping over all costs low. • RETs are in the need of continuing R&D support to increase product performance and lower manufacturing costs. Positive side-effects of R&D and demonstration programmes may be gained from actors forming networks and alliances for knowledge transfers and partnership. This is a necessity to counter powerful coalitions promoting fossil based technologies that for decades have influenced the institutional framework in favour of coal, oil and natural gas. • To minimise risk perception of investment, clear and long-term policy guidelines is needed to support RETs. Almost all interviewees expressed the short-term design of the current supporting schemes as a major barrier to investments. Some level of security is needed to induce investments, and that is foremost achieved by clearly stated rules and stable support. Biomass • Even though biomass is being close to commercially competitive, it is still in the need of economic support. The CHP technology in it self is well proven and developed; future technology developments will probably focus on the gasification of biomass resources, where there is extensive efficiency gains to be made in the production of electricity. UGOT POPA-CTDA: Work package 3 8 Wind Power • For wind power to be able to compete with old (often governmentally financed) installations, some level of economic support is still needed. Germany and Spain have primarily through the use of feed-in systems emerged as world leaders in the use of wind power in their national electricity systems. • Issuing building permit processes are often time consuming and perceived as unreasonably complicated. To counter this, there are needs to both streamline the permit process by coordinating involved governmental bodies and to pre-allocate land for wind power installations. • The intermittency of wind power generation might prove to have deteriorated affects on power quality in regions with relatively high shares of installations. This is mostly a matter of managing the power production/transfer with dedicated routines and technology, but will require R&D efforts to increase the knowledge of how to handle even larger shares of wind power and the affect on regional/national power grids. PV • Government and authorities can play a crucial role by “buying costs down” along the learning-curve of PV-modules as solar technology is stuck in a Catch-22 situation; as expressed by Sandén (2005): “It is not widely used because of the high cost, and the high cost is due to the low level of adoption”. By investing in solar technology and increase the level of adoption (public procurement, investment grants etc.), cost will decline from various positive feed-back mechanisms: economy of scale, learning by doing/using, decreased uncertainty etc. In such a strategy, it is of great importance to maintain variety. There are several technological designs (crystalline silicon, thin-film cells etc.) competing to becoming the dominant design. To avoid look-in in sub par designs, a “buying down”-strategy will have to ensure that investments are carried out along the whole field of potential PV-module technologies, and not only the currently less costly one.
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