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1.
  • Iversen, Clara, 1981- (författare)
  • Making Questions and Answers Work Negotiating Participation in Interview Interaction
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The current thesis explores conditions for participation in interview interaction. Drawing on the ethnomethodological idea that knowledge is central to participation in social situations, it examines how interview participants navigate knowledge and competence claims and the institutional and moral implications of these claims. The data consists of, in total, 97 audio-recorded interviews conducted as part of a national Swedish evaluation of support interventions for children exposed to violence. In three studies, I use discursive psychology and conversation analysis to explicate how interview participants in interaction (1) contribute to and negotiate institutional constraints and (2) manage rights and responsibilities related to knowledge.The findings of study I and study II show that child interviewees actively cooperate with as well as resist the constraints of interview questions. However, the children’s opportunities for participation in this institutional context are limited by two factors: (1) recordability; that is, the focus on generating recordable responses and (2) problematic assumptions underpinning questions and the interpretation of interview answers. Apart from restricting children’s rights to formulate their experiences, these factors can lead interviewers to miss opportunities to gain important information. Also related to institutional constraints, study III shows how the ideal of model consistency is prioritized over service-user participation. Thus, the three studies show how different practices relevant to institutional agendas may hinder participation.Moreover, the findings contribute to an understanding of how issues of knowledge are managed in the interviews. Study II suggests the importance of the concept of believability to refer to people’s rights and responsibilities to draw conclusions about others’ thoughts. And the findings of study III demonstrate how, in evaluation interviews with social workers, children’s access to their own thoughts and feelings are based on a notion of predetermined participation; that is, constructed as contingent on wanting what the institutional setting offers. Thus, child service users’ low epistemic status, compared to the social workers, trumps their epistemic access to their own minds. These conclusions, about recordability, believability, and predetermined participation, are based on interaction with or about children. However, I argue that the findings relate to interviewees and service users in general. By demonstrating the structuring power of interactive practices, the thesis extends our understanding of conditions for participation in the institutional setting of social research interviews. 
2.
  • Hedin, Lena, 1951- (författare)
  • Foster youth's sense of belonging in kinship, network, and traditional foster families an interactive perspective on foster youth's everyday life
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis shows that foster youth can be active participants and agents in shaping their own lives, both in terms of developing and breaking relationships. The aim of the thesis is to examine the everyday lives of young people after entering various types of foster families, and to identify processes in various contexts that influence their sense of belonging. Three of the studies are based on in-depth interviews with 17 foster youth, and a fourth study also includes follow-up interviews with 15 of them. The study’s perspective views the family as socially constructed by means of interactive rituals in which both adults and young people are social actors. Study I demonstrates foster children’s motivation and aptitude for academic improvement, even despite previous severe problems in school. The study indicates that their satisfaction with school is related to both the quality of care they receive and their relations with peers. Study II illuminates the importance of both structure and warmth in foster youth’s everyday life. Routines normalize their daily life. Emotional warmth is created through doing things together. In particular, joking and laughing stand out as important inclusion practices. In study III the young people in kinship and network foster families are found to display the strongest social bonds to their foster families, and the young people in traditional foster families the weakest. Including network foster families in the study sheds light on the importance of adolescents’ active involvement in choosing their foster families. Study IV strengthens findings in the previous three studies about the importance of mutual activities and laughing together for the creation of social bonds in the foster family. Over time, adolescents in traditional foster families also have strengthened their social bonds to the foster family. Therapeutic support is found to be more common in the follow-up interview than one year before, and this unmasks the vulnerability of foster youth, and girls in particular. However, foster youth exhibit personal agency by still coping fairly well with their situation. Overall, this thesis shows that the sense of belonging in the family is strengthened if youth negotiate and take part in decisions concerning them and if the family is an ‘open foster family’ in its reception of the youth and their biological parents, but also that humour can serve as a door-opener into the foster family.
3.
  • Aytar, Osman, 1960- (författare)
  • Mångfaldens organisering Om integration, organisationer och interetniska relationer i Sverige
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this dissertation is to examine inter-ethnic relations between organizationally active people with different ethnic backgrounds. I focus on relations that are based on a mutual interdependence between parties, mutual respect, common procedural rules, real opportunities that expressly approve or reject a proposal in a decision or deliberation situation free from compulsion, where people, who have different ethnic backgrounds, strive after insight and understanding in their relations.In this dissertation I present three empirical cases about cooperation, consultation and participation as forms of inter-ethnic relations from the organizational fields in the society. These cases are examples of what I characterize as “organizing inter-ethnicity”, or organizing people with different ethnic backgrounds around common concerns. Organizing inter-ethnicity is in turn a part of organizing and integrating diversity in society. Drawing on the results of three case studies, I distinguish between opportunities and barriers.My case studies clearly illustrate that the tensions that influence the patterns of and variation in opportunities and barriers have sources that reach well beyond ethnicity. Tensions between old and new organizations, between working immigrant organizations and refugee organizations, between organizations from same group or between organizations that have conflicts from their members’ countries of origin provide some examples of the difficulties that generate barriers to broad interest constellations between organizations.
4.
  • Blomberg, Helena (författare)
  • Mobbning, intriger, offerskap att tala om sig själv som mobbad i arbetslivet
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is a study of bullying narratives, mainly co-produced in a process of ongoing interaction. The focus is on how narrators rhetorically organize their storytelling and identity work by using discursive resources. The empirical material consists of 12 interviews with, and 12 written stories by people who have been exposed to workplace bullying plus information from three websites about bullying, and previous research. The overarching aim of the study is to identify how a bullying discourse is produced, reproduced, challenged and negotiated in bullied persons’ narratives. Specific aims are to determine how bullying is portrayed publicly, how narrators with experience of being bullied build their stories, how the narratives stand in relation to victimization, what makes it possible to talk about vulnerability and what are its limits, and finally to develop a narrative approach.Theoretically and methodologically, the study has its basis in narrative analysis, discursive psychology, conversation analysis, and metaphor analysis. The study shows how the narrators categorize themselves as active, competent, and consensus seeking. They resist being victimized, but by their use of the interpretative repertoire and a standard story of bullying, they nevertheless become indirectly victimized. What’s at stake, in the narratives, is the question of guilt, which they rhetorically evade by the use of different metaphors. These metaphors depict bullying as a mystery, a lifelong source of suffering, a transformation, a learning experience, a battle, a contagious virus, and a trap. The narrators are constrained by the narrative conditions, the interpretative repertoire, standard story, and narrative form and content – a story of good and evil when creating their own story. The narrative conditions at the same time set the limit for expressing oneself in the identity work. This also means we are part of the production and reproduction of the bullying discourse when I, as a researcher, and the narrators use the repertoire and the standard story in mutual understanding.
5.
  • Dahlkild-Öhman, Gunilla, 1945- (författare)
  • Att börja tala med barn om pappas våld mot mamma Radikalt lärande i arbetet med vårdnad, boende och umgänge
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the scope for children’s voices offered to children in court mandated investigations regarding custody, residence or contact. The focus is on children who have been exposed to their father’s violence against their mother The aim is to study how the legislators’ intentions concerning children’s participation in this area are implemented in work groups. The assumption is that implementation can be seen as collective learning. Implementation may in this case challenge established relations of power like age and gender orders. Professional discourses on violence have to shift from gender neutral to gendered discourses and discourses on children have to include a participation discourse. Learning which includes a shift in discourses and challenges established power relations is defined as radical learning.The approach is social constructionist and draws on group interviews with social workers specialized in family law.The thesis analyses which discourses of violence and of children are accessible and used at group level. This can be seen as a discursive opportunity structure. The discourses in question are: gender violence, child protection, treatment and family law discourses as well as care and participation discourses. The conclusion is that all these discourses are accessible to the professionals and the effects of the different discourses are discussed regarding the possibilities for creating a safe situation for mother and child during the investigation.The thesis furthermore analyses the organisation of the work groups. These characteristics can be seen as an organisational opportunity structure. The analysis shows different patterns in the groups when it comes to structure and stage of learning process. One group seems to be at the stage where the members are prepared to start talking to the child about the father’s violence.The final chapter presents a discussion of radical learning and the possibilities for radical social change when established power relations are challenged.
6.
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7.
  • Eriksson, Maria, 1969- (författare)
  • I skuggan av Pappa familjerätten och hanteringen av fäders våld
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aims of this thesis are to shed light on the handling of fathers’ violence in the context of separation and divorce in Sweden today; and to analytically and empirically relate age, gender and kinship to each other. The aims are fulfilled by three interlinked studies of what constructions and the constructing of age, gender and kinship mean for the handling of fathers’ violence against mothers/co-parents and children: in social policy; by separated mothers; and finally by family law secretaries. Each study builds upon a separate set of qualitative material: public documents from three policy areas; thematically structured interviews with abused, separated mothers and family law secretaries. The empirical results make visible some unintended consequences of current attempts in Sweden to create gender equality, shared parenting, a “new father” and to promote children’s interests. Study one demonstrates that when the politics and policy regarding parenthood, separation and divorce are taken as the point of departure, the contemporary age-, gender-, and kinship-order stands out as patriarchal: as marked by father-power based upon ties of blood to not yet adult children. Furthermore, violent fathers neither exist as a concept nor as a policy problem. The interviewed mothers narrate how they have tried to deal with the co-parent’s/ex-partners’ behaviour as violence but have encountered hindrances; the interviewed family law secretaries’ handling fathers’ violence stands out as more of a non-handling, especially in the case of violence against children. When the everyday constructions and constructing of age, gender and kinship discussed in study two and three are taken together, the contours of the patriarchal order seen through the lens of policy are also made visible: fathers’ space for action is vast; children’ and mothers’ more limited. The analysis shows how political and professional handling of fathers’ violence through a non-handling is made possible by well-established notions of heterosexual relationships, fatherhood, motherhood, age- and kinship-relations, as well as family law secretary-professionalism. However, the two studies based upon interviews demonstrate not just how the everyday constructions and constructing mentioned above can be used to reproduce father-power, but also how this power can be challenged.
8.
  • Lindblom, Jonas (författare)
  • När vetenskapen tystnar : Ett socialpsykologiskt studium av massmedias behandling av morden i Falun, Bjuv och på Stureplan
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation is a social psychological study of the influence of science on everyday thinking. The specific focus is the way in which mass media, as an intermediate arena of knowledge in society, accepts or rejects scientific concepts and findings. Particularly, it concerns the phenomenon that the Swedish mass media calls "the inexplicable violence". The thesis points to a journalistic independence from science. On the one hand this refers to the condition, that the journalist can reject the legitimacy of scientific explanations to violence. On the other hand it illuminates the establishment of independent links of knowledge, between the journalist and everyday man. This work consists of three main arguments for a journalistic independence from science. The first argument demonstrates how the scientific expert and the journalist differ in their interpretations of violence. While the scientific expert refers to social, biological, psychological or medical causes, the journalistic thinking is based upon a moralistic perception in terms of motives. The second argument deepens the understanding of the moral rationality in mass media. It shows in detail how the moral pathos gives rise to a distinct set of assumptions, differing from the presuppositions of the scientific experts. The third and final argument, establishes a connection between the journalist and "the everyday thinker". The purpose of this concept is not only to show that everyday man could reject science and formulate his own knowledge. It also suggests that even when accepted, science could not give self-evident and unquestionable answers to social problems.
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9.
  • Medina, Eduardo, 1957- (författare)
  • Från ”tyst vår” till ”hållbar utveckling” En kritisk diskursanalys av miljöfrågans utveckling 1962–1987
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation studies the development of the environmental issue from a discursive perspective. Through an analysis of views on nature and the environment in several NGOs and main political organs, the dissertation tries to explain how a certain view became hegemonic. The analysis pertains to the period between the publication of Silent Spring in 1962 and the introduction of the concept sustainable development by the UN in 1987. From a realistic starting point and with critical discourse analysis (CDA) as its method, the dissertation aims to identify causal powers and mechanisms that have generated and institutionalized the environmental discourse. An analytical model is developed and applied on three levels; a sociolinguistic, institutional, and macrosocial level; which also reflect the methodological progression of the study from description to explanation.The result shows that the discursive practice was hegemonized by a Western view promoting economic growth. This discourse gradually gained ground at the expense of an anti-systemic discourse which posited structural societal changes as the answer to environmental problems. Mechanisms such as the exclusion of some views and actors from common discursive practices were crucial for the process of homogenizing the discourse and developing consensus. Through incorporating that part of the environmental movement which did not fight the dominant economic and political system, the UN turned it into support for its own project, which is part of the process of hegemony. At the same time the environmental objectives of the hegemonic discourse were established in the institutional spheres.The institutionalization of the environmental issue changed the focus from social critique to a question of development and technology, something which helped displace the original critical and partially anti-systemic character of environmental discourse. Through turning the critical and negative account of the situation into a more harmonious and hopeful vision, for instance in terms of sustainable development, a foundation was laid for the later development of ecological modernization. When the hegemonic discourse invested the concept of sustainable development with emphases on progress and economic growth, it encapsulated the environmental issue within the framework of the prevailing social system.
10.
  • Torres, Sandra (författare)
  • Understanding "successful aging" : Cultural and migratory perspectives
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation aims to contribute to the rectification of the atheoretization that characterizes the study of aging and diversity through the formulation and preliminary empirical testing of a culturally-relevant theoretical framework for the study of successful aging. Inspired by the Kluckhohnian approach to the study of cultural variation, the framework hereby proposed posits that there is congruence between the understandings of successful aging that people uphold and the value orientations that they prefer in regards to four topics: man-nature, time, activity and relational. Moreover, through the transcultural approach employed (i.e. through the focus on immigrants' understandings as opposed to natives'), this dissertation aims to shed light on how socio-cultural contexts shape the understandings in question and how the process of migration to a culture that significantly differs from one's culture of origin can challenge the manner in which successful aging is understood.Methodologically speaking, this study departs from the adaptation and further development of the vignette-based instrument that Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck designed for the testing of the theory of cultural variation. Qualitative interviews with 30 Iranian immigrants to Sweden (16 men and 14 women between the ages of 35 and 59 who migrated from Iran to Sweden between the ages of 25 and 48) were conducted using vignettes that tap into both, value orientations and understandings of successful aging.The results suggest that congruence exists between value orientations and understandings of successful aging. In addition, other notions were brought to light besides the master- nature; future, doing and individual oriented ones that are often associated with the construct in question. The process of migration was also found to challenge those understandings of successful aging that were believed to be inappropriate for the socio-cultural context in which the respondents now live. Thus, not only are understandings of successful aging contextually determined, they are also much more processual than gerontologists seem to have originally assumed. It is therefore suggested that the culturally-relevant theoretical framework hereby proposed allows for deeper insight into individual, generational as well as cultural understandings of successful aging.
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