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Sökning: hsvkat:504 mat:dok (lärosäte:(gu) OR lärosäte:(du) OR lärosäte:(kau) OR lärosäte:(lnu) OR lärosäte:(ltu) OR lärosäte:(lu) OR lärosäte:(miun) OR lärosäte:(mdh) OR lärosäte:(su) OR lärosäte:(umu) OR lärosäte:(uu) OR lärosäte:(oru)) > Uppsala universitet

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  • Iversen, Clara, 1981- (författare)
  • Making Questions and Answers Work Negotiating Participation in Interview Interaction
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The current thesis explores conditions for participation in interview interaction. Drawing on the ethnomethodological idea that knowledge is central to participation in social situations, it examines how interview participants navigate knowledge and competence claims and the institutional and moral implications of these claims. The data consists of, in total, 97 audio-recorded interviews conducted as part of a national Swedish evaluation of support interventions for children exposed to violence. In three studies, I use discursive psychology and conversation analysis to explicate how interview participants in interaction (1) contribute to and negotiate institutional constraints and (2) manage rights and responsibilities related to knowledge.The findings of study I and study II show that child interviewees actively cooperate with as well as resist the constraints of interview questions. However, the children’s opportunities for participation in this institutional context are limited by two factors: (1) recordability; that is, the focus on generating recordable responses and (2) problematic assumptions underpinning questions and the interpretation of interview answers. Apart from restricting children’s rights to formulate their experiences, these factors can lead interviewers to miss opportunities to gain important information. Also related to institutional constraints, study III shows how the ideal of model consistency is prioritized over service-user participation. Thus, the three studies show how different practices relevant to institutional agendas may hinder participation.Moreover, the findings contribute to an understanding of how issues of knowledge are managed in the interviews. Study II suggests the importance of the concept of believability to refer to people’s rights and responsibilities to draw conclusions about others’ thoughts. And the findings of study III demonstrate how, in evaluation interviews with social workers, children’s access to their own thoughts and feelings are based on a notion of predetermined participation; that is, constructed as contingent on wanting what the institutional setting offers. Thus, child service users’ low epistemic status, compared to the social workers, trumps their epistemic access to their own minds. These conclusions, about recordability, believability, and predetermined participation, are based on interaction with or about children. However, I argue that the findings relate to interviewees and service users in general. By demonstrating the structuring power of interactive practices, the thesis extends our understanding of conditions for participation in the institutional setting of social research interviews. 
  • Hjorth Aronsson, Christina (författare)
  • Struktur, handling och rumslig morfologi : Två fall av förnyelse och byggande i urban miljö
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The dissertation addresses problems concerning relations between decentralised welfare and centralised planning and building authorities as central matters in the public sector on communal level. Problems concerning relations between public planning and private market according to building are also focused. The study is based on Durkheim's macrosociology, social epistemology, and sociology of knowledge, developing an analysis model built upon Mary Douglas' grid-group typology, new-durkheimian theory of ritual action and urban semiotics. Key concepts are cosmologies, social welfare, market, and claims for influence on the process of physical planning. The analysis is made in relation to changes in welfare state perspective on macro level.The study's empirical material is collected from documents, official statistics, and interviews with essential actors in public sector and private enterprises, reflecting renewal efforts and of new planning.Decentralization of public decision-making evolves claims of local influence as results of new insights and knowledge among local professionals and politicians as results of new cooperation. Emancipation and ambivalence in relation central-local are consequences. Increased participation from private market on planning and building reflect knowledge-based differences and tensions due to their respective cosmological belonging. Changes in the post-war welfare sector are reflected in accumulated problems in a neighbourhood-area. Decarceration is reflected as normalisation in ordinary housing. On urban level, this reflects increased morphological, as well as socio-economical differentiation. Theoretically is discussed the possible expansion of grid-group typology through integrating concepts of action, of structure, and of spatial morphology (semiotics), called intra- and inter cosmological phenomena.
  • Krekula, Clary (författare)
  • Kvinna i ålderskodad värld : Om äldre kvinnors förkroppsligade identitetsförhandlingar
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • By exploring identity processes during women’s life course, this study aims at broadening the theoretical framework concerning the intersection of age and gender. Two fundamental questions are posed: (1) how do identity processes appear when an age perspective is added, and (2) how can women’s narratives about old age be understood from the social psychological identity perspective? The study is based on individual qualitative interviews with women aged 75+, which were preceded by focus group interviews. The analysis draws attention to the duality of bodily meanings: the on-stage-body and the off-stage-body. These analytical concepts call attention to the body as embodied identity claims and as bodily signs given, but not used by the actor as identity claims. The analyses also emphasize how identity processes are based on a notion of phenomena as age coded, that is, the appropriateness of behaviours as determined in relation to age. The study illustrates several parallel identity processes: face-to-face interaction, interaction with internalized significant others and with social norms. The study highlights that (1) identities can be more or less dependent on external approval and that (2) the body`s role in identity processes varies with context and interaction. The study reveals a variety of old age discourses. Depending on whether identities are coded as appropriate for old age or younger ages, the category 'old women' is both used and rejected as an in-group. In a similar vein, the dichotomy of subjective and chronological age stands out as an identity strategy. The study also shows that chronological age is used as a sufficient explanation for changed conditions, situating changes in life at the individual and biological level, whereby social aging processes are toned down, and the women’s position as actors becomes limited.
  • Paulsen, Roland, 1981- (författare)
  • Empty Labor : Subjectivity and Idleness at Work
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about how and why employees spend large proportions of their working hours on empty labor, i.e. private activities on the job. It is written against the backdrop of a highly debated subject within critical theory, namely the possibility of individuals resisting taken-for-granted power asymmetries. Critical theorists' stress on ideological power and the internalization of submission calls the idea of a free subject into question. Since labor often appears as the hub of instrumental reason in which all acts of resistance are suppressed, this stress becomes particularly obvious when worker subjectivity is discussed. Yet international statistics suggest that the average time of empty labor per employee is between 1,5 to 3 hours a day. With the overarching goal to understand if these statistics emanate from undercover employee resistance in the form of time appropriation, I interviewed 43 employees who spent around half of their working hours on empty labor. Four types of empty labor could be discerned depending on the employee's sense of work obligation and how much work the job actually entailed: soldiering is the active withdrawal of the employee despite high potential output; slacking is a combination of little to do and weak sense of work obligation in the employee; coping is when the employee wants to perform and there is much to do, but when empty labor is used as stress relief; enduring is when the employee is motivated to work, but work tasks are lacking. Although simulating work is essential to all types of empty labor, only soldiering represents resistance in the sense that subjective motives challenge the organization of labor. Among those with a weak sense of work obligation, the motives for time appropriation varied from personal to more political reasons. However, if empty labor can be incorporated into the organization of work, and the maximal efficiency that sometimes is ascribed to the capitalist production system is unwarranted, one might ask whether any type of empty labor signifies resistance. I conclude by pointing out how the phenomenon of empty labor challenges the very concept of work and its relation to production.
  • Tyrkkö, Arja (författare)
  • I skärningspunkten mellan arbetsliv och föräldraskap : En studie om livsformer i 1990-talets Sverige
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The central problem area of this dissertation concerns the connection between working life and parenthood. The main purpose is to develop an analytical strategy which validity is determined by the extent to which it can consider and cover the complexity of the con-ditions and practices of everyday life for working parents. Starting in an understanding of the concept life-mode as a sensitizing concept, an analytical model is developed and a Boolean approach is used to study the complex interrelation between working life and parenthood. In the dissertation the relationship between working life and parenthood is studied focusing on the work place. Parenthood, organization and gender are three key concepts which direct the analysis of the organizational forms everyday life take on. The empirical material of the dissertation comes from a questionnaire survey carried out in Sweden in 1992. The material consists of nine occupational groups, divided in women and men. A qualitative comparative method, developed by Charles C. Ragin, is used to compare organization-based adjustment situations. The factors of the analytical model are presented in binary form and tested against empirical data. The results are presented as equations that reflect the com-plexity of the interrelations between working life and parenthood through conjunctures of causal conditions, i e leading position, the dominance of one of the sexes at departmental level, children-specific scope of action, general scope of action, and the outcome, i e different adjustment strategies used by parents. The division of the adjustment strategies in three degrees of imposed restrictions on the work situation : everyday actions, smaller restrictions and bigger changes of the work situation : is an attempt to account for the size of the work and family circles. <br/><br/>(In Swedish with an English summary)
  • Agevall, Ola (författare)
  • A Science of Unique Events : Max Weber's Methodology of the Cultural Sciences
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Max-Weber's methodological essays, published-posthumously as Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftslehre, continue to attract scholarly attention. They also continue to pose formidable problems to a modern reader. Part of the reason for this is that Max Weber both responds to and draws upon scholarly work that has long ceased to be familiar to social scientists. In order to grasp Weber's methodological project, we therefore need to uncover the historical co-ordinates within which it was framed. A framework of this order is to be found in the discourses over method that took place in the human sciences in Germany during the 19th century - particularly in jurisprudence, economics and history. Max Weber's methodological views, however, did not square with any of the positions taken in these debates. He had other methodological convictions. They were partly taken over from Heinrich Rickert, partly from Johannes von Kries. Heinrich Rickert's philosophy of science furnished Weber both with a general theory of science and with a theory of concept formation in the historical sciences, whereas Johannes von Kries provided him with a theory of causality. It can be shown that these theories combine in Max Weber's methodological thought to provide the basis for theoretical notions such as the ideal type - but also that this has implications both for Weber's empirical work and for the characteristic way in which he criticises the different standpoints in the prevailing methodological discourse.
  • Bergman Blix, Stina, 1971- (författare)
  • Rehearsing Emotions The Process of Creating a Role for the Stage
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis takes as its starting point the dramaturgical metaphor of the world as a stage, which is used in sociological role theories. These theories often presume what stage acting is about in order to use it as a simile for every day acting. My intention is to investigate how stage actors actually work with their roles, in particular how they work with emotions, and how it affects their private emotions.The thesis draws on participant observation and interviews with actors during the rehearsal phase of two productions at a large theatre in Sweden. The results show that the inhabiting of a role for the stage is more difficult and painstaking than has been assumed in role theories so far. Shame and insecurity are common, particularly in the start up phase of the rehearsals. Interestingly, these emotions do not disappear with growing experience, but instead become recognized and accepted as part of the work process.The primary focus is the interplay between the actors' experience and expression of emotions, often described in terms of surface and deep acting, concepts which are elaborated and put into a process perspective. Analysis of the rehearsal process revealed that actors gradually decouple the privately derived emotional experiences that they use to find their way into their characters from the emotions that they express on the stage. Thus private experiences are converted to professional emotional experiences and expressions, triggered by situational cues. When the experience has been expressed the physical manifestation can be repeated with a weaker base in a simultaneous experience, since the body remembers the expression. It is important though, that the emotional expression is not completely decoupled from a concomitant experience; then the expression looses its vitality. The ability to professionalize emotions makes the transitions in and out of emotions less strenuous but can infiltrate and cause problems in the actors' intimate relations.
  • Bruhn, Anders (författare)
  • Individualiseringen och det fackliga kollektivet : En studie av industritjänstemäns förhållningssätt till facket
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation is based on a research project focusing privately employed industrial white-collar workers in Gothenburg, Sweden. The project was initiated due to signs of changes in the way employees perceive and act in relation to the union. The aim of this thesis is to study the causes behind individual patterns of action in relation to union membership and activity. My ambition is to increase our knowledge of the conditions of unions in contemporary working life, as well as of organisations of interest more generally. The problem is tackled in two steps: First I describe and analyse the individual motives behind different patterns of action. Second I analyse contextual causes, both in the workplace and in society at large, behind changes in motives evidenced today. My point of departure is theories about value change and individualization. The concept of value is here used to analyse how the individualization process changes the conditions for organized collective behaviour.My methodological approach is multistrategic. The main component of the approach is qualitative interviews. I interviewed employees at seven different companys during the period of 1993-1995. 1997 these were complemented with a postal survey to a representative sample of the target group in Gothenburg.The analysis reveals a distinctive generation gap in motives in relation to union membership and activity. Group-utility based instrumental views about the union, often in connection with "solidarity" and other traditional union values, was quite common among the older employees. These views were related to "security-based" materialistic value patterns. Instrumental considerations based on personal utility were mote frequent among the younger employees and coexisted with "private post-materialistic" value patterns. The private postmaterialist is fairly open-minded, critically reflexive and ambivalent. He/she gives priority to "libertarian" values, such as personal development and self-fulfilment. Situationally bound activities and objects ate not evaluated in relation to any deeper ideological convictions. As a result of this peripheral values, attitudes and actions adapt rapidly to situational changes and opinions are easily altered. This is a "risk-group" for unions and other established organizations of interest. They are not against organized collectives as such. To participate though, they demand direct personal influence and benefits. To attract them unions has to revaluate both how activity is carried out and what issues to give priority. Private postmaterialism is, along with the more principled and ideologically based "social" variant of postmaterialism, a reflection of increasing individualism. Causes for value change and individualisation can be accounted for by changes in the socialisation process and the growing differentiation and fragmentation in todays complex society.
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