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1.
  • Abelin, Matthias (författare)
  • A Swedish Dilemma : Culture and Rule of Law in Swedish Sickness Insurance
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige har både beskrivits som modernt, liberaldemoratiskt och djupt humanitärt; och som mer eller mindre förmodernt, halvauktoritärt och benäget att kränka svaga gruppers rättigheter. I den här avhandlingen undersöks detta svenska dilemma i en rättsantropologisk tradition, med studier av konfliktlösningspraktiker som ett sätt att förstå förhållandet mellan lag och kultur.Detaljerade data från tjugo överklaganden av avslag på ansökningar om sjukpenning och sjukförsäkring mellan 2005-2008 och 2015-2018 kontextualiseras med 1900-tals historia, tidigare forskning, tillsynsrapporter, mediabevakning och intervjuer med jurister. Teorin består av Geertz kulturbegrepp, Charles Taylor om modernitet och förmodernitet, teori i tidigare forskning om det svenska dilemmat, och John Bornemans antropologiska rättsstatsbegrepp. Engelsk och amerikansk forskning om förvaltningsrätt och sjukförsäkring används för att utveckla en praktikbaserad teori om vad som menas med en modern rättsstat i relation till sjukförsäkring.Studien identifierar återkommande kulturella föreställningar, värderingar, rättsuppfattningar och idéer om samhället. De är: statsintresset, korporatism, förlorad konsensus, en maktfullkomlig förvaltning, effektivitet och konfliktfylld paternalism. Den föreslår samtidigt att dessa aspekter av svensk förvaltningsrättskultur möjliggörs av svagt ansvarsutkrävande, svagt rättsmedvetande i media, förtroende för staten, och olika former av politiska och byråkratiska manipulationer, såsom utomrättslig normering, godtycke och myndigheter och domstolar som är lyhörda för den politiska viljan.Den sammanfattande beskrivningen av svensk förvaltningsrättskultur på detta område är att den utgör en form av kvasilagstat. Det kan till och med vara så att grunden för det svenska sammhällskontraktet är något annat än rättsstatlighet. Statsintresset och konfliktfylld paternalism verkar vara viktigare än modern västerländsk rättsuppfattning. Orsaksförklaringar är svåra i samhällsvetenskap, men resultaten tyder ändå på att Sverige har haft ett svagt inflytande från västerländsk rättsuppfattning på grund av större kontinuitet med en Luthersk-Ortodox, preussisk maktstat, och andra förmoderna föreställningar om stat och rätt.
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2.
  • Andersson, Linus, 1985- (författare)
  • Essays on Family Dynamics Partnering, Fertility and Divorce in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Diversity in household and family structures poses interesting questions for scientific inquiry. What accounts for patterns of reproduction, partnering, household formation and household dissolution? This dissertation investigates facets of this question in the context of modern Sweden from a longitudinal and individual level perspective. It consists of three empirical studies using data from administrative registers and panel survey data. The first study begins with noting a rapid expansion in online education and analyzes whether this development leads to higher fertility in student populations. The second study asks whether individuals’ predispositions towards divorce change after exposure to the experience of parenthood, union formation and union dissolution. The third study builds on the literature on assortative mating and investigates what drives underlying preferences for this behavior. 
3.
  • Arnell, Linda, 1979- (författare)
  • Tjejers våld. Våldets tjejer. en diskursanalytisk studie om våld, kön och femininitet
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • How is girls’ violence constructed and given meaning? In what ways are girls who use violence positioned? This thesis explores how girls’ violence is given meaning within different contexts, with a specific focus on the significance given to notions of gender and femininity. It is based on two studies. The first is based on interviews and creative word-based methods with seven girls/young women aged between 18 and 23. These girls all have personal experiences of acting out and/or using violence. The second study is based on focus group interviews with eleven professionals, three men and eight women. These professionals have various experiences of meeting and working with girls and/or violence. The data from both studies is analysed from a discourse psychological perspective, that is based on interwoven ideas from discourse analysis and social psychology.When the girls and the professionals are talking about girls’ violence the results show that girls’ violence concern more than the issue of violence as a problematic social action. It also concern notions of gender, femininity and girlhood. In most cases girls’ violence is constructed as deviant and different, as an anomaly, which needs to be explained in ways that make it possible to include within understandings of femininity and girlhood. The results also show how notions of gender and femininity are interwoven with class, ethnicity, functionality and ideas about being human. Although a position as a violent girl sometimes appears to be useful or desirable, the girls’ and the professionals’ talk shows that there is a risk that girls who use violence are constructed not only as different and deviant but as so incomprehensible that they will be constructed as “crazy”, or in other words less human, and therefore not possible to help or save. For this reason, it is important to reconsider and deconstruct the current discourses of violence. A wider perspective on girls’ violence would make it possible to understand girls who use violence, those who are exposed to girls’ violence and the help and support that is available from the welfare system in new ways.
4.
  • Bosseldal, Ingrid (författare)
  • Vart tog behaviorismen vägen? : Social responsivitet mellan barn och vuxen, hund och människa.
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis studies how humans and other social responsive animals can meet and get together as companion species and what role radical behaviorist B F Skinner’s learning theory and operant conditioning possibly can play in this. Drawing from theories of discourse and discourse analysis, social responsivity and companion species, the thesis analyzes what happens with Skinner’s learning theory when it migrates from one educative context to another. How is it practiced, advocated, problematized or refused? What, if anything, do different discourses about children, dogs and pupils has to do with this?Based on a variety of material, such as curricula for the elementary school in Sweden, newspaper articles and debates, official reports of The Swedish government, textbooks, lectures, blogposts and special courses for on the one hand parents with young and demanding children and on the other dog owners, the study examines and uncover various conceptions of Skinner’s learning theory and educative relations based on operant conditioning. It proves that there are distinct differences in how the theory is understood and described. In some contexts it is rejected because it is said to be old, outdated and associated with hierarchical relations, use of punishment and control. In other contexts there can be completely different discourses about the learning theory: some talks about it as to wimpy and ingratiating and therefor useless for anyone that wants to establish educative relations based on fixed rules and clear boundaries, other has experienced it as a strong, liberating and even empowering method for establishing relations between humans and dogs, where both parts can and are supposed to take initiatives. By making this contradictory conceptions and apprehensions visible, and intelligible, the study also aims to destabilize the use of what can be described as straw man arguments in the educational debate about operant conditioning and Skinners learning theory.
5.
  • Fredriksson, Daniel, 1982- (författare)
  • Enabling employment? Drivers and outcomes of active labour market policies in comparative perspective
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis includes three empirical studies that analyse driving forces and outcomes of active labour market policies (ALMP) in comparative perspective. Whereas previous comparative research has largely relied on broad conceptualisations of ALMP, often considering policies such as public employment services and training programs as one single type of intervention, the studies in this thesis instead analyse more fine-grained categories and classifications of ALMP. By doing so, the studies contribute with nuance to the discussion of what has shaped labour market policies, and how these influence labour market outcomes.Study I: This study focuses on determinants of spending on public employment services (PES). Contrary to common assumptions, which state that PES is largely determined by structural factors, the main hypothesis is that partisan politics is a relevant predictor of PES spending. The analysis includes 17 welfare states between 1985 and 2011. The results indicate that partisan politics and electoral competition are related to the development of PES spending, but that the turn to activation in many welfare states in the late 1990s reduced the salience of partisan politics.Study II: This study analyses whether different types of active labour market policies are related to reduced unemployment, and especially if there is evidence for interdependencies between policies. The study distinguishes between public employment services (PES), training, and job creation programs. PES is singled out as a crucial factor that mediates the effects of other labour market policies, both active and passive. The study examines 19 welfare states between 1985 and 2012 and the results indicate that training programs reduce unemployment in the short run, whereas long-term effects are less apparent for all policy types. Increased investment in PES is found to strengthen the impact of training and job creation programs.Study III: This study examines the link between active labour market policies and transitions to employment from unemployment and inactivity across the European Union between 2003 and 2013. The study distinguishes between three types of interventions: core programs, directed towards the registered unemployed; peripheral programs, targeting the inactive part of the working age population; and mixed programs, targeting both groups. The results indicate that ALMP have beneficial effects on employment transitions among both the unemployed and the inactive, but that effects differ depending on the type of intervention. Unemployed seem to benefit from increased efforts on ALMP regardless of the type of intervention, whereas the inactive seem to have increased chances to transition into employment if programs target both groups, but not if interventions solely target the inactive.
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6.
  • Grim, Katarina (författare)
  • Legitimizing the knowledge of mental health service users in shared decision making Promoting participation through a web-based decision support tool
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the manner in which user knowledge and user perspectives can be included and supported in shared decision making (SDM) in mental health services.The thesis consists of four studies. Study I explored what needs service users identify to participate in deliberative processes and decision making in their care. Study II examined how a decision support tool (DST) for SDM can be designed to enhance service users’ ability to have active and meaningful roles in SDM. Study III investigated barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of a web-based DST designed to provide a concrete structure to support SDM. In study IV, a theoretical analysis was performed to elucidate the barriers associated with user knowledge being expressed and legitimized in decision-making processes.Methods: A key feature of the project involved a process of exploring decisional and informational needs and of developing, testing and implementing a DST for SDM. Qualitative data have been collected through focus group and individual interviews with service users and service providers, usability testing with service users and checklists.Findings: The findings show a number of characteristics specific to the mental health service context that need to be considered when developing support for SDM. Decisions were often complex and found to encompass a number of life domains. Issues related to social context and individual recovery highlighted the necessity to include the knowledge perspectives of service users throughout decision processes. In response, phases for preparation and follow-up was emphasized in the DST. The results indicate that supportive structures are required for service users to express their knowledge perspectives and for providers to include them in their decision-making. Moreover, existing barriers related to organizational structures and to power differentials need to be addressed.        Conclusions and implications: A DST specifically designed for the mental health context, that methodically invites service users to participate in each phase of the decision-making process might function as a guiding structure to validate service users as knowledgeable agents.
7.
  • Hemmaty, Mona (författare)
  • On the Margins : Migrants, Status Mobility and Recent Turns in Swedish Migration Politics
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning2008 infördes en reform inom svensk politik för arbetskraftsmigration som möjliggjorde för personer utanför EU att komma till Sverige för att arbeta om de erbjudits anställning oavsett utbildningsbakgrund. Reformen har fått mycket uppmärksamhet och ritat om kartan för svensk migrationspolitik. Till ett av de mindre utforskade områdena hör s.k. spårbyten, det vill säga möjligheten att med hjälp av ett arbetstillstånd ändra av grund för uppehållstillstånd utan att behöva återvända för asylsökande som fått avslag. I denna avhandlingen studeras hur migranter använder och erfar spårbyten, vilka former som de tar samt vilka paralleller som kan dras till övriga tillfälliga arbetstillstånd. För att studera spårbyten ansökningar om spårbyten analyserats samt migranter, organisationer och intressenter intervjuats både om reformen och spårbyten. Studien visar att spårbyten kan förstås mot bakgrund av den svenska arbetskraftsmigrationspolitikens utpräglade öppna karaktär, där den arbetsgivarstyrda politiken öppnar upp kanaler för migranter att söka arbetstillstånd med hjälp av vänner, familj, och enskilda arbetsgivare inom sektorer som den tidigare arbetsmarknadsprövningen vidhöll stängda. Men samtidigt involverar spårbyten ett högt pris i form av beroendeställning, exkludering och långvariga perioder av osäkerhet och utvisningshot för migranter innan uppehållstillstånden kan bli permanenta. Studiens resultat är relevanta för större grupper av migranter med tillfälliga uppehållstillstånd vars rätt att befinna sig i Sverige är bundna till arbete eller försörjning.
8.
  • Juvrud, Joshua, 1987- (författare)
  • The perception of actions and interactions And the importance of context
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The perception of actions and interactions is a dynamic process linked with perceptual processes, the internal and external states of the individual, prior experiences, and the immediate environment. Given these differential contexts, it is very likely there are differences in how infants perceive, interpret, and respond to actions. The present thesis took a developmental and individual differences approach to understanding action perception and processing in infancy. The overarching aim was to understand the development of action perception and how individual differences contribute to the perception and processing of actions. More specifically, individual differences included the capacity to which variations in a child’s context can affect the development of action perception. Study I demonstrated that, like adults, infants could differentiate between physically possible and physically impossible apparent motion paths, as evidenced by pupil dilation. This perception may be related to the context of whether the motion was performed by a human figure or an object. Study II found that in the context of a more complex social interaction, infants differentiated between appropriate and inappropriate responses to a giving action. Furthermore, infants’ individual differences in perceiving a giving action were related to their own giving behaviors later in childhood, suggesting possible specialized mechanisms. Study III took an integrative perspective on context and demonstrated the joint impact of internal and external emotional contexts for infants’ subsequent selective attention during visual search. Infants’ visual attention was affected by previous exposure to a facial emotion and by the mothers’ negative affect. The results of these three studies demonstrate that given differential environmental contexts and experiences, there are differences in how individuals perceive and interpret actions and interactions. Together, this thesis proposes an integrative role of context in perception and demonstrates that perception can never be truly decontextualized.
9.
  • Knechtel, Maricel L, 1968- (författare)
  • Categorization Work in the Swedish Welfare State : Doctors and social insurance officers on persons with mental ill-health
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation contributes to the debate on street-level bureaucracy, which highlights how the decisions made by workers in public bureaucracies effectively become public policy. This debate has paid relatively little attention to the study of how professionals carry out their work by means of institutional categorization, a knowledge gap that this study helps to close. Moreover, this study contributes to the understanding of how persons with mental ill-health are matched with institutional categories.The aim of this dissertation is to shed light on the institutional categorization process involving persons with mental ill-health in two interrelated areas of welfare settings: primary healthcare and sickness insurance. To pursue this aim, 27 in-depth interviews with 30 participants (18 doctors and 12 social insurance officers) were performed. The interviews, which were based on vignettes – short hypothetical scenarios – made it possible to get insight into how doctors and social insurance officers would reason in a situation similar to that depicted in the vignette.This study emphasizes how discretion is exercised when individuals are matched with the institutional categories that doctors in primary health settings and social insurance officers have at their disposal. Ideally, this process is a rational process through which clients’ objective traits are assessed against the criteria that define the various institutional categories. However, the process is not straightforward; thus, different kinds of social mechanisms are linked to the processes of institutional categorization, such as signaling, screening, the logic of appropriateness, moral work, and discrimination. On a more practical level, this study emphasizes the difficulties imbued in the process of institutional categorization. There are multiple reasons for these difficulties. Human complexity is one of them: the interviewed professionals often work with situations that require responses to human dimensions, which are oftentimes too complicated to reduce to standard formats. Another reason for these difficulties has to do with the ambiguity and/or complexity of institutional category schemes. Moreover, the process of institutional categorization takes place in a context of conflicting demands and professional logics, both within a single organization and across the organizations that work together with respect to the same patient/client.Future research concerned with institutional categorization should address how persons with mental ill-health are matched with the institutional categories in other areas of welfare, such as social services and employment services. A deeper knowledge about how the various organizations of the welfare state match individuals with institutional categories, could bring us closer to an understanding of the problems of multi-organizational collaboration.
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10.
  • Lindahl, Robert, 1984- (författare)
  • Socialsekreteraren och det familjehemsplacerade barnet Om relationen, erkännandet och de institutionella förutsättningarna
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to study, analyze and understand the relationship between children and youth in foster care and their responsible child welfare workers. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with foster children (n=53, three interviews/child, in total 159) and child welfare workers (n=17) conducted in a national evaluation of a pilot project with supervision representatives, and two focus groups conducted for the thesis. Examples of central theoretical concepts in the thesis are institution, role, professionalism and recognition. The interviewed children highlighted that the relationship with child welfare workers is negatively affected by a lack of time, availability, and trust. The children desire close and trustful relationships with child welfare workers, but generally they expect a relationship characterized by distance and formality. The child welfare workers emphasized that the relationships are affected by organizational constraints, such as time pressure and lack of continuity. Further, the work is characterized by role conflicts and contradictory expectations of professionalism. On the one hand, the child welfare workers stress the importance of closeness and trust in the relationships. On the other hand, they are expected to maintain formality, distance and functional specificity. The current relationship is affected by institutional prerequisites that are made visible by prevailing regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive expectations. These different expectations shape and constrain the child welfare workers’ discretion, at the same time as they also create internal conflicts. By applying the theory of recognition, it becomes evident that the foster child is expected to be recognized through closeness, rights, and solidarity by the child welfare worker. Under current institutional conditions, tensions arise between these different forms. The discussions focuses on which form of recognition should constitute the starting-point for the relationship, and how closeness versus distance is affected by recognition through rights.
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