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1.
  • Arvidsson, Rickard, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Energy use indicators in energy and life cycle assessments of biofuels: : review and recommendations
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - 0959-6526. ; 31, s. 54-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we investigate how indicators for energy use are applied in a set of life cycle assessment (LCA) and energy analysis case studies of biofuels. We found five inherently different types of indicators to describe energy use: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand, (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. It was also found that the examined reports and articles, the choice of energy use indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in relation to other energy use indicators. In order to investigate the differences between these indicators, they were applied to a case. The life cycle energy use of palm oil methyl ester was calculated and reported using these five different indicators for energy use, giving considerably different output results. This is in itself not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. The indicators can all be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicators need to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today.
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2.
  • Arvidsson, Rickard, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • How do we know the energy use when producing biomaterials or biofuels? [Eco-Tech'12]
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden..
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • How much fossil energy that is used in the production of biomaterials or biofuels (e.g. fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when optimizing the production systems. To use more fossil fuels in the production of a biofuel than what will be available as the biofuel product is obviously a bad idea. With increasing interest in biomaterials and biofuels, a shift from a sole focus on fossil energy will be necessary. Optimized use of energy over the whole life cycle is one important parameter to ensure sustainability. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not as straight forward as what might immediately be perceived. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used but is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different studies. Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways with well-defined indicators. The present situation in how energy use indicators are applied was studied in a set of LCA studies of biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As a test, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system and they give considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. Direct comparisons between different energy use results could lead to misinformed policy decisions.
3.
  • Arvidsson, Rickard, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • How much energy is used when producing biofuels?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: World Bioenergy 2012, Jönköping, Sweden.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use for production of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways, using well-defined indicators. The amount of fossil energy used in the production of a biofuel (e.g. diesel fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when comparing different biofuels or when optimizing the production systems. With increasing worldwide production of different biofuels, a shift in focus from fossil energy to the entire energy use will also be necessary. In that context, not only reducing the use of fossil fuels in biofuel production, but also optimizing the use of all energy sources over the whole life cycle becomes an important to ensure the sustainability of biofuels. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not straight forward due to methodological difficulties. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used in life cycle assessment (LCA). But the term ‘energy use’ is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different LCA studies of biofuels. It is often unclear whether the total energy use, or only fossil energy, has been considered, and whether primary or secondary energy has been considered. In addition, it is often difficult to tell if and how the energy content of the fuel or the biomass source was included in the energy use. This study presents and discusses the current situation in terms of energy use indicators are applied in LCA studies on biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As an illustration, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system (production of palm oil methyl ester), resulting in considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. All five indicators can be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicator needs to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today. Above all, it is important to avoid direct comparisons between different energy use results calculated using different indicators, since this could lead to misinformed policy decisions.
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4.
  • Arvidsson, Rickard, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Towards transparent and relevant use of energy use indicators in LCA studies of biofuels
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: 6th SETAC World Congress / SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting in Berlin.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The use of energy has led to resource crises during the history of mankind, such as the deforestation of the Mediterranean during antiquity, and of Great Britain before the 19th century, and the oil crisis in the 20th century and continuing. Considering this, the frequent use of the impact category ‘energy use’ in the environmental assessment tool life cycle assessment (LCA) is not surprising. However, in a previous study, some of the authors noted that the term ‘energy use’ was not applied in a transparent and consistent way in LCA studies of biofuels. In this work we investigate how energy use indicators are applied in a set of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biofuels. In the examined reports and articles, the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed and we observed five inherently different energy use indicators: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand, (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. These five energy use indicators were applied to the same cradle-to-gate production system of palm oil methyl ester (PME), giving considerably different output results. This is in itself not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. All five indicators can all be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicators need to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today. Authors of LCA studies should first define the purpose of their energy use indicator (fossil scarcity, energy scarcity, energy efficiency, cost/benefit comparison) and may then make a motivated choice of the energy use indicator.
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7.
  • Finnveden, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - Basel : MDPI AG. - 2071-1050. ; 5:3, s. 841-881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.
8.
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9.
  • Krook, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Urban mining - Prospecting for metals in the invisible city
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In theory, ‘urban mining’ has a huge potential for enabling more efficient resource use and offering new business opportunities for the cleantech and recycling industries. This concept involves recovering technospheric stocks of previously employed natural resources that have been taken out of use without being collected for waste management. Such hibernating material stocks can be found in old water supply, sewage and power distribution networks – urban structures rich in for example iron and copper. This paper aims to analyze the potential for urban mining of the metals copper and aluminum from hibernating power and communication cables in Sweden. Emphasis is on the economic feasibility of two different approaches for realizing such initiatives. The results indicate that separate extraction of obsolete cables situated below ground in a city is not yet likely to be economically justified for power grid managers. Even in case of integrated recovery during other maintenance work on the grids, additional project costs often exceed potential revenues for the cables. In rural areas, however, both separate and integrated recovery of hibernating cables seem straightforwardly profitable, especially for obsolete copper cables belonging to the regional communication network. It is concluded however that the viability of urban mining is not only a matter of economics. Research aiming to analyze technical, economic, environmental and other institutional conditions for realization of urban mining is therefore strongly encouraged.
10.
  • Srzic, Veljko (författare)
  • Significance of transport dynamics on concentration statistics and expected mass fraction based risk assessment in the subsurface
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis relies on a Langrangian framework used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the thesis gives answers to contaminant concentration features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns cor-related; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo (MC) analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned pa-rameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolu-tion. A stochastic characterization of the concentration scalar is done through moment analysis: mean, coefficient of variation (CVC), skewness and kurtosis as well as through the concentration probability density function (PDF). A re-markable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the Moment Deriv-ing Function (MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. Fur-thermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes meandering effect and incorporates information about exposure time for each non-zero concentration value present. Also, it is shown that EMF is able to clearly reflect the effects of aquifer heterogeneity and structure as well as the Pe value. To demonstrate the uniqueness of the moment collapse feature and ability of the Beta distribution to account for the concentration frequencies even in real cases, Macrodisper-sion Experiment (MADE1) data sets are used.
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