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1.
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2.
  • Deutschmann, Mats (författare)
  • Apologising in British English
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingenatt undersöker funktionen av ursäkten som talakt samt sociala skillnader i dess användande i talad Brittisk engelska inspelad under tidigt 1990-tal. Materialet består av hundratals konversationer från formella och informella sammanhang och sammanlagt ingår över 1700 talare i den undersökta korpusen. Avhandlingen kan påvisa att artighetsyttringar såsom ursäkten är viktiga verktyg för att kontrollera och manipulera omgivningen och att det framförallt är medelklassen och andra grupper i maktposition som brukar artighetsformler till detta syfte.
3.
  • Eliassi, Barzoo, 1978- (författare)
  • A stranger in my homeland The politics of belonging among young people with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation examines how young people with Kurdish backgrounds form their identity in Sweden with regards to processes of inclusion and exclusion. It also sheds light on the ways these young people deal with ethnic discrimination and racism. Further, the study outlines the importance of these social processes for the discipline of social work and the ways social workers can work with disadvantaged and marginalized groups and endorse their struggle for social justice and full equal citizenship beyond racist and discriminatory practices. The empirical analysis is built on interviews with 28 young men and women with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden. Postcolonial theory, belonging and identity formation constitute the central conceptual framework of this study.The young people referred to different sites in which they experienced ethnic discrimination and stigmatization. These experiences involved the labor market, mass media, housing segregation, legal system and school system. The interviewees also referred to the roles of ‘ordinary’ Swedes in obstructing their participation in the Swedish society through exclusionary discourses relating to Swedish identity. The interviewees’ life situation in Sweden, sense of ethnic discrimination as well as disputes over identity making with other young people with Middle-Eastern background are among the most important reasons for fostering strong Kurdish nationalist sentiments, issues that are related to the ways they can exercise their citizenship rights in Sweden and how they deal with exclusionary practices in their everyday life. The study shows that the interviewees respond to and resist ethnic discrimination in a variety of ways including interpersonal debates and discussions, changing their names to Swedish names, strengthening differences between the self and the other, violence, silence and deliberately ignoring racism. They also challenged and spoke out against the gendered racism that they were subjected to in their daily lives due to the paternalist discourse of ”honor-killing”.The research participants had been denied an equal place within the boundary of Swedishness partly due to a racist postcolonial discourse that valued whiteness highly. Paradoxically, some interviewees reproduced the same discourse through choosing to use it against black people, Africans, newly-arrived Kurdish immigrants (”imports”), ”Gypsies” and Islam in order to claim a modern Kurdish identity as near to whiteness as possible. This indicates the multiple dimensions of racism. Those who are subjected to racism and ethnic discrimination can be discriminatory and reproduce the racist discourse. Despite unequal power relations, both dominant and minoritized subjects are all marked by the postcolonial condition in structuring subjectivities, belonging and identification.
4.
  • Iversen, Clara, 1981- (författare)
  • Making Questions and Answers Work Negotiating Participation in Interview Interaction
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The current thesis explores conditions for participation in interview interaction. Drawing on the ethnomethodological idea that knowledge is central to participation in social situations, it examines how interview participants navigate knowledge and competence claims and the institutional and moral implications of these claims. The data consists of, in total, 97 audio-recorded interviews conducted as part of a national Swedish evaluation of support interventions for children exposed to violence. In three studies, I use discursive psychology and conversation analysis to explicate how interview participants in interaction (1) contribute to and negotiate institutional constraints and (2) manage rights and responsibilities related to knowledge.The findings of study I and study II show that child interviewees actively cooperate with as well as resist the constraints of interview questions. However, the children’s opportunities for participation in this institutional context are limited by two factors: (1) recordability; that is, the focus on generating recordable responses and (2) problematic assumptions underpinning questions and the interpretation of interview answers. Apart from restricting children’s rights to formulate their experiences, these factors can lead interviewers to miss opportunities to gain important information. Also related to institutional constraints, study III shows how the ideal of model consistency is prioritized over service-user participation. Thus, the three studies show how different practices relevant to institutional agendas may hinder participation.Moreover, the findings contribute to an understanding of how issues of knowledge are managed in the interviews. Study II suggests the importance of the concept of believability to refer to people’s rights and responsibilities to draw conclusions about others’ thoughts. And the findings of study III demonstrate how, in evaluation interviews with social workers, children’s access to their own thoughts and feelings are based on a notion of predetermined participation; that is, constructed as contingent on wanting what the institutional setting offers. Thus, child service users’ low epistemic status, compared to the social workers, trumps their epistemic access to their own minds. These conclusions, about recordability, believability, and predetermined participation, are based on interaction with or about children. However, I argue that the findings relate to interviewees and service users in general. By demonstrating the structuring power of interactive practices, the thesis extends our understanding of conditions for participation in the institutional setting of social research interviews. 
5.
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6.
  • Elsrud, Torun (författare)
  • Taking Time and Making Journeys: Narratives on Self and the Other among Backpackers
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Att packa ryggsäcken och resa till tropikerna, till vad man ofta kallar ‘tredje världen’ för en längre tids vistelse anses ofta vara av avsevärd betydelse för en individs identitet och framtida liv. För många resenärer upplevs resan som ett sätt att ta kontroll över den egna tiden och rörelsen, en kontroll som betraktas som en bristvara i de miljöer resenärerna kommer från. Resan kan på så sätt ses som en reaktion mot ett samhälle där människor upplever en brist på kontroll över den egna identiteten, en brist på att vara sedd och uppskattad för den man är. Genom att ta kontroll över tiden och rummet manifesterar individen således en identitetsberättelse i vilken förmedlas ett budskap om individuell styrka och självkontroll. I synnerhet äventyrliga resor fungerar som tecken på en statusfylld och stark identitet och kan, tror flera resenärer, fungera som en identitetsmarkör långt efter att resan är avslutad. Dock fungerar inte äventyrsberättelsen lika väl för alla. I den här avhandlingen diskuteras också äventyrliga kvinnors balansakt mellan kulturella förväntningar på hur en kvinna bör och kan uppträda och på hur en riktig äventyrare ska agera. Avhandlingen beskriver hur kvinnliga resenärer hittar olika strategier för att förhålla sig till dessa motstridiga förväntningar. Medan några strategier tycks vidmakthålla beskrivningar av kvinnor som mindre modiga och rörliga än män får andra strategier en motsatt innebörd. Dessa utmanar det manliga äventyrsidealet och ger uttryck för en kvinnlig frigörelse från stereotypa förväntningar och beskrivningar. Resans olika aktiviteter är inte bara av stor betydelse för hur enskilda resenärer skapar sina egna identiteter och livsberättelser. Resans moment utgör också fundament för skapandet och upprätthållandet av en kollektiv ‘västerländsk’ identitet. Avhandlingen diskuterar hur den här typen av resande – liksom andra former av turism – innehåller flera primitivistiska drag. Dessa kommer till uttryck genom starka sympatier för men också fördomar mot de människor som lever i många av de länder resenärerna besöker. Idealisering och förlöjligande av människor som lever fattigare, annorlunda och mer ‘naturnära’ är två sidor av samma primitivismmynt som kommer till uttryck i såväl intervjuer som i resejournalistik. Dessa människor ställs i skarp kontrast till resenärens ‘västvärld’ som konstrueras som oäkta men dock framåt, progressiv och utvecklad. Givet den ekonomiska globala obalans som råder, där vissa grupper/nationer med ekonomins och teknologins hjälp kontrollerar både luftrummet och innehållet i många av de medier som profiterar på turism, så bidrar detta konstruerande av den ‘andra’ i ’tredje världen’ till en fortsatt skev maktfördelning. Således kan man se den här typen av resande, liksom andra turismformer som vitala delar i ett upprätthållande av en global maktstruktur och i en pågående konstruktion av ‘väst’ som den globala skapelsens krona. Avhandlingen bygger på ett kvalitativt, etnografiskt präglat arbetssätt, bestående av fältarbete, intervjuer med långtidsresenärer och analys av sådana medier som vänder sig till turistande nordvästeuropéer.
7.
  • Hedin, Lena, 1951- (författare)
  • Foster youth's sense of belonging in kinship, network, and traditional foster families an interactive perspective on foster youth's everyday life
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis shows that foster youth can be active participants and agents in shaping their own lives, both in terms of developing and breaking relationships. The aim of the thesis is to examine the everyday lives of young people after entering various types of foster families, and to identify processes in various contexts that influence their sense of belonging. Three of the studies are based on in-depth interviews with 17 foster youth, and a fourth study also includes follow-up interviews with 15 of them. The study’s perspective views the family as socially constructed by means of interactive rituals in which both adults and young people are social actors. Study I demonstrates foster children’s motivation and aptitude for academic improvement, even despite previous severe problems in school. The study indicates that their satisfaction with school is related to both the quality of care they receive and their relations with peers. Study II illuminates the importance of both structure and warmth in foster youth’s everyday life. Routines normalize their daily life. Emotional warmth is created through doing things together. In particular, joking and laughing stand out as important inclusion practices. In study III the young people in kinship and network foster families are found to display the strongest social bonds to their foster families, and the young people in traditional foster families the weakest. Including network foster families in the study sheds light on the importance of adolescents’ active involvement in choosing their foster families. Study IV strengthens findings in the previous three studies about the importance of mutual activities and laughing together for the creation of social bonds in the foster family. Over time, adolescents in traditional foster families also have strengthened their social bonds to the foster family. Therapeutic support is found to be more common in the follow-up interview than one year before, and this unmasks the vulnerability of foster youth, and girls in particular. However, foster youth exhibit personal agency by still coping fairly well with their situation. Overall, this thesis shows that the sense of belonging in the family is strengthened if youth negotiate and take part in decisions concerning them and if the family is an ‘open foster family’ in its reception of the youth and their biological parents, but also that humour can serve as a door-opener into the foster family.
8.
  • Paulsen, Roland, 1981- (författare)
  • Empty Labor : Subjectivity and Idleness at Work
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about how and why employees spend large proportions of their working hours on empty labor, i.e. private activities on the job. It is written against the backdrop of a highly debated subject within critical theory, namely the possibility of individuals resisting taken-for-granted power asymmetries. Critical theorists' stress on ideological power and the internalization of submission calls the idea of a free subject into question. Since labor often appears as the hub of instrumental reason in which all acts of resistance are suppressed, this stress becomes particularly obvious when worker subjectivity is discussed. Yet international statistics suggest that the average time of empty labor per employee is between 1,5 to 3 hours a day. With the overarching goal to understand if these statistics emanate from undercover employee resistance in the form of time appropriation, I interviewed 43 employees who spent around half of their working hours on empty labor. Four types of empty labor could be discerned depending on the employee's sense of work obligation and how much work the job actually entailed: soldiering is the active withdrawal of the employee despite high potential output; slacking is a combination of little to do and weak sense of work obligation in the employee; coping is when the employee wants to perform and there is much to do, but when empty labor is used as stress relief; enduring is when the employee is motivated to work, but work tasks are lacking. Although simulating work is essential to all types of empty labor, only soldiering represents resistance in the sense that subjective motives challenge the organization of labor. Among those with a weak sense of work obligation, the motives for time appropriation varied from personal to more political reasons. However, if empty labor can be incorporated into the organization of work, and the maximal efficiency that sometimes is ascribed to the capitalist production system is unwarranted, one might ask whether any type of empty labor signifies resistance. I conclude by pointing out how the phenomenon of empty labor challenges the very concept of work and its relation to production.
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9.
  • Agevall, Ola (författare)
  • A Science of Unique Events : Max Weber's Methodology of the Cultural Sciences
  • 1999
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Max-Weber's methodological essays, published-posthumously as Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftslehre, continue to attract scholarly attention. They also continue to pose formidable problems to a modern reader. Part of the reason for this is that Max Weber both responds to and draws upon scholarly work that has long ceased to be familiar to social scientists. In order to grasp Weber's methodological project, we therefore need to uncover the historical co-ordinates within which it was framed. A framework of this order is to be found in the discourses over method that took place in the human sciences in Germany during the 19th century - particularly in jurisprudence, economics and history. Max Weber's methodological views, however, did not square with any of the positions taken in these debates. He had other methodological convictions. They were partly taken over from Heinrich Rickert, partly from Johannes von Kries. Heinrich Rickert's philosophy of science furnished Weber both with a general theory of science and with a theory of concept formation in the historical sciences, whereas Johannes von Kries provided him with a theory of causality. It can be shown that these theories combine in Max Weber's methodological thought to provide the basis for theoretical notions such as the ideal type - but also that this has implications both for Weber's empirical work and for the characteristic way in which he criticises the different standpoints in the prevailing methodological discourse.
  •  
10.
  • Azarian, Reza, 1960- (författare)
  • The general sociology of Harrison White
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis the main features of Harrison C. White’s general sociology are studied. Since the 1960s White has played a crucial role in the development of the social network approach. He is well known for both the fecundity of the analytical tools he has developed over the years and for the original contributions he has made to several sub­fields of the discipline. White has also developed an unconventional and highly individual approach to social reality that, as the end-result of a sustained synthesizing effort, has grown out of a long and persistent endeavor. Yet, more than a decade after its publication, this general theoretical approach still remains largely unexplored.The main argument of this study is that White’s approach represents one of the mast persistent, elaborated and systematic efforts to enrich the analytical rigorous of the social network approach by adding the substantive theoretical insights that have been elaborated mainly within the symbolic interactionist perspective and the tradition of phenomenological sociology. In this study, first the premises of White’s approach are examined. It is demonstrated how White uses social networks as an analytical tool in order to obtain causal explanations of social phenomena. It is also shown how White re- conceptualizes the notions of social relationship and embeddedness. Furthermore, it is also discussed how White, on the basis of these conceptual innovations, develops a novel image of modern social contexts. This study proceeds by presenting the set of new basic concepts that are derived from this image, seeking to locate these concepts within the larger and more familiar context of theoretical sociology.It is also demonstrated in this study that White’s particular image of modern social contexts leads him to pose new questions and to develop new modes of analysis toanswer them. White’s view of modem societies radically alters the very nature and state of the question of social order as well as the premises of its answer. As White dismisses the conventional formulations of the problem of social order, he considers the issue to be a question of identifying the small enclaves of regularity within the social landscape that is dynamic, indeterminate and shifting. In more concrete terms, it becomes a question of identifying the limited, local and stable patterns or configurations of relationships that prove sustainable and thus observable, despite all the dynamics of embeddedness and connectivity.Finally, the basic theoretical features of White’s model of production markets are presented and discussed. Production markets is a topic to which White has devoted a great deal of interest. Ever since the mid-1970s he has produced a long series of work with the ambition of developing a sociological account of these markets. This account represents the most extensive application of White’s general sociology, where he fleshes out his abstract ideas and arguments and where one finds a concrete case of his account of the emergence of social structures and local orders out of network ties and flows.The main conclusion of this study is that, despite all its shortcomings, the general sociological perspective that White has developed is an important contribution. It provides sociology with a new foundation and shows the direction towards which the discipline should be moving.
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