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1.
  • Liedgren Dobronravoff, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Att bli, att vara och att ha varit - om ingångar i och utgångar ur Jehovas vittnen
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur och under vilka betingelser människor blir medlemmar och lämnar en organisation som Jehovas vittnen. Utifrån interaktionistisk teori undersöks aktiva och före detta medlemmars ingångar och utgångar när det gäller organisationen ”Watchtower Bible and Tract Society”, i Sverige benämnd Jehovas vittnen. Utifrån en empiri av upprepade kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer samt en textanalys av en dagbok, skriven fyra år före en utgång föreslås två processmodeller för ingång samt en processmodell för utgång. För att bli ett Jehovas vittne krävs att personen har en mottaglighet och att hon eller han attraheras av de sociala och religiösa faktorer organisationen kan erbjuda. En person som kommer i kontakt med Jehovas vittnen som vuxen passerar ofta sex faser innan han eller hon blivit medlem. Faserna benämns i avhandlingen: kontakt med Jehovas vittnen, bibelstudier med en medlem, ifrågasättande, accepterande, aktiv som missionerande Jehovas vittne och dop. För en person som har vuxit upp inom organisationen är processen mycket kortare, den består av: uppväxt inom organisationen, ställningstagande och beslut att låta döpa sig alternativt avstå från dop. Utgångsprocessen består av sju faser: olika grader av tvivel, prövning av tvivel, vändpunkter, olika beslut, olika steg i verkställighet, "floating" en bearbetning av medlemskapet på en emotionell och kognitiv nivå och relativ neutralitet.
2.
  • Turunen, Päivi (författare)
  • Samhällsarbete i Norden Diskurser och praktiker i omvandling
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The dissertation deals with an inquiry concerning how the transformation of community work can be understood from a comparative perspective within the framework of social work in Scandinavia.Community work is examined by means of two main studies: an international literature review and an empirical study in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The transformation is discussed in the light of theories of modernisation and discourse analysis.The results propose that the transformation is characterised by differentiation, both divergence and convergence. The discourses are far from constant, while the practices seem to remain the same. There are surprisingly many similarities between settlement work and contemporary community strategies across the globe. Since the 1980´s, they have expanded rapidly because of the political and ideological changes within welfare states – towards decentralisation and devolution. The concept of community work has been replaced by a plurality of community-orientated concepts. Within social work, it has converged into community social work.The transformation of Nordic community work has also moved towards a national and local diversity. The Nordic countries share similar phases of transformation of community work, but also have traits of their own. In general, community work has been carried out as projects. Denmark is characterised as the promised land of projects, Finland as the community land of minimal number of projects, Norway as the land of co-ordinated projects, and Sweden as the land of structural project-ideology. The transformation has also resulted in a polarisation – an increased professionalisation in academic communities and deprofessionalisation in practice. A constant problem with community work is its temporary nature, due to dependence upon recurring projects. There is a great need for sector transcending and integrating research, knowledge and practice development within the area of community policy and practice, including community work.
3.
  • Backlund Rambaree, Brita, 1977- (författare)
  • Contextualising Constructions of Corporate Social Responsibility Social Embeddedness in Discourse and Institutional Contexts
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Uppfattningar om företags samhällsansvar har begreppsliggjorts i huvudsak genom idéer om ’corporate social responsibility’ (CSR) och ’ansvarsfulla investeringar’. Under de senaste decennierna har dessa begrepp utvecklats till att bli vanligt förkommande och har spridits över världen. Som globala koncept medför de en gemensam uppsättning av idéer och metoder, såsom de som förs fram i internationella standarder för företags CSR rapportering, och utav internationella organisationer såsom FN:s Global Compact. Ändå skiljer de sig åt mellan olika kontexter och är konstruerade och återges av företag i förhållande till sociala sammanhang. Begreppen ges mening i relation till sociala institutioner i form av normer och konventioner som redan omger företag och sociala frågor. Baserat på nyinstitutionell teori undersöker avhandlingen konstruktioner av samhällsansvar och ansvarstagande, i diskurs och i institutionella sammanhang, över regioner som inte ofta jämförs i forskningen kring skillnader i företags samhällsansvar: två Västeuropeiska välfärdsstater (Sverige och Storbritannien) och två tillväxtekonomier i södra Afrika (Sydafrika och Mauritius). Syftet med avhandlingen är att bidra till litteraturen kring CSR och ansvarsfulla investeringar med ett sociologiskt perspektiv som är jämförande och för samman institutionell teori med social konstruktionism och Foucaults perspektiv på makt. Avhandlingen analyserar hur föreställningar om CSR och ansvarsfulla investeringar konstrueras i förhållande till de sociala institutioner som omger företags engagemang i samhällsfrågor, och belyser speciellt vikten av samhällets välfärdssystem och konventioner kring finansiella investeringar som betydelsefulla för dessa begrepp. Huvudargumentet i denna avhandling är att CSR och ansvarsfulla investeringar måste ses som kontextuellt skapade, i diskurs och praxis, på ett sätt som drar gränserna och skapar förutsättningarna för företags engagemang i samhällsfrågor.Avhandlingen omfattar tre artiklar. Artikel 1 är en innehållsanalys av företags självrapportering om CSR och artikeln undersöker hur innehållet som ges till CSR i självrapporteringen relaterar till hur samhället i övrigt hanterar välfärd och sociala frågor. Artikeln visar på hur CSR på så sätt skiljer sig åt mellan fyra olika länder där två är tillväxtekonomier i södra Afrika och två är Västeuropeiska välfärdsstater. Artikel 2 är en diskursanalys som undersöker språkliga repertoarer (interpretative repertoires) som förekommer i företags självrapportering om CSR, i samma uppsättning av fyra länder. Repertoarerna analyseras som tillämpandet av diskurs och de synliggör hur makt är av betydelse i skapandet av diskurser kring CSR. Artikel 3 fokuserar på ansvarfulla investeringar och undersöker detta som en form av aktivt skapande och återskapande av samhällsinstitutioner. Baserat på en intervjustudie med institutionella investerare i Sverige analyseras ansvarfullt investerande som en process som på samma gång innebär både skapande av en ny social institution, ansvarsfulla investeringar, och återskapande av en existerande institution, finansiella investeringar. Skapandet av nya idéer inom ramarna för en existerande institution påverkar innebörden i ansvarsfulla investeringar. I sin helhet bidrar avhandlingen med ett sociologiskt perspektiv på hur uppfattningar om företags samhällsansvar skapas och återskapas.
4.
  • Sjöberg, Stefan (författare)
  • Löntagarfondsfrågan - en hegemonisk vändpunkt : En marxistisk analys
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the dissertation is twofold. The primary aim is to explain how the wage-earner funds could change the way they did, from the original proposal 1975 to the carried through 1983. The second is to show the relevans of Marxist analysis today, through the application of Marxist theory on the wage-earner funds issue. A discourse analyses is carried through to show the arguments and positions taken by key actors during the wage-earner funds struggle.One important finding is that the wage-earner funds struggle was what I designate a hegemonic turning-point in the Swedish post war history. Until and including the raising of the fund issue the Swedish labour movement had for decades gradually moved their positions forwards vis-a-vis the bourgeois in wide meaning. The bourgeois won the fund struggle and has ever since step by step forced the labour movement on the defense. The wage-earner funds struggle then meant a very important change of the balance between the organized class forces.Previous works on the wage-earner funds have a strong emphasis on the political level in trying to explain the issue. The dissertation shows that although this is an important factor, it has to be related to others. In accordande with a structuralist influenced Marxist perspective the interrelation of economical, political, cultural and ideological factors has to be evaluated in the analysis of the issue. The agenda on the political level needs to be related to processes in the economy. In other words changes in the economic base strongly influenced what was taking place in the political/cultural/ideological domains.Marxism has for a long period been the objective for deconstruction and dissolution. Through the concrete analysis of the fund struggle the dissertation shows that Marxist theory is still relevant. The dissertation stresses that a relevant Marxism today is not the same as the classical marxism that culminated during the 1970’s. But there is fundamental parts, core, centrality, that can be built upon for a modern Marxism that is not ending up at the Post-marxism that dissolves and gives up still relevant foundations.
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5.
  • Wikman, Sofia, 1971- (författare)
  • Våld i arbetslivet Utveckling, uppmärksamhet och åtgärder
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Våld i arbetslivet har under de senaste två decennierna fått en större uppmärksamhet. Syftet med avhandlingen är att analysera hur utvecklingen av våld i arbetslivet som samhällsproblem kan förstås. I fyra delstudier behandlas omfattningen och utvecklingen av utsatthet för våld i arbetslivet bland olika yrkesgrupper (I), hur våld i arbetslivet uppmärksammats i facklig press (II) och vilka åtgärder som förespråkas i facklig press (III) samt i arbetsskadeanmälningar (IV). Gemensamt för avhandlingens studier är att de tar upp frågor som rör förändring över tid, hur utvecklingen kan förstås och vilka konsekvenser förändringarna för med sig.I den första studien visas att utsatthet för arbetsrelaterat hot och våld enligt svenska offerunderökningar har ökat sedan 1980-talets början. Ökningarna är störst för de kvinnodominerade jobben inom välfärdssektorerna. I studie II görs en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av facklig press 1978-2004. Resultaten visar att uppmärksamheten för våld har ökat och pekar på vidgade definitioner av våld och att nya grupper uppmärksammas som offer och förövare. I studie III undersöks hur åtgärder mot hot och våld i arbetslivet uppmärksammas i facklig press. Resultaten indikerar att våld i arbetslivet har gått från att ses som ett problem som skall lösas som en intern arbetsmiljöfråga på arbetsplatsen till att allt oftare ses som ett problem som ska lösas externt med hjälp av polis och rättsväsende. Det har skett en förskjutning mot ett förrättsligande när det gäller hur våld i arbetlivet ska åtgärdas. Utvecklingen kan sammanfattas som en rörelse ett arbetsmiljöproblem till ett brottsproblem. Studie IV utgår från en analys av arbetsskadeanmälningar från vård- och omsorgspersonal som utsatts för våld i arbetet. När man ser till de åtgärdsförslag som de utsatta själva föreslår för att undvika att våldet skall inträffa igen så framgår att det finns en diskrepans mellan de åtgärder som uppmärksammas i facklig press och de åtgärder som personalen efterfrågar. De våldsutsatta ser främst att våldsproblemet, oavsett vilken risksituation som föregått våldet, löses internt på arbetsplatsen. Adekvata resurser i form av tid och personal för att utföra arbetet efterfrågas gång på gång. Insatser av externa aktörer såsom polis och rättsväsende efterfrågas däremot inte.
6.
  • Öberg, Peter, 1960- (författare)
  • Livet som berättelse : Om biografi och åldrande
  • 1997
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation’s objective is twofold: (1) to show how the life lived is reflected in old age (the articles), and (2) to analyze how life-stories are presented and interpreted from the social constructivist perspective (the comprehensive summary).     Article I is a critical discussion of two biographical methods of data collection: the “freely-told” life-story and the semistructured biographical interview. Article II addresses the thesis’ first aim. This article presents the data gathered through the qualitative biographical interviews conducted with elderly Finns, which resulted in a typology of six ways of life: The bitter life and Life as a trapping pit, which end up in a problematic old age; Life as a hurdle race, The devoted silenced life, Life as a job career and  The sweet life, which describe different strategies for successful ageing. Article III is a study of Life as a hurdle race, where successful ageing is reached, despite previous difficulties in life. Article IV explains the paradox of the absent body in social gerontology, in light of the dualism of the Platonic-Christian tradition between body and soul.     The comprehensive summary consists of critical methodological reflections on the conducted research. This summary acknowledges how the conclusions, reached at through analytic induction, where influenced by gerontology’s two myths (misery vs. success). The summary also treats the Renaissance of biographical social research, and the conducted research in relation to the theoretical debate on “the realist perspective” vs. “the story-focused, constructivist perspective.” From the latter perspective it is shown how emplotment shapes the life-story. Finally the summary addresses the generalizability and credibility of my results; results which by virtue of the life history perspective open up for a new qualitative understanding of ageing.
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7.
  • Grell, Pär, 1966- (författare)
  • Komplexa behov eller komplexa organisationer? konsekvenser av specialiserad individ- och familjeomsorg ur ett klientperspektiv
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Even though recent decades have seen a clear trend towards organizational specialization within Swedish personal social services (PSS), there is a lack of knowledge about the consequences of this, particularly from a client perspective. The aim of this compilation thesis is to describe and analyse the consequences of organizational specialization for clients with complex needs. The empirical material consists of a survey and an interview study, both addressing clients whose needs can be considered complex since they entail several parallel contacts with different specialized PSS units. Article one is a research review aimed at summarizing and discussing the research on organizational structures in the social services, and these structures' impact on work with clients. The review suggests that, to function adequately, social service organizations need to combine and balance aspects of both specialization and integration. Article two aims to describe and analyse how clients with complex needs perceive and value the service conditions of the organizationally specialized PSS. The main findings are that clients primarily perceive and value their encounters with the specialized PSS negatively, and that they experience several elements of service fragmentation. The aim of article three is to describe and analyse how clients with complex needs account for their handling of service conditions within specialized PSS. A key finding is that clients combine different approaches (categorized as consensus, resignation, fight, and escape) in a balancing act intended to promote their own best interests. Article four aims to describe and analyse how clients with complex needs perceive the conditions for helping relations in a PSS setting marked by organizational specialization. A lack of system trust, the people-processing dimensions of work, and an organizational and professional emphasis on formal organizational structures and boundaries were found to constitute unfavourable conditions. Conversely, the occurrence of individual trust, the people-sustaining and people-changing dimensions of client work, and the boundary-spanning efforts of both informal organizations and individual social workers constituted favourable conditions. The thesis concludes that there seems to be a substantial lack of fit between the logics and features of organizational specialization on one hand, and the complex and interwoven nature of clients’ actual needs and everyday lives on the other. It is also argued that organizational specialization means that the complexity involved in encounters between clients and the PSS is overlooked or obscured. Further research on the structural arrangements and service conditions that surround encounters between clients and the social services is suggested, especially research that adopts a client perspective.
8.
  • Jerlinder, Kajsa, 1976- (författare)
  • Social rättvisa i inkluderande idrottsundervisning för elever med rörelsehinder en utopi?
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    •  The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledgebase of inclusion and inclusive education and to outline possible consequences that may arise from an educational ideology of inclusion. The thesis describes a potential dilemma that is both theoretical and practical. The dilemma consists of, on the one hand, a need of identification and categorisation of specific groups in society in order to allocate and redistribute available resources, while, on the other hand, there is a need of social recognition of diversity in educational settings in order to achieve social justice and parity of participation. The inclusion of pupils with physical disabilities in the school subject of physical education (PE) is used as a particular example to illustrate a general dilemma. The specific aims were: i) to describe and apply a theoretical framework of ‘social status’ as a possible means of resolving the dilemma (study I); ii) to study PE teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive physical education (studies II and III); and iii) using a case study, to explore the experience of physical education through the eyes of a pupil with a physical impairment and his parents, classmates, PE teachers and personal assistant (study IV). Results show that Swedish PE teachers at primary school level are positive to inclusive PE for pupils with physical disabilities. Factors found to contribute to these positive attitudes were adequate training in inclusive education strategies, supportive school environments and personal resources. In a systematic review of international research PE teachers, in general, were found to have ambivalent attitudes to inclusive PE. This ambivalence was found over cultural borders among the 1200 respondents covered in the 15 articles reviewed and may indicate a latent awareness of the dilemma. Previous experience of having taught PE to pupils with physical disabilities, together with proper education in inclusion, mediated a more positive attitude. The case study of a 10-year-old boy with physical disabilities and significant others in his educational life proved to be a signal example of successful inclusion. Honneth’s three levels of social recognition were used in the analysis. Social recognition at individual, legal and value dimensions is a prerequisite for achieving social justice in inclusive PE settings. Finally, these findings, taken together, indicate a need to address social recognition and redistribution demands simultaneously in order to meet goals of equitable education for pupils with physical disabilities in inclusive PE teaching. Societal (external) and individual factors need to be combined when addressing the issue of social justice in inclusive education. A model of social status, developed by Fraser (2001; 2003), used in conjunction with the notion of plural identities is suggested as a possible resolution to the dilemma described in the thesis.  
9.
  • Kejerfors, Johan, 1962- (författare)
  • Parenting in urban slum areas families with children in a shantytown of Rio de Janeiro
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a study of parenting and child development in a slum area in a developing part of the world. The aims of the study were threefold. The first aim was to explore the physical and social contexts for parenting in a shantytown in Rio de Janeiro using an ecological perspective. The second aim was to examine parenting and subsequent child outcomes among a sample of families living in the shantytown. The third aim was to explore what factors contribute to differences among parents in how they nurture and protect their children. The theoretical framework of the study was an updated version of Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of human development. Using self-report questionnaires developed by Rohner, data on perceived parental acceptance–rejection were collected from 72 families with adolescents 12–14 years old, representing approx. 75% of all households with children in this age group in the shantytown. Besides self-report questionnaires, each adolescent’s main caregiver replied to several standardized questionnaires developed by Garbarino et al., eliciting demographic and social-situational data about the family, neighborhood, and wider community. The results of the study paint a complex portrait of the social living conditions of the parents and children. Despite many difficulties, most parents seemed to raise their children with loving care. The results from the self-report questionnaires indicate that the majority of the adolescents perceived substantial parental acceptance. The adolescents’ experience of greater or lesser parental acceptance–rejection seems to influence their emotional and behavioral functioning; it also seems to be related to their school attendance. Much of the variation in degree of perceived acceptance–rejection seems to be related both to characteristics of the individual adolescents and their main caregiver(s) and to influences from the social and environmental context in which they and their caregivers interact and live their lives.
10.
  • Sandlund, Jonas (författare)
  • Position-matching and goal-directed reaching acuity of the upper limb in chronic neck pain associations to self-rated characteristics
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Neck-shoulder pain is common in the general population and causes individual suffering as well as large costs for the society. Despite substantial efforts, there is still a shortage of methods for objective diagnosis and effective rehabilitation of such disorders. Thus, there is a great need to develop and evaluate new methods for these purposes. From clinical observations and recent research it has become evident that sensorimotor control can be impaired in people with neck-shoulder pain and may play a role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this thesis, precision of goal-directed arm movements, a previously unstudied class of movements in neck-shoulder pain, was studied.The main aim of the thesis was to investigate if people with chronic neck-shoulder pain have a reduced acuity of goal-directed movements of the upper extremity. A second aim was to study associations between reduced movement acuity and symptoms and self-rated characteristics.Upper limb repositioning acuity was assessed in blindfolded subjects performing tests of active, ipsilateral position-matching of two target positions (long and short) in movements constrained to horizontal-adduction of the shoulder. Reduced repositioning acuity, suggesting impaired shoulder proprioception, was found for both subjects with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and non-specific neck-shoulder pain (NS). The degree of reduced acuity was shown to correlate with self-ratings of various health concepts, functioning and pain. A conspicuous finding was that there was lack of correlation between short and long target errors, along with the fact that associations between repositioning acuity and symptoms and self-rated characteristics was primarily found for the short target position.To further investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the disassociation between long and short target movement control, the association pattern between the outcome of several variants of ipsilateral position matching and velocity-discrimination tests, were studied. It was found that the perception of limb position in position-matching of short target locations appears to be predominantly based on movement velocity, whereas perception of limb position in movements to longer target locations may rely on a location-based perception mechanism.To extend the research on reduced upper extremity proprioception in neck-shoulder pain to a more natural movement situation, acuity of goal-directed pointing including full vision and 3D multi-joint movements was investigated in WAD, NS and healthy controls subjects. The results revealed a reduced acuity for both neck-pain groups. Moreover, distinct associations between end-point acuity and neck movement problems, limitations of some physical functions and, in WAD; some aspects of pain, were revealed.The findings demonstrate that the precision of upper limb movements can be reduced in chronic neck-shoulder pain. Substantial associations with symptoms and self-rated functioning suggest a clinical relevance of acuity measures of goal-directed arm movements. The findings indicate that tests of sensorimotor control can provide objective measures that may be useful in biopsychosocial profiling and characterization of subgroups of patients with chronic neck-shoulder pain, and that training target control of goal-directed movements should be considered in rehabilitation programs of people with these disorders.
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