Spår Om brädsportkultur, informella lärprocesser och identitet
Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt) abstract
Today’s society is subject to an increased importance of aesthetics and an increasing individualism. New trends are adopted early by young people, which make it interesting to focus on how identity is formed and meanings are constructed in a youth culture context and in relation to ongoing societal processes of change.The purpose of this dissertation is to interpret and analyse the construction of meaning within the skateboard and snowboard communities in the social and cultural contexts. In particular, this dissertation is about the relationship between three levels, cultural, practice and individual. The title “Traces” alludes to four analytical themes taking different tracks in the book; consumption, gender, place and identity that are reflected in different chapters. However, the individual leaves traces in culture as culture does in the individual. Furthermore, skaters and snowboarders leave actual tracks in their local geography.Theoretically the study has a culture analysis approach with a semiotic base where five theories are intertwined. Johan Fornäs contributes with his interpretation on culture as system of signs and signifying practices, Stuart Hall adds the concept of representations, Kirsten Drotner provides her argumentation regarding aesthetic practices whilst Ulf Hannerz enriches the dissertation with his discussion on transnational culture-flows and the social diffusion of culture. Roger Säljö proposes a socio-cultural perspective of learning where learning is about participation in knowledge and skills. The method used is ethnographical. The multifaceted empirical material, from field studies and interviews, Swedish skateboard and snowboard magazines between 1978 to 2002, skateboard and snowboard videos, press articles, and websites, has been triangulated. In addition, there are three personal albums of skateboarder, snowboarder and surfer Ants Neo.The study shows that there are stereotyped notions about what boarding means and what it means to be a boarder. These notions both create and are created by the boarders themselves but are also used by advertisers for products not related to board sports at all. These notions, based as they are on ideas of resistance and radicalism, serve to emphasise that boarding is masculine. Resistance takes concrete form in its attitude to organized sports and to multinational brands and in the unusual use of places in the urban environment. To be a boarder is, apart form the boarding skills required, to be also part and parcel of these attitudes.The study explains how meaning and identity are created through informal learning processes in youth culture contexts. In these group-forming processes, both the individual and the community are formulated in social, cultural and aesthetic terms.
Jerlinder, Kajsa, 1976-
Social rättvisa i inkluderande idrottsundervisning för elever med rörelsehinder en utopi?
Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt) abstract
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledgebase of inclusion and inclusive education and to outline possible consequences that may arise from an educational ideology of inclusion. The thesis describes a potential dilemma that is both theoretical and practical. The dilemma consists of, on the one hand, a need of identification and categorisation of specific groups in society in order to allocate and redistribute available resources, while, on the other hand, there is a need of social recognition of diversity in educational settings in order to achieve social justice and parity of participation. The inclusion of pupils with physical disabilities in the school subject of physical education (PE) is used as a particular example to illustrate a general dilemma. The specific aims were: i) to describe and apply a theoretical framework of ‘social status’ as a possible means of resolving the dilemma (study I); ii) to study PE teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive physical education (studies II and III); and iii) using a case study, to explore the experience of physical education through the eyes of a pupil with a physical impairment and his parents, classmates, PE teachers and personal assistant (study IV). Results show that Swedish PE teachers at primary school level are positive to inclusive PE for pupils with physical disabilities. Factors found to contribute to these positive attitudes were adequate training in inclusive education strategies, supportive school environments and personal resources. In a systematic review of international research PE teachers, in general, were found to have ambivalent attitudes to inclusive PE. This ambivalence was found over cultural borders among the 1200 respondents covered in the 15 articles reviewed and may indicate a latent awareness of the dilemma. Previous experience of having taught PE to pupils with physical disabilities, together with proper education in inclusion, mediated a more positive attitude. The case study of a 10-year-old boy with physical disabilities and significant others in his educational life proved to be a signal example of successful inclusion. Honneth’s three levels of social recognition were used in the analysis. Social recognition at individual, legal and value dimensions is a prerequisite for achieving social justice in inclusive PE settings. Finally, these findings, taken together, indicate a need to address social recognition and redistribution demands simultaneously in order to meet goals of equitable education for pupils with physical disabilities in inclusive PE teaching. Societal (external) and individual factors need to be combined when addressing the issue of social justice in inclusive education. A model of social status, developed by Fraser (2001; 2003), used in conjunction with the notion of plural identities is suggested as a possible resolution to the dilemma described in the thesis.