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  • Deutschmann, Mats (författare)
  • Apologising in British English
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingenatt undersöker funktionen av ursäkten som talakt samt sociala skillnader i dess användande i talad Brittisk engelska inspelad under tidigt 1990-tal. Materialet består av hundratals konversationer från formella och informella sammanhang och sammanlagt ingår över 1700 talare i den undersökta korpusen. Avhandlingen kan påvisa att artighetsyttringar såsom ursäkten är viktiga verktyg för att kontrollera och manipulera omgivningen och att det framförallt är medelklassen och andra grupper i maktposition som brukar artighetsformler till detta syfte.
  • Augustsson, Gunnar (författare)
  • Etniska relationer i arbetslivet Teknik, arbetsorganisation och etnisk diskriminering i svensk bilindustri
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The goal of this study is to understanding ethnic discrimination by employing a complex theoretical approach which allows for an understanding of ethnic relations and ethnic discrimination as a social process. The study includes a case study at Volvo Torslandaverken in Gothenburg, and focuses on ethnic discrimination against the background of both structural conditions and situational factors. The analysis results from studying personnel statistics and interviews with salaried employees, union elected representatives, and workers.The study includes two technical and organizational environments. The first environment, manual systems, demands loyalty of individuals to the technical and organizational system. The other environment, integrated mechanization, has a decentralized group organizational structure. Both environments are studied with consideration taken to recruiting, leadership, and solidarity among workers.The results show that ethnic discrimination appears to be a very complicated phenomena, the expression of which is a consequence of dynamic interplay between structure and action. New forms of work have meant that workers' professional skills are now organized to compliment one another and they work more in groups. This has resulted in an increased need for familiar cultural and social skills within the groups. Such a development risks encouraging varying degrees of negligence, aversion, and exclusion of ethnic views.
  • Azarian, Reza, 1960- (författare)
  • The general sociology of Harrison White
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis the main features of Harrison C. White’s general sociology are studied. Since the 1960s White has played a crucial role in the development of the social network approach. He is well known for both the fecundity of the analytical tools he has developed over the years and for the original contributions he has made to several sub­fields of the discipline. White has also developed an unconventional and highly individual approach to social reality that, as the end-result of a sustained synthesizing effort, has grown out of a long and persistent endeavor. Yet, more than a decade after its publication, this general theoretical approach still remains largely unexplored.The main argument of this study is that White’s approach represents one of the mast persistent, elaborated and systematic efforts to enrich the analytical rigorous of the social network approach by adding the substantive theoretical insights that have been elaborated mainly within the symbolic interactionist perspective and the tradition of phenomenological sociology. In this study, first the premises of White’s approach are examined. It is demonstrated how White uses social networks as an analytical tool in order to obtain causal explanations of social phenomena. It is also shown how White re- conceptualizes the notions of social relationship and embeddedness. Furthermore, it is also discussed how White, on the basis of these conceptual innovations, develops a novel image of modern social contexts. This study proceeds by presenting the set of new basic concepts that are derived from this image, seeking to locate these concepts within the larger and more familiar context of theoretical sociology.It is also demonstrated in this study that White’s particular image of modern social contexts leads him to pose new questions and to develop new modes of analysis toanswer them. White’s view of modem societies radically alters the very nature and state of the question of social order as well as the premises of its answer. As White dismisses the conventional formulations of the problem of social order, he considers the issue to be a question of identifying the small enclaves of regularity within the social landscape that is dynamic, indeterminate and shifting. In more concrete terms, it becomes a question of identifying the limited, local and stable patterns or configurations of relationships that prove sustainable and thus observable, despite all the dynamics of embeddedness and connectivity.Finally, the basic theoretical features of White’s model of production markets are presented and discussed. Production markets is a topic to which White has devoted a great deal of interest. Ever since the mid-1970s he has produced a long series of work with the ambition of developing a sociological account of these markets. This account represents the most extensive application of White’s general sociology, where he fleshes out his abstract ideas and arguments and where one finds a concrete case of his account of the emergence of social structures and local orders out of network ties and flows.The main conclusion of this study is that, despite all its shortcomings, the general sociological perspective that White has developed is an important contribution. It provides sociology with a new foundation and shows the direction towards which the discipline should be moving.
  • Bergman, Jonny (författare)
  • Seeking empowerment asylum-seeking refugees from Afghanistan in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of how asylum-seeking refugees manage their lives in the situation they are in, a situation in which they are dependent and have to wait for decisions on whether or not they will get to stay in the country in which they have made their application for asylum.  The elaboration upon these questions and the purpose of the study is approached through a field study of asylum-seeking refugees from Afghanistan in Sweden. The thesis presents a background of international migration, refugee migration, refugee migration from Afghanistan and the reception of asylum seekers and refugees in the EU and Sweden, which tells us both that asylum seekers and refugees are not welcome in the countries of the ‘North’, where policies of containment and repatriation are the most common features of treating the refugee ‘problem’ and that the long period of waiting and uncertainty creates a situation of passivity and ill-health among the asylum seekers. Employing grounded theory methodology in different forms based in data from fieldwork, including participant observations and informal conversations, the study applies a constructionist grounded theory approach in the analyses of the situation and the management thereof. Steered by this constructionist grounded theory approach, strengthened by a situational analysis, the thesis presents a situational frame pointing to the situation for the asylum-seeking refugees as temporal and dependent on Swedish national discourse, racism and paternalism. With this background and frame and generated by data from the field study, the thesis goes on to present the situation as disempowering. The disempowering processes are illustrated through looking at dependence and inhospitality, and are characterised by the asylum-seeking refugees’ oscillation between feelings of hope and despair. It becomes, however, also evident that the asylum-seeking refugees take action and that they are supported by latent empowering processes. The actions taken are categorised as actions of empowering in opposition to the processes presented as disempowering. The actions of empowering are connected to keeping oneself occupied, searching for and maintaining social contacts and in the asylum-seeking refugees’ representations of themselves. From the presentation of the situation as disempowering and the actions taken by the asylum-seeking refugees in response to this situation as actions of empowering, a process characterised as seeking empowerment is presented. In this process empowerment is discussed as the establishment of power to resist. During the discussion of the concept of seeking empowerment it is shown how the asylum-seeking refugees in this study, through their actions of empowering, try to resist the disempowering situation. By seeking to establish power to resist, they are seeking empowerment.
  • Danielsson, Erna, 1954- (författare)
  • Är delaktighet möjlig i en byråkrati? en fallstudie inom Försvarsmakten av det arbete som föregick försvarsbeslut -96
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about the conflict between participation and bureaucracy. This conflict is illustrated by a case study within the Swedish Armed Forces under the activity that preceded the 1996 Resolution on Defence. More closely it focuses on the decision-making process that led to the Swedish Armed Forces report that were handed over to the Government in March 1996. In this decision-making process the Supreme Commander tried different ways to create participation among all the high- ranking officers, from local up to Headquarters level, to make them participate in the process.The thesis answers the question if it is possible to create participation in a bureau­cratic organisation such as the Swedish Armed Forces, and the conclusion that I draw is that participation is hard to establish. First there is a conflict within the bureaucratic form itself, since a bureaucracy implies a diversification of assignments and responsibilities in different functions and at different levels in a hierarchy. Every level has its own task to fulfil and this states how reality is to be understood. In the Swedish Armed Forces the bureaucratic structure is reinforced by the fact that the officer is promoted to a higher rank after his or her military training. Both the bureaucratic structure and the military training will lead to a differentiation between individuals, and they will be placed in different skills and status levels within the organisation. Besides this, individuals will gather information mostly from their own level, which will further fortify the difference between the levels. Furthermore there are also individual factors connected to the bureaucratic structure that have shown to complicate participation. For example individuals choose not to participate since they experience that they lack necessary competens for the task, that they do not have time, that they have not been consulted or that they consider the task to be solved at a higher level.So even if the military decision-making model encourages and advocates partici­pation, there is a big difficulty to break the bureaucratic design. Leaders often show inability to go from a bureaucratic leadership style to a democratic one. At the same time the subordinate support their leaders when they act as a traditional leader.
  • Drugge, Ulf (författare)
  • Domstolar som konfliktreglerare en komparativ undersökning av underrätternas konfliktreglerande verksamhet
  • 1978
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Within the framework of the traditional sociological question, how the legal system is related to the society, the aim of this study is to treat the legal system as a conflict resolver. More specifically, the following questions will be treated:1.Which categories of people and which categories of organizations are as parties using the court for settling conflicts and in what types of conflicts do they act in this way?2.Howdoes the legal utilization vary over time? May socio-economical, demographical, and legal conditions explain these variations?This study only deals with conflict resolution in courts of first instance, so called district courts.One aim has been to get a general view over to what extent Swedish courts are utilized as conflict resolvers, and how this utilization varies over time. The discussion is mainly based upon official statistics. To complete this discussion, an empirical study has been realized. This study is comparative. The conflict solving activities between 1940 and 1969 has been examined in the town courts of Umeå and Luleå. The data basis consists of official statistics and collected informations from cases finally dealt with in the two courts. A stratified random sample out of these cases has been made. As a result of theoretical and methodological considerations the sample consists of only certain types of disputes and crimes.As a general conclusion, one can state that disputes before the courts nowadays as earlier are concerning socially and economically strong persons. However one must notify that this study is just a case study with its limitations.Concerning criminal cases, expected results from the study are that the proportion of workers among the prosecuted is bigger than the proportion of prosecuted business leaders. Interesting however, is that the unskilled are well represented in the data material. This means a different picture compared to the distribution of plaintiffs in civil cases. The changes in character of the conflict constellations occured in the two towns at the same time as summary legal processes were introduced in criminal cases at the end of the 1940's. A bigger proportion of workers as prosecuted party is observed after that processual simplification. Pro-cessual simplifications of that kind seem to strengthen rather than to weaken the occupational bias among the prosecuted persons, at least in crime cases with an injured person involved.Concerning criminal cases, we have finally assumpted that during phases of social and economical stagnation both the number of prosecuted workers and the number of theft and drunkeness cases increases in the type of industrialized community that Luleå belongs to. In more socially and economically differentiated communities, like Umeå, the same type of development is more linked to phases of economical expansion. While increases in the pressure of temptation are widening the economical conditions for people, this may be the reasonable explanation to the variations in the conflict resolving activities in the courts between different local communities. Explanations, close to those used to explain criminal activity caused by poverty, may refer to local communities dominated by industry.
  • Hult, Carl (författare)
  • The way we conform to paid labour Commitment to employment and organization from a comparative perspective
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis compares work orientations in six Western countries (the USA, Great Britain, New Zealand, Germany, Norway, and Sweden), using data from the 1997 International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The main issue examined is whether different ‘production regimes’ correspond to levels and patterns of employment and organizational commitment among the working population. It is concluded that the country levels of employment commitment varies depending on the institutional set-ups, with respect to production and welfare regimes, being highest in the Scandinavian countries and lowest in Great Britain and the USA. Organizational commitment varies in a more complex manner, with the strongest commitment being found in the USA and the lowest in Sweden. In all countries, the most important factor determining the level of an individual’s organizational commitment is whether the person finds his or her job interesting. This effect is independent of job satisfaction. Organizational commitment was also found to be positively and strongly correlated with right-wing political values in five of the six countries. When it comes to employment commitment, it was found that women display, often significantly, higher commitment than do men. The results suggest that the most important motivator for employment commitment is the desire for interesting work. The concluding discussion summarises and presents the main findings in schematic figures, and includes interpretative discussions focusing on future research.
  • Jacobsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • 'Att blifva sin egen' ungdomars väg in i vuxenlivet i 1700- och 1800-talens övre Norrland
  • 2000
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The background to this study is that there is no studies on youth and their transition to adulthood in preindustrial Sweden. The main objective of this thesis has therefore been to analyze young peoples transition to adulthood during the late 18th and 19th centuries in a region of the northern part of Sweden. The social context of the region was mainly agrarian during the investigated period despite the fact that in the later part of the 19th and beginning of 20th century, a development of a growing forest industry had started. The main questions is: How and when in life did different social categories of young people establish an independent and adult life? Where there any changes in transitional patterns and was the establishment smoother or more troublesome at different times during the investigated period ? Where there any changes regarding social norms related to the establishment of adult life?The transition to adult life is studied from a life-course approach and four key-transitions; The First Holy communion, leaving home, marriage and parenthood are regarded as significant steps within the process to a independent social position. Individual data related to keytransitions is mainly collected from cathectical examination records and comprised 2206 individuals born in six different cohorts between 1770 and 1900. The selected cohorts represents individuals that had to deal with different social conditions during their youth and transition to adult life.The main results regarding the transition to adult life can be summarized in two words, complexity and variance. Usually it was a "long" transition but the number of accomplished keytransitions and the order between them varied, as well as ages when taking the first Holy Communion, leaving home, marriage and entering parenthood varied. Transitional patterns varied between different categories of youth. A dividing line existed between the sexes, those from households strongly rooted in the agricultural structure and those with background in social categories that didn't own or was in possession of land. Social norms related to keytransitons changed along this dividing line during the investigated period of time, and became less permissive within landowning or land-possessing categories and less prescriptive in other categories.Transitional patterns were also influenced by the social situation at different historical times. The need for labor, war and years of famine directly intervened in timing and sequencing of keytransitions. A long term development was that the transition to adult life became more problematic in the later part of the 19th century, especially among young people who were less integrated in the social context and among socially stigmatized youth. Finally, young people were active and reflexive in seeking social space to make the transition to adult life, actions that sometimes caused tensions and conflicts between generations.
  • Jonsson, Gun (författare)
  • Tanter och representanter en fråga om oligarki eller demokrati?
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis emanated from a discussion whether voluntary associations have a choice or not regarding their democratic development. Robert Michels (1911/1983), one of the classic sociological thinkers, says no. The path towards oligarchy is inevitable. Nevertheless, maybe there are certain points, where the organizations face a certain democratic “dilemma” (Merton, 1966), forcing them more or less easily towards the oligarchic path? Seven counterarguments deriving from modern perspectives on participatory democracy (Pateman 1985; 1989) where used to find a way to avoid the oligarchic path and by that develop democracy in organizations. Since democracy also requires equality, the dissertation explored the question of power and influence in democratic organisations by studying the use of (spoken) language. Inspired by sociolinguistic theory (Milles, 2004) the aim was to identify dominance of the conversation: Who are taking part of the conversation? Are there differences between women and men in democratic organisations?The main part of the study consists of group interviews. Members of the boards of six relatively small voluntary associations where chosen as units of analysis. Information around founding an association gathered from 75 homepages on Internet served as background data. The language as each one of the 27 board members where studied both separately and as conversation.The conclusion is that formal structures build in hierarchal levels already when voluntary organisations take form. The dilemmas seem to revolve around the two fundamental criteria of democratic government, namely effectiveness and responsiveness are more or less explicitly stated. Awareness of dilemmas seems to be a possible way to avoid the determinism of oligarchy. The need for reinterpretation of the goals now and then could make it easier to find alternative actions. The associations have to strike a balance between effectiveness in relation to their goals and effectiveness in a democratic sense, a balance not always held. By clarifying the work and development processes of the voluntary organisations it is possible to identify (the lack of) democratic work within the organisations – a useful instrument in practice. The elite that runs the organisations is almost exclusively male and is preventing the members, especially women, from voicing their opinion. Democracy obstructs by structures demanded by society, socialised gender structures and the need of efficiency. The representatives are not always carrying out their task as elected representatives; self-interest puts before the common good.
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