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1.
  • Abelin, Matthias (författare)
  • A Swedish Dilemma : Culture and Rule of Law in Swedish Sickness Insurance
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige har både beskrivits som modernt, liberaldemoratiskt och djupt humanitärt; och som mer eller mindre förmodernt, halvauktoritärt och benäget att kränka svaga gruppers rättigheter. I den här avhandlingen undersöks detta svenska dilemma i en rättsantropologisk tradition, med studier av konfliktlösningspraktiker som ett sätt att förstå förhållandet mellan lag och kultur.Detaljerade data från tjugo överklaganden av avslag på ansökningar om sjukpenning och sjukförsäkring mellan 2005-2008 och 2015-2018 kontextualiseras med 1900-tals historia, tidigare forskning, tillsynsrapporter, mediabevakning och intervjuer med jurister. Teorin består av Geertz kulturbegrepp, Charles Taylor om modernitet och förmodernitet, teori i tidigare forskning om det svenska dilemmat, och John Bornemans antropologiska rättsstatsbegrepp. Engelsk och amerikansk forskning om förvaltningsrätt och sjukförsäkring används för att utveckla en praktikbaserad teori om vad som menas med en modern rättsstat i relation till sjukförsäkring.Studien identifierar återkommande kulturella föreställningar, värderingar, rättsuppfattningar och idéer om samhället. De är: statsintresset, korporatism, förlorad konsensus, en maktfullkomlig förvaltning, effektivitet och konfliktfylld paternalism. Den föreslår samtidigt att dessa aspekter av svensk förvaltningsrättskultur möjliggörs av svagt ansvarsutkrävande, svagt rättsmedvetande i media, förtroende för staten, och olika former av politiska och byråkratiska manipulationer, såsom utomrättslig normering, godtycke och myndigheter och domstolar som är lyhörda för den politiska viljan.Den sammanfattande beskrivningen av svensk förvaltningsrättskultur på detta område är att den utgör en form av kvasilagstat. Det kan till och med vara så att grunden för det svenska sammhällskontraktet är något annat än rättsstatlighet. Statsintresset och konfliktfylld paternalism verkar vara viktigare än modern västerländsk rättsuppfattning. Orsaksförklaringar är svåra i samhällsvetenskap, men resultaten tyder ändå på att Sverige har haft ett svagt inflytande från västerländsk rättsuppfattning på grund av större kontinuitet med en Luthersk-Ortodox, preussisk maktstat, och andra förmoderna föreställningar om stat och rätt.
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2.
  • Aguirre Vidal, Gladis, 1967- (författare)
  • Mobilising care Ecuadorian families and transnational lives between Ecuador and Spain
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on the dynamics of care in the transnational lives of Ecuadorian migrant women in Spain. It is concerned with the various forms of care that take shape and are sustained in the workplace, between friends, and among family members in Ecuador and Spain. Ultimately, it sheds light on how care is mobilised to sustain ideals of solidarity at work as well as togetherness in transnational life. The thesis is set against the background of the economic and political crisis in Ecuador of the late 1990s and early 2000s, which resulted not only in the dollarization of the economy and the removal of the country’s president, but in a dramatic shift of traditional male migration from the southern highlands to the United States, to a new wave of largely middle class female migration to Western Europe, especially Spain. Women from across the country left their children, spouses and elderly parents behind to work in domestic and care jobs abroad. In Ecuador, this disturbed the dominant cultural imaginary of the co-habitating and united family, centred on the presence of the woman as mother and wife. In light of this, the thesis engages with women’s dilemmas in giving and receiving care during years of absence, the role of family members, friends and domestic workers in this process, and the development of long-term goals focused on remittances, reunification, return, and the ultimate goal of creating a better future. Most generally, while challenging a series of dichotomies between love and money, home and work, gift and commodity—which have structured academic discussions concerning the feminization of international migration—the thesis describes the intimate relationship between women’s participation in the gift economy and a global labour market through the lens of care relationships.
3.
  • Allelin, Majsa (författare)
  • Skola för lönsamhet. Om elevers marknadsanpassade villkor och vardag
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the thesis is twofold: to explore the ways in which the transformation of the Swedish elementary school can be understood through Marxist theory; and, by ethnographic methods, understand the everyday lives of students and teachers in light of the transformation of the educational system. The ethnography has been conducted by observations and interviews during a total of six months at two different schools, Libera and Publica. While Libera is a charter school, owned by a private investment company, Publica is municipally administrated. The former is based in the central part of the city, while the latter is located in a more economically marginal and geographically peripheral area. At Libera, students plan their own schedules and work load and they also set their own goals. At Publica, the students are organized in a more conventional, meaning collective, structure. By discussing marketization, which includes private as well as public actors, scholars foreground the competition that exists between schools through the Swedish voucher-system as well as the transactional relationship that reshapes the relationship between students and teachers. To describe the market rationales by which the public schools must operate the already established concept of New Public Management has been used. However, still no terminology can be found to describe the private actors’ way of functioning. By returning to Marx’s concepts of formal and real subsumption, I offer new ways to conceptualize the shift in character of education and how privately-owned schools operate, meaning how surplus value is created in the everyday life of students and in their pedagogical relations. As my results show, more efficient and flexible ways to organize teaching and pedagogical practices have emerged as new scale logics are developed by private actors who are part of big investment companies. Due to the competition, both Libera and Publica adopt a strong market rationale in their organizational arrangements and pedagogical expectations. Besides conceptualizing schooling on an organizational level, I also seek to address the premises and effects of the learning situation for students in a milieu that is characterized by both flexible and standardized management. Despite the different characteristics of the schools, the market rationales, which dovetailed well with the result-based (state-arranged) management, tended to create alienating conditions for students and teachers in their daily work. Everyday school life was occupied with grade talks and very little time was given for pedagogical “detours”; the students were mostly trying to crack the code and the ones who could not manage the pace were systematically left behind (eliminated). In many cases, whether it was in more successful situations or during processes of (self)elimination, students were often left alone. The expectation of being self-propelled dominated the pedagogical relationship, which translated into the pressure of constant performance and little space to be “unskilled” or explorative. In a situation when school organizations are in competition with each other and are expected to present high numbers (in terms of grades and economic efficiency), the already motivated or skilled students appear as attractive and desirable. The results show how schooling continues to maintain, and in some ways accentuates, segregation and social reproduction.
4.
  • Andersson, Linus, 1985- (författare)
  • Essays on Family Dynamics Partnering, Fertility and Divorce in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Diversity in household and family structures poses interesting questions for scientific inquiry. What accounts for patterns of reproduction, partnering, household formation and household dissolution? This dissertation investigates facets of this question in the context of modern Sweden from a longitudinal and individual level perspective. It consists of three empirical studies using data from administrative registers and panel survey data. The first study begins with noting a rapid expansion in online education and analyzes whether this development leads to higher fertility in student populations. The second study asks whether individuals’ predispositions towards divorce change after exposure to the experience of parenthood, union formation and union dissolution. The third study builds on the literature on assortative mating and investigates what drives underlying preferences for this behavior. 
5.
  • Arnell, Linda, 1979- (författare)
  • Tjejers våld. Våldets tjejer. en diskursanalytisk studie om våld, kön och femininitet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • How is girls’ violence constructed and given meaning? In what ways are girls who use violence positioned? This thesis explores how girls’ violence is given meaning within different contexts, with a specific focus on the significance given to notions of gender and femininity. It is based on two studies. The first is based on interviews and creative word-based methods with seven girls/young women aged between 18 and 23. These girls all have personal experiences of acting out and/or using violence. The second study is based on focus group interviews with eleven professionals, three men and eight women. These professionals have various experiences of meeting and working with girls and/or violence. The data from both studies is analysed from a discourse psychological perspective, that is based on interwoven ideas from discourse analysis and social psychology.When the girls and the professionals are talking about girls’ violence the results show that girls’ violence concern more than the issue of violence as a problematic social action. It also concern notions of gender, femininity and girlhood. In most cases girls’ violence is constructed as deviant and different, as an anomaly, which needs to be explained in ways that make it possible to include within understandings of femininity and girlhood. The results also show how notions of gender and femininity are interwoven with class, ethnicity, functionality and ideas about being human. Although a position as a violent girl sometimes appears to be useful or desirable, the girls’ and the professionals’ talk shows that there is a risk that girls who use violence are constructed not only as different and deviant but as so incomprehensible that they will be constructed as “crazy”, or in other words less human, and therefore not possible to help or save. For this reason, it is important to reconsider and deconstruct the current discourses of violence. A wider perspective on girls’ violence would make it possible to understand girls who use violence, those who are exposed to girls’ violence and the help and support that is available from the welfare system in new ways.
6.
  • Berglund, Anna (författare)
  • Ambiguous Hopes : An Ethnographic Study of Agricultural Modernisation in a Rwandan village
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rwanda har sedan 2006 aktivt arbetat för att modernisera jordbrukssektorn med syftet att ersätta småskaliga självförsörjande jordbruk med moderna, marknadsorienterade. I denna process har småskaliga jordbrukare tvingats att överge sina traditionella grödor och jordbruksmetoder för att anpassa sig till odling i monokultur utvalt av staten på sammanslagna jordlotter.Avhandlingen, baserad på 13 månaders etnografiskt fältarbete i en rwandisk by, beskriver bybornas upplevelser av och reaktion på hur moderniseringen av jordbruket har genomförts i byn. Trots att statens jordbrukspolitik är toppstyrt och har implementerats på ett sätt utan att bönderna själva har fått komma till tals, liksom att statligt införda monokulturer av grödor resulterat i sämre skördar och ökad hunger bland byborna, existerade inget öppet eller ens dolt motstånd mot den statliga politiken. Avhandlingen syfte är att förstå varför.Med ett perspektiv som når bortom James Scotts kända teori om 'hidden resistance' och 'hidden transcripts' visar avhandlingen att byborna istället för motstånd mot statens politik, strävar efter att bli inkluderade i moderniseringsprocessen. Bybornas upplevelse av sin position i den samhälleliga hierarkin, tillsammans med de på denna nivå rådande normerna som moraliskt ifrågasätter fattiga människors förmåga att ta hand om sig själva, och de positiva föreställningar om utveckling och modernitet som de faktiskt har, hjälper oss att förstå deras ambition att vara del av moderniseringsprojekt inom jordbruket, trots att det på många sätt bidrar till en försämrad levnadssituation.
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7.
  • Bosseldal, Ingrid (författare)
  • Vart tog behaviorismen vägen? : Social responsivitet mellan barn och vuxen, hund och människa.
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis studies how humans and other social responsive animals can meet and get together as companion species and what role radical behaviorist B F Skinner’s learning theory and operant conditioning possibly can play in this. Drawing from theories of discourse and discourse analysis, social responsivity and companion species, the thesis analyzes what happens with Skinner’s learning theory when it migrates from one educative context to another. How is it practiced, advocated, problematized or refused? What, if anything, do different discourses about children, dogs and pupils has to do with this?Based on a variety of material, such as curricula for the elementary school in Sweden, newspaper articles and debates, official reports of The Swedish government, textbooks, lectures, blogposts and special courses for on the one hand parents with young and demanding children and on the other dog owners, the study examines and uncover various conceptions of Skinner’s learning theory and educative relations based on operant conditioning. It proves that there are distinct differences in how the theory is understood and described. In some contexts it is rejected because it is said to be old, outdated and associated with hierarchical relations, use of punishment and control. In other contexts there can be completely different discourses about the learning theory: some talks about it as to wimpy and ingratiating and therefor useless for anyone that wants to establish educative relations based on fixed rules and clear boundaries, other has experienced it as a strong, liberating and even empowering method for establishing relations between humans and dogs, where both parts can and are supposed to take initiatives. By making this contradictory conceptions and apprehensions visible, and intelligible, the study also aims to destabilize the use of what can be described as straw man arguments in the educational debate about operant conditioning and Skinners learning theory.
8.
  • Fredriksson, Daniel, 1982- (författare)
  • Enabling employment? Drivers and outcomes of active labour market policies in comparative perspective
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis includes three empirical studies that analyse driving forces and outcomes of active labour market policies (ALMP) in comparative perspective. Whereas previous comparative research has largely relied on broad conceptualisations of ALMP, often considering policies such as public employment services and training programs as one single type of intervention, the studies in this thesis instead analyse more fine-grained categories and classifications of ALMP. By doing so, the studies contribute with nuance to the discussion of what has shaped labour market policies, and how these influence labour market outcomes.Study I: This study focuses on determinants of spending on public employment services (PES). Contrary to common assumptions, which state that PES is largely determined by structural factors, the main hypothesis is that partisan politics is a relevant predictor of PES spending. The analysis includes 17 welfare states between 1985 and 2011. The results indicate that partisan politics and electoral competition are related to the development of PES spending, but that the turn to activation in many welfare states in the late 1990s reduced the salience of partisan politics.Study II: This study analyses whether different types of active labour market policies are related to reduced unemployment, and especially if there is evidence for interdependencies between policies. The study distinguishes between public employment services (PES), training, and job creation programs. PES is singled out as a crucial factor that mediates the effects of other labour market policies, both active and passive. The study examines 19 welfare states between 1985 and 2012 and the results indicate that training programs reduce unemployment in the short run, whereas long-term effects are less apparent for all policy types. Increased investment in PES is found to strengthen the impact of training and job creation programs.Study III: This study examines the link between active labour market policies and transitions to employment from unemployment and inactivity across the European Union between 2003 and 2013. The study distinguishes between three types of interventions: core programs, directed towards the registered unemployed; peripheral programs, targeting the inactive part of the working age population; and mixed programs, targeting both groups. The results indicate that ALMP have beneficial effects on employment transitions among both the unemployed and the inactive, but that effects differ depending on the type of intervention. Unemployed seem to benefit from increased efforts on ALMP regardless of the type of intervention, whereas the inactive seem to have increased chances to transition into employment if programs target both groups, but not if interventions solely target the inactive.
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9.
  • Grim, Katarina (författare)
  • Legitimizing the knowledge of mental health service users in shared decision making Promoting participation through a web-based decision support tool
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the manner in which user knowledge and user perspectives can be included and supported in shared decision making (SDM) in mental health services.The thesis consists of four studies. Study I explored what needs service users identify to participate in deliberative processes and decision making in their care. Study II examined how a decision support tool (DST) for SDM can be designed to enhance service users’ ability to have active and meaningful roles in SDM. Study III investigated barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of a web-based DST designed to provide a concrete structure to support SDM. In study IV, a theoretical analysis was performed to elucidate the barriers associated with user knowledge being expressed and legitimized in decision-making processes.Methods: A key feature of the project involved a process of exploring decisional and informational needs and of developing, testing and implementing a DST for SDM. Qualitative data have been collected through focus group and individual interviews with service users and service providers, usability testing with service users and checklists.Findings: The findings show a number of characteristics specific to the mental health service context that need to be considered when developing support for SDM. Decisions were often complex and found to encompass a number of life domains. Issues related to social context and individual recovery highlighted the necessity to include the knowledge perspectives of service users throughout decision processes. In response, phases for preparation and follow-up was emphasized in the DST. The results indicate that supportive structures are required for service users to express their knowledge perspectives and for providers to include them in their decision-making. Moreover, existing barriers related to organizational structures and to power differentials need to be addressed.        Conclusions and implications: A DST specifically designed for the mental health context, that methodically invites service users to participate in each phase of the decision-making process might function as a guiding structure to validate service users as knowledgeable agents.
10.
  • Gümüscü, Ahmet, 1981- (författare)
  • Socialtjänsten och familjen socialarbetares konstruktion av familj och insatser i familjerelaterad komplexitet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyse how social workers in Swedish social services define “family” and handle complexity when they work with families, and especially “families with complex needs” as the target of their interventions. Whereas families with complex needs can be understood to involve one or more family members having two or more simultaneously occurring needs or problems (e.g. mental health issues, addiction, financial problems, dysfunctionality, child abuse, ageing, disabilities, and family violence), complexity in social work extends beyond that which exists in families. Therefore, to broaden our understanding of these complexities in social work, this research sought answers to the following questions:• How do social workers define and set boundaries around the concept of “family” when they target their interventions? How do these definitions differ between different sectors of the social services – elderly care, disability care, addiction, child welfare, and financial assistance? (study I)• How do social workers involve families and family members in the casework from intake and through the investigation process within different social service sectors? What happens to the conceptualisation of family through an investigation process? (study II)• How do social workers in child welfare services describe and manage complexity in their work generally and when they work with families with complex needs? (study III)• How then do social workers in different service sectors conceive of and manage complexities in their everyday work, especially when it comes to families with complex needs? (study IV)The empirical material in studies I and IV consists of telephone interviews with 60 social workers working in five different sectors in four municipalities. Study II is based on five focus group interviews with social workers working in five different sectors in one larger municipality. Study III is based on focus groups with vignettes with social workers working in child welfare in three municipalities.In the first study findings revealed that different mediating mechanisms were adopted by social workers in what can be understood to be a deconstruction of the family. These mechanisms included legislation (as a control mechanism), household composition (boundary mechanism) and service needs (professional mechanism), which were used in various ways and to differing degrees within each sector. The five unique and sector-specific conceptualisations of families are implicated in how interventions are constructed and work processes targeted at individuals and families.In the second study findings showed that clienthood and family are interpreted in different ways. The family was brought into or kept out of service provisions in ways that were connected to social workers’ construction of the family either as expert, client or non-client. How social workers understood the role of the family changed during the casework process. In the third study, findings showed that social workers were challenged in their everyday work where they focused on immediate conditions for children while avoiding problems that were less amenable to being solved. Social workers tried to manage complexities related to families by either sorting prioritizing or oscillating between different child welfare orientations. In the fourth study, findings showed that there were different types of reported complex needs: deeprooted needs and broad-based needs. Complex family needs were transformed into complex cases by social workers, based on considerations of family composition, relationships between clients and social workers, and organizational contexts of practice. The boundaries between these three domains were not distinct, and the interconnectivity and complexities occurring in and between them contributed to the production of much of the “wickedness” that exists in social work practice.A main conclusion is that the concept of family is understood and targeted differently in different sectors of social work. In some cases, the use of the family concept can be related to the clients' specific needs. Families who social workers meet often have combinations of needs and problems that result in numerous interventions from the social services. When social workers meet these families, they can feel ambiguity and uncertainty because of the complexity of the needs or other complexities. And, in individualised social services, a narrow focus on the needs of individuals can make it difficult to see the situation of the family as a whole. This research highlights the importance of bringing this web of complexities to the forefront of practice.
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