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Sökning: hsvkat:504 mat:dok (lärosäte:(gu) OR lärosäte:(du) OR lärosäte:(kau) OR lärosäte:(lnu) OR lärosäte:(ltu) OR lärosäte:(lu) OR lärosäte:(miun) OR lärosäte:(mdh) OR lärosäte:(su) OR lärosäte:(umu) OR lärosäte:(uu) OR lärosäte:(oru)) > Högskolan Väst

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  • Grundén, Kerstin, 1952- (författare)
  • Människa, organisation, ADB-system : Mot en människoorienterad syn på systemutveckling
  • 1992
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The background for this thesis is the author's experience of working as a system analyst during the years 1975-1081. During this period, the system development work can be characterized as expert-oriented, very often leading to the construction of large, integrated EDP-systems. The social consequences of the computerization were unplanned and unforeseen. In the first part of this thesis different system development approaches are presented and analyzed. These approaches are "traditional system development", "socio-technically oriented system development (e g Mumford's ETHICS-model), "a perspective of different interest groups", and finally, "modern system development". These approaches are analyzed from a human-oriented perspective emphasizing the consequences of each tradition regarding possibilities to develop human resources in the work situation. In the second part of the thesis the human-oriented perspective (the MOA-perspective) and the MOA-model are developed. Leavitt's well-known model is taken as a departure for the construction of the MOA-model (MOA= Människa (Human Being), Organisation (Organization), ADB-system (EDP-system). The human-oriented perspective is primarily a theoretical perspective in the field of sociology.  Knowledge, mostly from literature studies, has been put together in a logical framework reflecting the interplay between the three levels of analysis "ideas of coordination and steering", "means for cooperation and steering" (e g EDP-systems and organization structure) and "possibilities of development in work for the employee's". The MOA-model illuminates this logic in a wider context of the enterprise. With the use of the MOA-perspective special parts of the MOA-model are focused upon. The theoretical starting-point has been the basis for the development of some practical applications: a structure for development of the enterprise, and a method for analyzing changes within work situations ("job analysis").
  • Björquist, Elisabet, 1959- (författare)
  • Mind the gap. Transition to adulthood – youths’ with disabilities and their caregivers’ perspectives.
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Transition to adulthood, referring to the process of moving from childhood to adulthood, can be a complex period for youths with disabilities who might need special support transitioning into an independent life as adults. Caregivers are significant persons for the youths, which is why their own health and wellbeing is important. Therefore the overall aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of health and wellbeing, challenges, preferences and needs during the transition from childhood to adulthood in youths with disabilities and their caregivers. The thesis is comprised of two studies, study A focusing on the perspectives of youths with CP (Paper I) and of their caregivers (Paper II) and Study B focusing on the perspectives of immigrant youths with disabilities and caregivers from Middle Eastern countries residing in Sweden (Paper III and IV). Study A had a qualitative approach and involved focus groups and individual interviews with 12 male and female youths, 17-18 years of age, with CP and various physical and cognitive levels of disabilities (Paper I), as well as 15 mothers and fathers (Paper II). The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In Study B, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Based on structured and semi-structured questionnaires in combination with open ended questions interviews were conducted in Swedish or Arabic with 17 male and female youths, 13-24 years of age with various disabilities and 10 mothers, five fathers and one sibling. The families were all immigrants with Middle Eastern origin and most of them had lived in Sweden for more than five years. The questionnaires Family Need Survey (FNS), Rotterdam Transition Profile (RTP) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were all translated and adapted to Swedish except for COPM where there already was a Swedish version. The results were analysed using mainly descriptive statistics and based on the framework of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY). The findings from study A showed that the experiences of youths and caregivers mostly concerned mental health and wellbeing described as both positive and negative experiences. Their family life was experienced as important, secure and convenient, which made the youths feel safe and gave parents a sense of meaningfulness. Youths described participation, socialising and love as being important, but also challenging and worrying. Caregivers experienced sorrow and anger and together with demanding logistics, planning and worrying, their health was affected negatively during their children’s transition to adulthood. The findings from study B showed that youths were dependent on their caregivers for transportations, participating in leisure activities and socialising with friends. They were also dependent on their caregivers for the demanding of support and health care. The youths had few or no experiences of intimate relationships but felt that they were expected to get married in the future which worried them and their caregivers. Caregivers were uncomfortable with using the term intellectual disability. Caregivers needed help to understand their child’s condition and to explain the child’s condition to their wives/husbands. A significant difference was found in what problems youths identified with and what their caregivers identified as their youth’s problems. The youths experienced problems with handling finances, transportations and seeking employment or daily activities whilst their caregiver thought their youth’s primary problems involved self-care. The overall finding showed that to strengthen health and wellbeing in youths with disabilities and their caregivers and to meet challenges, preferences and needs during transition from childhood to adulthood both youths and caregivers need information and support. Both youths and caregivers expressed a desire for individualised support given by one person who could facilitate the transition period by coordinating information and give support based on individual preferences and needs. During the recruiting process in both studies, great challenges were experienced in finding participants. Collaboration with professionals in schools and leisure activities was found to be the most effective way to get in contact with immigrant youths and thereby also their caregivers. The findings from this thesis may enable professionals to develop and improve best practice guidelines for support, habilitation and health care in youths’ transition. To facilitate for the youth to transfer from services with a family-centred approach to person-centred adult services, their autonomy must be strengthened by involving them in their own transition planning early on. Immigrant youths need special information and support about love and the freedom of choice to get married. The COPM and RTP are suggested to be used as tools in person-centred transition planning given they are used customized and applied with cultural sensibility. To enable those with communication limitations to give their independent voice the use of communication tools is necessary. Furthermore, the transition to person-centred adult support and health care should be flexible and not determined by biological age. However, youths need support by their caregivers who in turn might both need, and want, support for themselves and occasionally hands-on support. Guidance by a specially designated navigator aimed to support the whole family would be an option to meet individual needs. The information and support should be culturally sensitive with respect to various linguistic and cultural experiences. To close the gaps between systems of care collaboration was discussed to be necessary to facilitate the transition between support and health care for children and youths as well as services for adults. The use of ICF-CY as a framework for understanding needs and the standardised terminology in ICF-CY in documentation can facilitate this collaboration.
  • Bolin, Anette (författare)
  • Shifting Subordination Co-located interprofessional collaboration betweenteachers and social workers
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the practice processes involved in colocated interprofessional collaboration. The study took place in a resource school where social workers and teachers collaborate on an everyday basis around children who are both in receiptof special educational support and interventions from social services. The research questioncentres on the division of labour and the explicit notions and implicit assumptions thatunderpin it. Further, the organisational conditions that influence the division of labour, theprocess involved in the selection of pupils, and the processes of maintenance anddevelopment of professional identities in a close collaborative context are all examined.The study is a qualitative case study of interprofessional collaboration. Through interviews with the teachers and social workers, and via participatory observation of their professionalpractice, empirical data has been generated. This has been used to examine processes ofcollaborative collaboration in accordance with a thematic analytical scheme. A theoretical framework based on theories of the sociology of professions (Abbot, 1988; Evetts, 2006b) and drawing also on the work of Hasenfeld (2010a) on human serviceorganisations and Lipsky (1980) on street level bureaucrats, in conjunction with Strauss’ (1978) theory of negotiations, has been used in analysing the empirical data.The results indicate that the intake process functions primarily to legitimise collaborationfrom an organisational and professional perspective. Further, the teachers and social workerscreate what are termed common and separate grounds for practice. The concept of common grounds describes the processes in which common collaborative relationships are created, such as, forexample, the construction of interchangeability and a common practice ideology. Separate grounds, on the other hand, involves situations in which social workers and teachers are engaged in defining and specifying their profession-specific roles in the context of their  everyday work. Another means of maintaining and reinforcing a profession-specific professional identity in co-located collaborative contexts is the use of the spatial design. The results also point to three particular characteristics in the construction of co-located interprofessional collaboration. First, professionals are engaged in what can be termed a form of  shifting subordination as a means of both legitimising and developing their professional identities. Shifting subordination is a strategy used to reduce and avoid professional conflict around roles and working tasks. Secondly, they are engaged in constructing a shared professional identity as a means to meet the organization’s imperative of ‘getting the job done’. Thirdly, there is the characteristic of interdependence which shapes the negotiation processes involved in the division of labour.
  • Klamas, Maria, 1966- (författare)
  • Av egen kraft tillsammans med andra Personer med psykiska funktionshinder, socialt stöd och återhämtning.
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the significance of social support to adults with psychiatric disabilities, based on the individual's experiences. This includes research questions concerning what type of social support was perceived to be beneficial or restrictive, which relational aspects were considered having a beneficial or restrictive effect on the support- and recovery process, as well as what strategies and capacities the individual developed on their own in order to cope with their obstacles and disadvantages.The empirical material was based on qualitative inteviews with ten individuals that defined themselves as having psychiatric disabilities. They were each interviewed on three occasions. The repetetive form of the interviews lead to three separate interview guides being created over the course of the data collection process. The goal of the first interview was to get a general idea of the subject's daily life, activities, arenas, relationships and support. The second interview focused on meaningful relationships. The third and final interview had one general and one individual part. The general part focused on the subject's psychiatric disabilities, their opportunities as well as existing and desired support measures. The subject matters in the individual part were related to the previous interviews with each of the participants and aimed to develop or expand on previous discussion.The material was analysed using theories about social support and recovery and was presented with roots in four different networking entities: close and extended family, friends, coworkers and fellow students, as well as formal support instances. The result showed that it is the support with mobilising qualities that is beneficial to the recovery process. It increases the individual's degree of control over their illness, obstacles and challenges. In addition, it appeals to the individual as a central actor and as a person with difficulties as well as resources. The fact that the social support from the various support agencies have varying focus and direction benefits recovery since it increases the individual's opportunity to maintain as well as develop their social bonds and roles within the community. A relational prerequisite for social support is an equal relationship, which benefits the recovery process as it encompasses acknowledgement and acceptance of both the individual on a personal level and of their situation. The type of social support that hinders recovery is the kind that lacks a connection between the individual's perceived problems, their need for support and their over time fluctuating ability to handle their psychiatric disability. This is due to the fact that it robs the individual of control over the situation, increases the need for support and strengthens their perception of themselves as sick. Recovery comes to a halt when the individual isn't included in the support and recovery process, which is clarified in relational aspects such as lacking attentiveness, subpar acceptance as well as rejection. The individual's will and capacity to actively take on the responsibility to steer their recovery in a positive direction was made visible through four groups of strategies that were crystallised through the course of the research; creation of understanding and legitimisation, cultivation, including strategies and the creation of boundaries. 
  • Svensson, Lars, 1950- (författare)
  • Mötesplatser på landsbygden : om äldre människor, gemenskap och aktiviteterMötesplatser på landsbygden
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation studies elderly, meeting places in rural areas, social community and activities. The purpose is to describe the existence and purpose of volunteer programs for seniors in rural areas and to describe and understand the significance of volunteer programs for elderly in rural areas. The study was carried out as a quantitative exploratory study in three municipalities and as a qualitative case study of seven meeting places. The study is based on three themes which have also generated research questions: 1. The impoverishment and counteracting forces in rural areas; 2. The civic society and its relationship to the welfare state: 3. Seniors and their need for meeting places. Data was collected through surveys, observations, interviews and a study of documents. The exploratory study consisted of a survey which was sent to organizations and similar associations. The methods for data collection for the case studies were: observations in meeting places and organizations’ meetings: interviews with participants, organizers and with representatives of organizations; as well as through studies as minutes from meetings, articles from the local media and local documents. The results of the exploratory study show that while there are voluntary programs for the elderly, their purpose varies. The results of the case study show that there are several reasons for why there is a need for new meeting places. These include both the fact that rural areas have become impoverished, and that the ways of socializing have changed as well as the fact that many seniors are healthy and feel the need to get together. The meeting place’ character is similar to organizations’ structure and municipal operational plans. Changes in the welfare society have produced a new way of organizing and executing these programs and it has given rise to a new culture of community. The meeting places provide the term community with meaning and value to activities that are aimed at creating meaning. In theses places everyday meetings take place between seniors from the local area. Aging has its own meaning and character and meetings between seniors consist, to some extent, of conversations that look back. Together they remember, understand events and view them from a new perspective. The meeting places are also an arena in which the elderly get important information and knowledge that enable them to promote their rights. The meeting places are an arena both for socializing and for various forms of activities and both parts are equally important. The meeting places are an expression of cultural pattern. Socializing most likely contributes to developing weak ties and various activities help the elderly to stay healthy, and postpone help from relatives and municipal care.
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