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1.
  • Abelin, Matthias (författare)
  • A Swedish Dilemma : Culture and Rule of Law in Swedish Sickness Insurance
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige har både beskrivits som modernt, liberaldemoratiskt och djupt humanitärt; och som mer eller mindre förmodernt, halvauktoritärt och benäget att kränka svaga gruppers rättigheter. I den här avhandlingen undersöks detta svenska dilemma i en rättsantropologisk tradition, med studier av konfliktlösningspraktiker som ett sätt att förstå förhållandet mellan lag och kultur.Detaljerade data från tjugo överklaganden av avslag på ansökningar om sjukpenning och sjukförsäkring mellan 2005-2008 och 2015-2018 kontextualiseras med 1900-tals historia, tidigare forskning, tillsynsrapporter, mediabevakning och intervjuer med jurister. Teorin består av Geertz kulturbegrepp, Charles Taylor om modernitet och förmodernitet, teori i tidigare forskning om det svenska dilemmat, och John Bornemans antropologiska rättsstatsbegrepp. Engelsk och amerikansk forskning om förvaltningsrätt och sjukförsäkring används för att utveckla en praktikbaserad teori om vad som menas med en modern rättsstat i relation till sjukförsäkring.Studien identifierar återkommande kulturella föreställningar, värderingar, rättsuppfattningar och idéer om samhället. De är: statsintresset, korporatism, förlorad konsensus, en maktfullkomlig förvaltning, effektivitet och konfliktfylld paternalism. Den föreslår samtidigt att dessa aspekter av svensk förvaltningsrättskultur möjliggörs av svagt ansvarsutkrävande, svagt rättsmedvetande i media, förtroende för staten, och olika former av politiska och byråkratiska manipulationer, såsom utomrättslig normering, godtycke och myndigheter och domstolar som är lyhörda för den politiska viljan.Den sammanfattande beskrivningen av svensk förvaltningsrättskultur på detta område är att den utgör en form av kvasilagstat. Det kan till och med vara så att grunden för det svenska sammhällskontraktet är något annat än rättsstatlighet. Statsintresset och konfliktfylld paternalism verkar vara viktigare än modern västerländsk rättsuppfattning. Orsaksförklaringar är svåra i samhällsvetenskap, men resultaten tyder ändå på att Sverige har haft ett svagt inflytande från västerländsk rättsuppfattning på grund av större kontinuitet med en Luthersk-Ortodox, preussisk maktstat, och andra förmoderna föreställningar om stat och rätt.
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2.
  • Aguirre Vidal, Gladis, 1967- (författare)
  • Mobilising care Ecuadorian families and transnational lives between Ecuador and Spain
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on the dynamics of care in the transnational lives of Ecuadorian migrant women in Spain. It is concerned with the various forms of care that take shape and are sustained in the workplace, between friends, and among family members in Ecuador and Spain. Ultimately, it sheds light on how care is mobilised to sustain ideals of solidarity at work as well as togetherness in transnational life. The thesis is set against the background of the economic and political crisis in Ecuador of the late 1990s and early 2000s, which resulted not only in the dollarization of the economy and the removal of the country’s president, but in a dramatic shift of traditional male migration from the southern highlands to the United States, to a new wave of largely middle class female migration to Western Europe, especially Spain. Women from across the country left their children, spouses and elderly parents behind to work in domestic and care jobs abroad. In Ecuador, this disturbed the dominant cultural imaginary of the co-habitating and united family, centred on the presence of the woman as mother and wife. In light of this, the thesis engages with women’s dilemmas in giving and receiving care during years of absence, the role of family members, friends and domestic workers in this process, and the development of long-term goals focused on remittances, reunification, return, and the ultimate goal of creating a better future. Most generally, while challenging a series of dichotomies between love and money, home and work, gift and commodity—which have structured academic discussions concerning the feminization of international migration—the thesis describes the intimate relationship between women’s participation in the gift economy and a global labour market through the lens of care relationships.
3.
  • Allelin, Majsa (författare)
  • Skola för lönsamhet. Om elevers marknadsanpassade villkor och vardag
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the thesis is twofold: to explore the ways in which the transformation of the Swedish elementary school can be understood through Marxist theory; and, by ethnographic methods, understand the everyday lives of students and teachers in light of the transformation of the educational system. The ethnography has been conducted by observations and interviews during a total of six months at two different schools, Libera and Publica. While Libera is a charter school, owned by a private investment company, Publica is municipally administrated. The former is based in the central part of the city, while the latter is located in a more economically marginal and geographically peripheral area. At Libera, students plan their own schedules and work load and they also set their own goals. At Publica, the students are organized in a more conventional, meaning collective, structure. By discussing marketization, which includes private as well as public actors, scholars foreground the competition that exists between schools through the Swedish voucher-system as well as the transactional relationship that reshapes the relationship between students and teachers. To describe the market rationales by which the public schools must operate the already established concept of New Public Management has been used. However, still no terminology can be found to describe the private actors’ way of functioning. By returning to Marx’s concepts of formal and real subsumption, I offer new ways to conceptualize the shift in character of education and how privately-owned schools operate, meaning how surplus value is created in the everyday life of students and in their pedagogical relations. As my results show, more efficient and flexible ways to organize teaching and pedagogical practices have emerged as new scale logics are developed by private actors who are part of big investment companies. Due to the competition, both Libera and Publica adopt a strong market rationale in their organizational arrangements and pedagogical expectations. Besides conceptualizing schooling on an organizational level, I also seek to address the premises and effects of the learning situation for students in a milieu that is characterized by both flexible and standardized management. Despite the different characteristics of the schools, the market rationales, which dovetailed well with the result-based (state-arranged) management, tended to create alienating conditions for students and teachers in their daily work. Everyday school life was occupied with grade talks and very little time was given for pedagogical “detours”; the students were mostly trying to crack the code and the ones who could not manage the pace were systematically left behind (eliminated). In many cases, whether it was in more successful situations or during processes of (self)elimination, students were often left alone. The expectation of being self-propelled dominated the pedagogical relationship, which translated into the pressure of constant performance and little space to be “unskilled” or explorative. In a situation when school organizations are in competition with each other and are expected to present high numbers (in terms of grades and economic efficiency), the already motivated or skilled students appear as attractive and desirable. The results show how schooling continues to maintain, and in some ways accentuates, segregation and social reproduction.
4.
  • Andersson, Linus, 1985- (författare)
  • Essays on Family Dynamics Partnering, Fertility and Divorce in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Diversity in household and family structures poses interesting questions for scientific inquiry. What accounts for patterns of reproduction, partnering, household formation and household dissolution? This dissertation investigates facets of this question in the context of modern Sweden from a longitudinal and individual level perspective. It consists of three empirical studies using data from administrative registers and panel survey data. The first study begins with noting a rapid expansion in online education and analyzes whether this development leads to higher fertility in student populations. The second study asks whether individuals’ predispositions towards divorce change after exposure to the experience of parenthood, union formation and union dissolution. The third study builds on the literature on assortative mating and investigates what drives underlying preferences for this behavior. 
5.
  • Arnell, Linda, 1979- (författare)
  • Tjejers våld. Våldets tjejer. en diskursanalytisk studie om våld, kön och femininitet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • How is girls’ violence constructed and given meaning? In what ways are girls who use violence positioned? This thesis explores how girls’ violence is given meaning within different contexts, with a specific focus on the significance given to notions of gender and femininity. It is based on two studies. The first is based on interviews and creative word-based methods with seven girls/young women aged between 18 and 23. These girls all have personal experiences of acting out and/or using violence. The second study is based on focus group interviews with eleven professionals, three men and eight women. These professionals have various experiences of meeting and working with girls and/or violence. The data from both studies is analysed from a discourse psychological perspective, that is based on interwoven ideas from discourse analysis and social psychology.When the girls and the professionals are talking about girls’ violence the results show that girls’ violence concern more than the issue of violence as a problematic social action. It also concern notions of gender, femininity and girlhood. In most cases girls’ violence is constructed as deviant and different, as an anomaly, which needs to be explained in ways that make it possible to include within understandings of femininity and girlhood. The results also show how notions of gender and femininity are interwoven with class, ethnicity, functionality and ideas about being human. Although a position as a violent girl sometimes appears to be useful or desirable, the girls’ and the professionals’ talk shows that there is a risk that girls who use violence are constructed not only as different and deviant but as so incomprehensible that they will be constructed as “crazy”, or in other words less human, and therefore not possible to help or save. For this reason, it is important to reconsider and deconstruct the current discourses of violence. A wider perspective on girls’ violence would make it possible to understand girls who use violence, those who are exposed to girls’ violence and the help and support that is available from the welfare system in new ways.
6.
  • Aslan, Pinar, 1986- (författare)
  • How Do They Make It? perspectives on labour market participation among descendants of immigrants in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a compilation dissertation based on a comprehensive summary and four empirical articles. The overarching aim of the dissertation is to study influences on the occupational aspirations and attainments of employed descendants of non-European, non-Western immigrants in Sweden, from their own perspectives. The results are based on qualitative interviews with 9 men and 12 women, all born in Sweden with two immigrant parents. At the time of the interviews, the respondents were aged 25–35 years and had been employed for a minimum of six months, most of them for at least three years.Article I analyses and discusses family influences on the occupational aspirations of the descendants of immigrants. It employs a theoretical framework of cultural capital to demonstrate that descendants’ interpretations of their parents’ experiences and living conditions before, during, and after migration shape and positively influence their own occupational aspirations. The article also shows that siblings may function as important transferrers of knowledge and information.Article II examines how the descendants of immigrants perceive that interactions with public officials have benefitted their occupational aspirations and attainments. Using the concept of social capital as an analytical tool, the article draws three conclusions. First, public officials who establish a sense of connectedness in interacting with descendants of immigrants may transmit substantial symbolic resources to them. Second, it is important for public officials to support their clients’ personally meaningful goals and to focus on possibilities for achieving those goals. The article also shows that public officials may help descendants of immigrants to form and fulfil occupational aspirations by transmitting important knowledge and information to them.Article III explores how descendants of immigrants understand labour market conditions, and how these conditions influence their occupational pathways and strategies. The article employs the concept of habitus to analyse approaches and strategies on the labour market in relation to objective conditions. Three themes are presented in the article. The first theme, being in the “right” field, covers respondents working in branches with labour shortages and/or a high demand for employees with an immigrant background. These respondents used their personal backgrounds as “selling points”, turning the general disadvantage of having an immigrant background into an advantage. The second theme covers respondents who could learn through failing in entering and participating on the labour market, indicating a trial-and-error approach. The third theme deals with respondents who had actively searched for jobs in branches which value their particular skill set. The article highlights the important relationship between active individual agency and external, objective opportunities and constraints.Article IV explores perceptions of labour market participation in relation to gender norms and parenting ideals among men and women of migrant descent. Starting from the literature on work, family, and gender in a context of migration, and in relation to the Swedish social and political context, four themes are presented in the results. The male and female respondents viewed labour market participation from different, gendered, perspectives. The women saw labour market participation as a source of emancipation, whereas the men perceived it as a means for providing for a current/future family. Thus, while they depicted themselves as dedicated to norms of gender equality, they also expressed gender- biased views on work and family arrangements. These gender-biased views largely reflect those of Swedish people in general, as demonstrated in earlier studies. Nonetheless, the results reveal that the immigrant heritage of the descendants of immigrants influences their views on labour market participation, perceptions of gender norms, and parenting ideals. The article shows how these descendants interpret and actively challenge gender inequalities in the immigrant generation in ways that support intergenerational changes in work-family arrangements.
7.
  • Berglund, Anna (författare)
  • Ambiguous Hopes : An Ethnographic Study of Agricultural Modernisation in a Rwandan village
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rwanda har sedan 2006 aktivt arbetat för att modernisera jordbrukssektorn med syftet att ersätta småskaliga självförsörjande jordbruk med moderna, marknadsorienterade. I denna process har småskaliga jordbrukare tvingats att överge sina traditionella grödor och jordbruksmetoder för att anpassa sig till odling i monokultur utvalt av staten på sammanslagna jordlotter.Avhandlingen, baserad på 13 månaders etnografiskt fältarbete i en rwandisk by, beskriver bybornas upplevelser av och reaktion på hur moderniseringen av jordbruket har genomförts i byn. Trots att statens jordbrukspolitik är toppstyrt och har implementerats på ett sätt utan att bönderna själva har fått komma till tals, liksom att statligt införda monokulturer av grödor resulterat i sämre skördar och ökad hunger bland byborna, existerade inget öppet eller ens dolt motstånd mot den statliga politiken. Avhandlingen syfte är att förstå varför.Med ett perspektiv som når bortom James Scotts kända teori om 'hidden resistance' och 'hidden transcripts' visar avhandlingen att byborna istället för motstånd mot statens politik, strävar efter att bli inkluderade i moderniseringsprocessen. Bybornas upplevelse av sin position i den samhälleliga hierarkin, tillsammans med de på denna nivå rådande normerna som moraliskt ifrågasätter fattiga människors förmåga att ta hand om sig själva, och de positiva föreställningar om utveckling och modernitet som de faktiskt har, hjälper oss att förstå deras ambition att vara del av moderniseringsprojekt inom jordbruket, trots att det på många sätt bidrar till en försämrad levnadssituation.
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8.
  • Bergman, Karolin, 1979- (författare)
  • Negotiating healthy eating Lay, stakeholder and government constructions of official dietary guidance in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis approaches dietary guidance as socio-culturally produced and comprised in a specific historical context. The work is premised on the position that ideas and understandings of healthy eating are discursively constructed, and that we form our understandings of the world, ourselves and others through discourse. The theoretical approach builds on the Foucauldian notion of governing, which includes how the state governs people through strategic techniques and individuals’ self-governing in relation to discursive norms related to official institutions. The four studies included in the thesis therefore explore how healthy eating and official dietary guidance are negotiated and constructed from stakeholder, lay and policy perspectives. Paper I takes a stakeholder perspective on “appropriate” national dietary advice by exploring 40 written responses to updated official dietary guidelines. Paper II and III focus on lay people’s discourses on dietary guidance and healthy eating by examining their written correspondences (727 and 60 digital messages, respectively) with the Swedish Food Agency. Paper IV examines how the Swedish Food Agency’s official dietary guidelines frame the interplay of public health concerns and environmental concerns in making food choices.The findings demonstrate the dominance of a nutrient-centered and scientific discourse in communication (arguments, statements, instructions and questions) related to official dietary guidance in the Swedish context, even among non-professionals (in stakeholder responses, lay messages and the official dietary guidelines). In lay people´s communication with the Swedish Food Agency, both resistance to and internalization of official dietary advice are expressed within this dominating discourse. Resistance is additionally expressed through emotional language and by referring to alternative authorities, including personal experiences. The nutrient-centered and scientific discourse builds on the basic assumption of individual responsibility for health and the taken-for-granted nature of the primacy of physical health. Environmental perspectives come secondary to nutrition, which is demonstrated by their subordinate status in the official dietary guidelines and limited presence in lay people´s correspondences. Most socio-cultural, emotional and structural aspects on eating are made invisible by these discourses, in which food figures as scientifically quantifiable or functional in relation to physical health. However, in the official dietary guidelines from 2015, an additional discourse of cultivating certain tastes as a key to a sustainable diet constructs an ‘ideal eater’ with ‘middle-class’ aspirations.
9.
  • Berman, Rakel, 1976- (författare)
  • Barns röster om växelvis boende. Vardagsliv, familjepraktiker och nära relationer Children's perspectives on dual residence. Everyday life, family practices and personal relationships
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Over the past decades, the ways in which children’s care is arranged after parental separation have changed significantly in many societies. Dual residence, where children live across two households spending equal amounts of time with each parent, is particularly common in Sweden. Despite the dramatic increase in dual residence in Sweden, knowledge from children’s point of view is limited. This thesis aims, through children’s perspectives, to provide knowledge about everyday life when lived across two households, with a special focus on family practices, influence and personal relationships. The thesis draws on qualitative interviews with children and teenagers, whose stories, descriptions and reflections have been analysed using thematic analysis. Both theoretically and methodologically, the basis of this thesis is the sociology of childhood, in which the active and reflective roles of children are accentuated. This perspective guides the analysis, highlighting the ways in which children participate in, and influence, decisions regarding how their dual-residence arrangements are put into practice. Family life is understood as a process of doing, and the concept of family practices is adopted to shed light on the particular practices that constitute everyday life for children in dual residence arrangements. The thesis includes four articles, each of which illuminates a separate theme. Article I, II and III are empirical articles highlighting different aspects of everyday life in the context of dual residence, and the fourth article is a literature review. Article I focuses on dual residence as a mobility practice, emphasizing the practical, emotional and relational transitions involved when children live in and move between two homes. Participants’ reflections about relationships with parents are discussed in Article II. Article III focuses on children’s influence over their residence arrangements and practices therein. Article IV investigates the meta-data of the research on dual residence (when, where, who, and how) and their purposes and study findings (what). In summary, findings illuminate the nuances and the everyday complexities of living in two homes. Routinely managing practical and emotional transitions requires effort, even if they become an ordinary part of life to which many children become acclimatised. These transitions may also lead children to reflect about family relationships and think more explicitly about what they mean to them. Taken together, the thesis demonstrates that dual residence involves both positive and negative aspects where children’s experiences differ and change over time. In the final part of the thesis, key elements that influence children’s well-being and the way they feel about practising dual residence are discussed. Children’s relationships lie at the centre of dual-residence family life and they play a crucial role in the way dual residence is experienced. By focusing children’s perspectives, this thesis sheds light on how dual residence can be understood, it highlights the significance of listening to children and considering their views regarding issues that affect their lives.
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10.
  • Bosseldal, Ingrid (författare)
  • Vart tog behaviorismen vägen? : Social responsivitet mellan barn och vuxen, hund och människa.
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis studies how humans and other social responsive animals can meet and get together as companion species and what role radical behaviorist B F Skinner’s learning theory and operant conditioning possibly can play in this. Drawing from theories of discourse and discourse analysis, social responsivity and companion species, the thesis analyzes what happens with Skinner’s learning theory when it migrates from one educative context to another. How is it practiced, advocated, problematized or refused? What, if anything, do different discourses about children, dogs and pupils has to do with this?Based on a variety of material, such as curricula for the elementary school in Sweden, newspaper articles and debates, official reports of The Swedish government, textbooks, lectures, blogposts and special courses for on the one hand parents with young and demanding children and on the other dog owners, the study examines and uncover various conceptions of Skinner’s learning theory and educative relations based on operant conditioning. It proves that there are distinct differences in how the theory is understood and described. In some contexts it is rejected because it is said to be old, outdated and associated with hierarchical relations, use of punishment and control. In other contexts there can be completely different discourses about the learning theory: some talks about it as to wimpy and ingratiating and therefor useless for anyone that wants to establish educative relations based on fixed rules and clear boundaries, other has experienced it as a strong, liberating and even empowering method for establishing relations between humans and dogs, where both parts can and are supposed to take initiatives. By making this contradictory conceptions and apprehensions visible, and intelligible, the study also aims to destabilize the use of what can be described as straw man arguments in the educational debate about operant conditioning and Skinners learning theory.
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